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Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio

Description: This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of reclaimed minesoil and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites are owned and maintained by Americal Electrical Power. These sites were reclaimed (1) with topsoil application, and (2) without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover. Three core and three bulk soil samples were collected from each of the experimental site and one unmined site (UMS) for 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths and soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), texture, saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), volumes of transport (VTP) and storage (VSP) pores, available water capacity (AWC), pH and electrical conductivity (EC), SOC, total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and stocks were determined. The preliminary results from sites reclaimed with topsoil and grass indicate that sand content was highest (24%) and clay content was lowest (17%) for site reclaimed in 2003 (R03) for 0-15 cm depth. The {rho}{sub b} was highest for R03 (1.24 Mg m{sup -3}) than sites reclaimed in 1987 (R87; 1.02 Mg m{sup -3}), 1978 (R78; 0.98 Mg m{sup -3}) and UMS (0.96 Mg m{sup -3}) for 0-15 cm depth. No significant differences were observed in Ks, VTP, VSP, AWC among these sites (P<0.05). For 15-30 cm depth {rho}{sub b} varied in the order R03 (1.61 Mg m{sup -3})> R87 (1.42 Mg m{sup -3}) = R78 (1.40 Mg m{sup -3}) = UMS (1.34 Mg m{sup -3}). Soil pH was > 5.5 and EC < 4 dS m{sup -1} for all sites and depths and was favorable for grass growth. The SOC and TN stocks were lower in R03 (3.5 Mg ha{sup -1} and 0.6 Mg ha{sup -1}; respectively) than R78 (30.1 Mg ha{sup ...
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Shukla, M.K. & Lal, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sediment Properties: E-Area Completion Project

Description: To accommodate a future need for additional waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site, the Solid Waste Management Division (SWMD) designated nine additional plots for development (Kasraii 2007; SRS 2010); these plots are collectively known as the E Area Completion Project (ECP). Subsurface samples were collected from ECP plots 6, 7, 8 and 9 (Figure 1) for chemical and physical property analyses to support Performance Assessment (PA) and Special Analyses (SA) modeling. This document summarizes the sampling and analysis scheme and the resultant data, and provides interpretations of the data particularly in reference to existing soil property data. Analytical data in this document include: gamma log, cone penetrometer log, grain size (sieve and hydrometer), water retention, saturated hydraulic conductivity (falling head permeameter), porosity, dry bulk density, total organic carbon, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence data. SRNL provided technical and safety oversight for the fieldwork, which included completion of eight soil borings, four geophysical logs, and the collection of 522 feet of core and 33 Shelby tubes from ECP plots 6, 7, 8, and 9. Boart Longyear provided sonic drilling and logging services. Two soil borings were completed at each location. The first set of boreholes extended into (but did not fully penetrate) the Warley Hill Formation. These boreholes were continuously cored, then geophysically (gamma ray) logged. The recovered core was split, photographed, and described; one half of the core was archived at SRS's Core Lab facilities, and the remaining half was consumed as necessary for testing at SRS and off-site labs. Core descriptions and geophysical data were used to calculate target elevations for Shelby tube samples, which were obtained from the second set of boreholes. Shelby tubes were shipped to MACTEC Engineering and Consulting Inc. (MACTEC) in Atlanta for physical property testing. SRNL deployed their Site Characterization and Analysis ...
Date: April 29, 2011
Creator: Millings, M.; Bagwell, L.; Amidon, M. & Dixon, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compressive behavior of fine sand.

