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Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

Description: Globally, the cement industry accounts for approximately 5 percent of current anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. World cement demand and production are increasing significantly, leading to an increase in this industry's absolute energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} emission-reduction technologies and their deployment in the market will be key for the cement industry's mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report is an initial effort to compile available information on process description, energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for emerging technologies to reduce the cement industry's energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies for the cement industry that have already been commercialized, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This report consolidates available information on nineteen emerging technologies for the cement industry, with the goal of providing engineers, researchers, investors, cement companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured database of information on these technologies.
Date: April 6, 2012
Creator: Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn & Lin, Elina
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emissions Scenarios, Costs, and Implementation Considerations of REDD Programs

Description: Greenhouse gas emissions from the forestry sector are estimated to be 8.4 GtCO2-eq./year or about 17percent of the global emissions. We estimate that the cost forreducing deforestation is low in Africa and several times higher in Latin America and Southeast Asia. These cost estimates are sensitive to the uncertainties of how muchunsustainable high-revenue logging occurs, little understood transaction and program implementation costs, and barriers to implementation including governance issues. Due to lack of capacity in the affected countries, achieving reduction or avoidance of carbon emissions will require extensive REDD-plus programs. Preliminary REDD-plus Readiness cost estimates and program descriptions for Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guyana and Mexico show that roughly one-third of potential REDD-plus mitigation benefits might come from avoided deforestation and the rest from avoided forest degradation and other REDD-plus activities.
Date: April 11, 2011
Creator: Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Ken & Chan, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Do Photovoltaic Energy Systems Effect Residential Selling Prices? Results from a California Statewide Investigation.

Description: An increasing number of homes in the U.S. have sold with photovoltaic (PV) energy systems installed at the time of sale, yet relatively little research exists that provides estimates of the marginal impacts of those PV systems on home sale prices. This research analyzes a large dataset of California homes that sold from 2000 through mid-2009 with PV installed. We find strong evidence that homes with PV systems sold for a premium over comparable homes without PV systems during this time frame. Estimates for this premium expressed in dollars per watt of installed PV range, from roughly $4 to $6.4/watt across the full dataset, to approximately $2.3/watt for new homes, to more than $6/watt for existing homes. A number of ideas for further research are suggested.
Date: April 12, 2011
Creator: Hoen, Ben; Cappers, Pete; Wiser, Ryan & Thayer, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Analysis of the Effects of Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Residential Selling Prices in California.

Description: An increasing number of homes with existing photovoltaic (PV) energy systems have sold in the U.S., yet relatively little research exists that estimates the marginal impacts of those PV systems on the sales price. A clearer understanding of these effects might influence the decisions of homeowners, home buyers and PV home builders. This research analyzes a large dataset of California homes that sold from 2000 through mid-2009 with PV installed. Across a large number of hedonic and repeat sales model specifications and robustness tests, the analysis finds strong evidence that homes with PV systems sold for a premium over comparable homes without. The effects range, on average, from approximately $3.9 to $6.4 per installed watt (DC), with most models coalescing near $5.5/watt, which corresponds to a premium of approximately $17,000 for a 3,100 watt system. The research also shows that, as PV systems age, the premium enjoyed at the time of home sale decreases. Additionally, existing homes with PV systems are found to have commanded a larger sales price premium than new homes with similarly sized PV systems. Reasons for this discrepancy are suggested, yet further research is warranted in this area as well as a number of other areas that are highlighted.
Date: April 12, 2011
Creator: Cappers, Peter; Wiser, Ryan; Thayer, Mark & Hoen, Ben
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applications of Optimal Building Energy System Selection and Operation

Description: Berkeley Lab has been developing the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) for several years. Given load curves for energy services requirements in a building microgrid (u grid), fuel costs and other economic inputs, and a menu of available technologies, DER-CAM finds the optimum equipment fleet and its optimum operating schedule using a mixed integer linear programming approach. This capability is being applied using a software as a service (SaaS) model. Optimisation problems are set up on a Berkeley Lab server and clients can execute their jobs as needed, typically daily. The evolution of this approach is demonstrated by description of three ongoing projects. The first is a public access web site focused on solar photovoltaic generation and battery viability at large commercial and industrial customer sites. The second is a building CO2 emissions reduction operations problem for a University of California, Davis student dining hall for which potential investments are also considered. And the third, is both a battery selection problem and a rolling operating schedule problem for a large County Jail. Together these examples show that optimization of building u grid design and operation can be effectively achieved using SaaS.
Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; DeForest, Nicholas; Donadee, Jon; Bhattacharya, Prajesh et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HIGH POWER DENSITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT, FOURTH QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT, JANUARY-MARCH 1961