Description: The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.
Date: April 1, 2010
Creator: Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo & Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistical Analysis and Geologic Evaluation of Laboratory-Derived Physical Property Data for Selected Nevada Test Site Core Samples of Non-Zeolitized Tuffs

Description: A statistical analysis and geologic evaluation of recently acquired laboratory-derived physical property data are being performed to better understand and more precisely correlate physical properties with specific geologic parameters associated with non-zeolitized tuffs at the Nevada Test Site. Physical property data include wet and dry bulk density, grain density (i.e., specific gravity), total porosity, and effective porosity. Geologic parameters utilized include degree of welding, lithology, stratigraphy, geographic area, and matrix mineralogy (i.e., vitric versus devitrified). Initial results indicate a very good correlation between physical properties and geologic parameters such as degree of welding, lithology, and matrix mineralogy. However, physical properties appear to be independent of stratigraphy and geographic area, suggesting that the data are transferrable with regards to these two geologic parameters. Statistical analyses also indicate that the assumed grain density of 2.65 grams per cubic centimeter used to calculate porosity in some samples is too high. This results in corresponding calculated porosity values approximately 5 percent too high (e.g., 45 percent versus 40 percent), which can be significant in the lower porosity rocks. Similar analyses and evaluations of zeolitic tuffs and carbonate rock physical properties data are ongoing as well as comparisons to geophysical log values.
Date: April 20, 2009
Creator: National Security Technologies, LLC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

Description: CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in existing boilers, evaluation ...
Date: April 20, 2001
Creator: Akers, David J.; Shirey, Glenn A.; Zitron, Zalman & Maney, Charles Q.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effective porosity and pore-throat sizes of Conasauga Group mudrock: Application, test and evaluation of petrophysical techniques

Description: Effective porosity (specifically referring to the interconnected pore space) was recently recognized as being essential in determining the effectiveness and extent of matrix diffusion as a transport mechanism within fractured low-permeability rock formations. The research presented in this report was performed to test the applicability of several petrophysical techniques for the determination of effective porosity of fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. In addition, the aim was to gather quantitative data on the effective porosity of Conasauga Group mudrock from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The quantitative data reported here include not only effective porosities based on diverse measurement techniques, but also data on the sizes of pore throats and their distribution, and specimen bulk and grain densities. The petrophysical techniques employed include the immersion-saturation method, mercury and helium porosimetry, and the radial diffusion-cell method.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Dorsch, J.; Katsube, T.J.; Sanford, W.E.; Dugan, B.E. & Tourkow, L.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compaction Stress in Fine Powders

Description: A vexing feature in granular materials compaction is density extrema interior to a compacted shape. Such inhomogeneities can lead to weaknesses and loss of dimensional control in ceramic parts, unpredictable dissolution of pharmaceuticals, and undesirable stress concentration in load-bearing soil. As an example, the centerline density in a cylindrical compact often does not decrease monotonically from the pressure source but exhibits local maxima and minima. Two lines of thought in the literature predict, respectively, diffusive and wavelike propagation of stress. Here, a general memory function approach has been formulated that unifies these previous treatments as special cases; by analyzing a convenient intermediate case, the telegrapher's equation, one sees that local density maxima arise via semidiffusive stress waves reflecting from the die walls and adding constructively at the centerline.
Date: April 1, 1999
Creator: Hurd, A.J.; Kenkre, V.M.; Pease, E.A. & Scott, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical properties and shear failure surfaces of two alumina powders in triaxial compression

Description: In the manufacture of ceramic components, near-net-shape parts are commonly formed by uniaxially pressing granulated powders in rigid dies. Density gradients that are introduced into a powder compact during press-forming often increase the cost of manufacturing, and can degrade the performance and reliability of the finished part. Finite element method (FEM) modeling can be used to predict powder compaction response, and can provide insight into the causes of density gradients in green powder compacts; however, accurate numerical simulations require accurate material properties and realistic constitutive laws. To support an effort to implement an advanced cap plasticity model within the finite element framework to realistically simulate powder compaction, the authors have undertaken a project to directly measure as many of the requisite powder properties for modeling as possible. A soil mechanics approach has been refined and used to measure the pressure dependent properties of ceramic powders up to 68.9 MPa (10,000 psi). Due to the large strains associated with compacting low bulk density ceramic powders, a two-stage process was developed to accurately determine the pressure-density relationship of a ceramic powder in hydrostatic compression, and the properties of that same powder compact under deviatoric loading at the same specific pressures. Using this approach, the seven parameters that are required for application of a modified Drucker-Prager cap plasticity model were determined directly. The details of the experimental techniques used to obtain the modeling parameters and the results for two different granulated alumina powders are presented.
Date: April 24, 2000
Creator: ZEUCH,DAVID H.; GRAZIER,J. MARK; ARGUELLO JR.,JOSE G. & EWSUK,KEVIN G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical properties of a structural polyurethane foam and the effect of particulate loading

Description: The room temperature mechanical properties of a closed-cell, polyurethane encapsulant foam have been measured as a function of foam density. Tests were performed on both unfilled and filler reinforced specimens. Over the range of densities examined, the modulus of the unloaded foam could be described by a power-law relationship with respect to density. This power-law relationship could be explained in terms of the elastic compliance of the cellular structure of the foam using a simple geometric model found in the literature. The collapse stress of the foam was also found to exhibit a power-law relationship with respect to density. Additions of an aluminum powder filler increased the modulus relative to the unfilled foam.
Date: April 1, 1998
Creator: Goods, S.H.; Neuschwanger, C.L. & Whinnery, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structure and properties of braided sleeve preforms for chemical vapor infiltration

Description: In all composites the properties and structure of the reinforcement strongly influence the performance of the material. For some composites, however, the reinforcement also affects the fabrication process itself exerting an additional, second order influence on performance. This is the case for the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process for fabrication of ceramic matrix composites. In this process the matrix forms progressively as a solid deposit, first onto the fiber surfaces, then onto the previous layer of deposit, ultimately growing to fill the inter-fiber porosity. The transport of reactants to the surfaces and the evolved morphology of the matrix depend on the initial reinforcement structure. This structure can vary greatly and is controlled by such factors as fiber size and cross-section, the number of filaments and amount of twist per tow or yarn, and the weave or braid architecture. Often the choice of reinforcement is based on mechanical performance analysis or on the cost and availability of the material or on the temperature stability of the fiber. Given this choice, the composite densification process--CVI--must be optimized to attain a successful material. Ceramic fiber in the form of cylindrical braided sleeve is an attractive choice for fabrication of tube-form ceramic matrix composites. Multiple, concentric layers of sleeve can be placed over a tubular mandrel, compressed and fixed with a binder to form a freestanding tube preform. This fiber architecture is different than that created by layup of plain weave cloth--the material used in most previous CVI development. This report presents the results of the investigation of CVI densification of braided sleeve preforms and the evolution of their structure and transport properties during processing.
Date: April 1, 1998
Creator: Starr, T.L.; Fiadzo, O.G. & Hablutzel, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of cathodic arc deposited amorphous hard carbon films to the head/disk tribology

Description: Amorphous hard carbon films deposited by filtered cathodic arc deposition exhibit very high hardness and elastic modulus, high mass density, low coefficient of friction, and the films are very smooth. All these properties are beneficial to applications of these films for the head/disk interface tribology. The properties of cathodic arc deposited amorphous carbon films are summarized, and they are compared to sputter deposited, hydrogenated (CH{sub x}), and nitrogenated (CN{sub x}) carbon films which are the present choice for hard disk and slider coatings. New developments in cathodic arc coaters are discussed which are of interest to the disk drive industry. Experiments on the nanotribology, mass density and hardness, corrosion behavior, and tribochemical behavior of cathodic arc films are reported. A number of applications of cathodic arc deposited films to hard disk and slider coatings are described. It is shown that their tribological performance is considerably better compared to CH{sub x} and CN{sub x} films.
Date: April 1998
Creator: Anders, S.; Bhatia, C. S.; Fong, W.; Lo, R. Y. & Bogy, D. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An experimental comparison of laboratory techniques in determining bulk properties of tuffaceous rocks; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