Description: ABS>High-Power Density Fuel Development. High-power density VBWR fuel assemblies were irradiated to approximately 400 Mwd/t and found to be in good condition after irradiation. Fabrication and calibration of two instrumented VBWR fuel assemblies are described. Fuel Fabrication Development. A tandem- rolled fuel bundle was produced. Swaging studies were carried out for stainless steel-clad fuel rods. Inspection of defected clad powder-compacted UO/sub 2/ specimens after 570 hr of erosion flow testing in water or steam at 535 to 545 deg F indicated that only small amounts of U0/sub 2/ had been eroded. A study of density-particle size relationships was made for vibratory-compacted binary and ternary fused UO/sub 2/ powder mixes. Design characteristics are given for 10 special HPD-VBWR assemblies. Vibration tests on a 36-rod Consunaers-type element are reported. Stability, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow. The results of a stability analysis of the 50-Mw Big Rock Reactor are presented. Physics Development. The effects of enrichment variations in the fuel rods and of inserted control rods on the power distribution were studied. Studies of gross radial power distribution for a 300-Mw reactor indicate that proper radial cycling of partially burned fuel can produce desirable radial power shapes. The physics analysis of the reactor core for a laine 300-Mwe conceptual design is summarized. The incentives and functions of a computer to be used for maximizing fuel burnup are discussed. (D.L.C.)
Date: April 1, 1961
Creator: Holland, L.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SN5001-AN IBM-650 CODE FOR STEADY-STATE THERMAL EVALUATION OF AN INSTRUMENTED MULTIFUEL-PLATE SUBASSEMBLY

Description: An IBM-650 computer program, SN5001, for the calculation of steady-state thermal conditions in the fuel plates and coolant of an instrumented multi-fuel- plate subassembly is described. The program is applicable for subcooled or bulk boiling coolant conditions and surface conditions of heating, local boiling, and film boilimg, and can be used for data reduction or design. The derivation and a list of the heat conduction and coolant enthalpy equations and a description of the code sufficient for its use are contained. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1960
Creator: Arbtin, E. & Westphal, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MGCR HEAT EXCHANGER TEST PROGRAM. Final Report

Description: The Maritime Gas-cooled Reactor (MGCR) project has conipleted the study and design of a closed-cycle gasturbine propulsion plant utilizing a helium- cooled nuclear reactor as the heat source. The cycle employs a counterflow shell- and-tube regenerator to attain a high thermodynamic cycle efficiency. A heat exchanger test program was conducted to compile and correlate sufficient experimental data for the aerodynamic and thermal design of the prototype regenerator. The model heat exchanger was similar in configaration to the prototype unit. The pressure-drop and heat-transfer performance of a compact parallel-flow tube bundle is given hoth in the unsupported configuration and with airfoil-shaped tube supports distributed along the bundle. The Fanning friction factor with the airfoil-shaped supports is approximately 70% greater than for the unsupported tube configuration. The airfoil supports effect a 40% increase in Colburn's heat transfer factor, j, over the unsupported configuration. Determinations of the unsupported-tube values of friction factor and Colburn-j agreed well with the literature. A section is devoted to the application of these data to the design of exchangers. The correlated data, representing some 1200 individual runs, cover a range of Reynolds number from 10,000 to 500,000. The moderate pressure-drop increment due to the airfoil-shaped supports, in conjunction with the favorable increase in heat-transfer rate, becomes especially important in the design of compact gas-to-gas heat exchangers with very low friction pressure losses. The concluding section of the report compares the size, weight, and cost of conventional baffled-shell units and the MGCR design for the requirements of the MGCR cycle. The MGCR design was one-fifth the volume, one-fourth the weight, and one-third the cost of comparable baffled-shell units. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1961
Creator: Paulson, H.C. II
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HEAVY WATER MODERATED POWER REACTORS. Progress Report for February 1960

Description: At the end of February 1960, 30% of the construction of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) was compplete. Limits for safe operation of the reactor were defined, and the general procedures for startup, shutdown, and normal operation here formulated. A detailed analysis of operating stresses in the reactor vessel defined the ling that can be tolerated. Core swelling produced a maximum cladding strain of 0.7% in a Zircaloy-2-clad tube of U-2 wt.% Zr that was irradiated to an average burnup of 1100 Mwd/t in the VBWR. (For preceding period see DP-465.) (auth)
Date: April 1, 1960
Creator: Hood, R.R. & Isakoff, L. comp.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LOS ALAMOS POWER REACTOR EXPERIMENT NO. II, LAPRE II

Description: Design features and operating characteristies of the Los Alamos Power Reactor Experiment No. II are discusssd. Results of performance tests and of an examination conducted after disassembly of the reactor are presented. Recommendations for work on uranium phosphate fueled reactors are made. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1960
Creator: Clark, R.A. comp.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aquatic Natural Areas Analysis and Evaluation: Oak Ridge Reservation

Description: This report presents an assessment of the natural area value of eight Aquatic Natural Areas (ANAs) and seven Aquatic Reference Areas (ARAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Anderson and Roane Counties in east Tennessee. It follows a previous study in 2009 that analyzed and evaluated terrestrial natural areas on the Reservation. The purpose of both studies was to evaluate and rank those specially designated areas on the Reservation that contain sensitive species, special habitats, and natural area value. Natural areas receive special protections through established statutes, regulations, and policies. The ORR contains 33,542 acres (13,574 ha) administered by the Department of Energy. The surface waters of the Reservation range from 1st-order to 5th-order streams, but the majority of the streams recognized as ANAs and ARAs are 1st- and 2nd-order streams. East Fork Poplar Creek is a 4th-order stream and the largest watershed that drains Reservation lands. All the waters of the Reservation eventually reach the Clinch River on the southern and western boundaries of the ORR. All available information was collected, synthesized, and evaluated. Field observations were made to support and supplement the available information. Geographic information system mapping techniques were used to develop several quantitative attributes about the study areas. Narrative descriptions of each ANA and ARA and tables of numerical data were prepared. Criteria for assessment and evaluation were developed, and eight categories of factors were devised to produce a ranking system. The evaluation factors used in the ranking system were: (A) size of area, (B) percentage of watershed protected, (C) taxa present with protected status, (D) overall biotic diversity, (E) stream features, (F) water quality and use support ratings, (G) disturbance regime, and (H) other factors. Each factor was evaluated on a 5-point ranking scale (0-4), and each area received a composite score, where 32 ...
Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Baranski, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Volatile organic compounds in indoor air: A review ofconcentrations measured in North America since 1990

Description: Central tendency and upper limit concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured in indoor air are summarized and reviewed. Data were obtained from published cross-sectional studies of residential and office buildings conducted in North America from 1990through the present. VOC concentrations in existing residences reported in 12 studies comprise the majority of the data set. Central tendency and maximum concentrations are compared between new and existing residences and between existing residences and office buildings. Historical changes in indoor VOC concentrations since the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 are explored by comparing the current data set with two published reviews of previous data obtained primarily in the 1980s. These historical comparisons suggest average indoor concentrations of some toxic air contaminants, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane have decreased.
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: ATHodgson@lbl.gov
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Who Owns Renewable Energy Certificates? An Exploration of PolicyOptions and Practice

Description: Renewable energy certificates (RECs) represent the bundle of information that describes the characteristics of renewable electricity generation, and may be (and increasingly are) sold separately from the underlying electricity itself. RECs are a relatively new phenomenon, emerging as a tradable commodity in voluntary markets in the late 1990s, and gaining strength as a means of compliance with various state policy requirements affecting renewable generation in the early 2000s (Holt and Bird 2005). Twenty states and Washington, D.C. now have mandatory renewables portfolio standard (RPS) obligations, and most of these may be satisfied by owning and retiring RECs. Many states also have fuel source and emissions disclosure requirements, for which RECs are useful. Even where state policy does not allow unbundled and fully tradable RECs to meet these requirements, RECs may still be used as an accounting and verification tool (REC tracking systems are in place or under development in many regions of the U.S.). These applications, plus REC trading activity in support of voluntary green claims, give rise to potential ''double counting'' to the extent that the purchaser of the RECs and the purchaser of the underlying electricity both make claims to the renewable energy attributes of the facility in question (Hamrin and Wingate 2003). When renewable electricity is sold and purchased, an important question therefore arises: ''Who owns the RECs created by the generation of renewable energy?'' In voluntary transactions, most agree that the question of REC ownership can and should be negotiated between the buyer and the seller privately, and should be clearly established by contract. Claims about purchasing renewable energy should only be made if REC ownership can be documented. In many other cases, however, renewable energy transactions are either mandated or encouraged through state or federal policy. In these cases, the issue of REC ownership must ...
Date: April 5, 2006
Creator: Holt, Edward A.; Wiser, Ryan & Bolinger, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE IMPURITY OF SCIENCE

Description: Science is impure in two ways. There is not a 'pure' science. By this I mean that physics impinges on astronomy, on the one hand, and chemistry on biology on the other. And not only does each support its neighbors but derives sustenance from them. The same can be said of chemistry. Biology is, perhaps, the example par excellence today of an 'impure' science. Beyond this, there is no 'pure' science itself divorced from human values. The importance of science to the humanities and the humanities to science in their complementary contribution to the variety of human life grows daily. The need for men familiar with both is imperative. We are faced today with a social decision resulting from our progress in molecular genetics at least equal to, and probably greater than, that required of us twenty years ago with the maturity of nuclear power.
Date: April 19, 1962
Creator: Calvin, Melvin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department