Description: Samples of tuffaceous rock were studied as part of the site characterization for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. These efforts were scoping in nature, and their results, along with those of other investigations, are being used to develop suitable procedures for determining bulk properties of tuffaceous rock in support of thermal and mechanical properties evaluations. Comparisons were made between various sample preparation, handling, and measurement techniques for both zeolitized and nonzeolitized tuff in order to assess their effects on bulk property determinations. Laboratory tests included extensive drying regimes to evaluate dehydration behavior, the acquisition of data derived from both gas and water pycnometers to compare their suitability in determining grain densities, a comparison of particle size effects, and a set of experiments to evaluate whole core saturation methods. The results affirm the added complexity of these types of measurements where there is a zeolite component in the sample mineralogy. Absolute values for the bulk properties of zeolitized tuff are immeasurable due to the complex nature of their dehydration behavior. However, the results of the techniques that were investigated provide a basis for the development of preferred, consistent methods for determining the grain density, dry and saturated bulk densities, and porosity of tuffaceous rock, including zeolitic tuff in support of thermal and mechanical properties evaluations.
Date: April 1, 1994
Creator: Boyd, P.J.; Martin, R.J. III & Price, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication and characterization of MCC (Materials Characterization Center) approved testing material: ATM-10 glass

Description: The Materials Characterization Center ATM-10 glass represents a reference commercial high-level waste form similar to that which will be produced by the West Valley Nuclear Service Co. Inc., West Valley, New York. The target composition and acceptable range of composition were defined by the sponsor, West Valley Nuclear Service. The ATM-10 glass was produced in accordance with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory QA Manual for License-Related Programs, MCC technical procedures, and MCC QA Plan that were in effect during the course of the work. The method and procedure to be used in the fabrication and characterization of the ATM-10 glass were specified in two run plans for glass preparation and a characterization plan. All of the ATM-10 glass was produced in the form of bars 1.9 /times/ 1.9 /times/ 10 cm nominal size, and 93 g nominal mass. A total of 15 bars of ATM-10 glass weighing 1394 g was produced. The production bars were characterized to determine the mean composition, oxidation state, and microstructure of the ATM-10 product. Table A summarizes the characterization results. The ATM-10 glass meets all specifications. The elemental composition and oxidation state of the glass are within the specifications of the client. Visually, the ATM-10 glass bars appear uniformly glassy and generally without exterior features. Microscopic examination revealed low (less than 2 wt %) concentractions of 3-..mu..m iron-chrome (suspected spinel) crystals and /approximately/0.5-..mu..m ruthenium inclusions scattered randomly throughout the glassy matrix. Closed porosity, with pores ranging in diameter from 5 to 250 ..mu..m, was observed in all samples. 4 refs., 10 figs., 21 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1988
Creator: Maupin, G.D.; Bowen, W.M. & Daniel, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of changing particle structure on the rate of gas-solid gasification reactions. Final report, July 1981-March 1984

Description: The objetive of this work is to determine the changes in the particle structure of coal as it undergoes the carbon/carbon dioxide reaction (C + CO/sub 2/ ..-->.. 2CO). Char was produced by heating the coal at a rate of 25/sup 0/C/min to the reaction temperatures of 800/sup 0/C, 900/sup 0/C, 1000/sup 0/C and 1100/sup 0/C. The changes in surface area and effective diffusivity as a result of devolitization were determined. Changes in effective diffusivity and surface area as a function of conversion have been measured for reactions conducted at 800, 900, 1000 and 1100/sup 0/C for Wyodak coal char. The surface areas exhibit a maximum as a function of conversion in all cases. For the reaction at 1000/sup 0/C the maximum in surface area is greater than the maxima determined at all other reaction temperatures. Thermogravimetric rate data were obtained for five coal chars; Wyodak, Wilcox, Cimmeron, Illinois number 6 and Pittsburgh number 6 over the temperature range 800-1100/sup 0/C. All coal chars exhibit a maximum in reaction rate. Five different models for gas-solid reactions were evaluated. The Bhatia/Perlmutter model seems to best represent the data. 129 references, 67 figures, 37 tables.
Date: April 4, 1984
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Method of recovery of alkali-metal constituents from coal-conversion residues. [Patent application]

Description: A coal gasification operation or similar conversion process is carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst producing char particles containing alkali metal residues. Alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by burning the particles to increase their size and density and then leaching the particles of increased size and density with water, to extract the water-soluble alkali metal constituents.
Date: April 22, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department