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Particle identification in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions

Description: The role of particle identification (PID) in both fixed-target and colliding-beam studies of ultrarelativistic nuclear (URN) collisions is examined. The demands placed on the PID systems by peculiarities of URN collisions, such as large multiplicities and the need for simultaneous measurement of a number of observables, are discussed. A variety of PID techniques are reviewed, with emphasis on their applicability and efficiency in the environment of such collisions. Two examples of PID as incorporated into existing fixed-target nuclear-beam experiments are presented. 18 refs., 5 figs.
Date: April 1, 1986
Creator: DiGiacomo, N.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Experience base for Radioactive Waste Thermal Processing Systems: A preliminary survey

Description: In the process of considering thermal technologies for potential treatment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory mixed transuranic contaminated wastes, a preliminary survey of the experience base available from Radioactive Waste Thermal Processing Systems is reported. A list of known commercial radioactive waste facilities in the United States and some international thermal treatment facilities are provided. Survey focus is upon the US Department of Energy thermal treatment facilities. A brief facility description and a preliminary summary of facility status, and problems experienced is provided for a selected subset of the DOE facilities.
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Mayberry, J.; Geimer, R.; Gillins, R.; Steverson, E.M.; Dalton, D. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)) & Anderson, G.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Stress analysis of MFTF-B getter system bellows. Final report

Description: The MFTF-B design includes a retractable getter system. Eight getter assemblies are planned (4 in each end plug). Electrically heated Ti wires are mounted on a telescoping insertion mechanism and, between machine shots (pulses), are extended into the chamber in the vicinity of inward-facing water-cooled magnet liners. During the shots, the sublimators must be withdrawn because they will intrude into plasma and diagnostic space. Each of the getter assemblies will be mounted on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Bellows are used to keep essentially all of the mechanism isolated from the vessel vacuum. The bellows come in two sizes (8.25'' O.D. and 14'' O.D.). The smaller of the two bellows has been qualified by testing up to 94,000 cycles by empirically adjusting details of the bellow design (geometry and thickness). The process required 12 different test samples and took over a one-year period to accomplish. The bellows consistently failed in the inside diameter weld heat-affected zone. Results from stress analysis studies are presented.
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: Tokarz, F. J.; Johnson, J. J.; Mukherjee, A. N. & Dalder, E. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Review of state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes. Task 1 of solar collector studies for solar heating and cooling applications. Final technical progress report

Description: The state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes is reviewed, and Task 1 of a current research program on use of aqueous heat transfer fluids for solar heating and cooling is summarized. The review of available published literature has indicated that lack of quantitative information exists relative to collector corrosion at the present time, particularly for the higher temperature applications of solar heating and cooling compared to domestic water heating. Solar collector systems are reviewed from the corrosion/service life viewpoint, with emphasis on various applications, collector design, heat transfer fluids, and freeze protection methods. Available information (mostly qualitative) on collector corrosion technology is reviewed to indicate potential corrosion problem areas and corrosion prevention practices. Sources of limited quantitative data that are reviewed are current solar applications, research programs on collector corrosion, and pertinent experience in related applications of automotive cooling and non-solar heating and cooling. A data bank was developed to catalog corrosion information. Appendix A of this report is a bibliography of the data bank, with abstracts reproduced from presently available literature accessions (about 220). This report is presented as a descriptive summary of information that is contained in the data bank.
Date: April 11, 1980
Creator: Clifford, J E & Diegle, R B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Special waste-form lysimeters-arid: Three-year monitoring report

Description: Regulations governing the disposal of commercial low-level waste require all liquid waste to be solidified before burial. Most waste must be solidified into a rigid matrix such as cement or plastic to prevent waste consolidation and site slumping after burial. These solidification processes affect the rate at which radionuclides and other solutes are released into the soil. In 1983, a program was initiated at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to study the release of waste from samples of low-level radioactive waste that had been commercially solidified. The primary method used by this program is to bury sample waste forms in field lysimeters and monitor leachate composition from the release and transport of solutes. The lysimeter facility consists of 10 lysimeters, each containing one sample of solidified waste. Five different waste forms are being tested, allowing duplicate samples of each one to be evaluated. The samples were obtained from operating nuclear power plants and are actual waste forms routinely generated at these facilities. All solidification was accomplished by commercial processes. Sample size is a partially filled 210-L drum. All containers were removed prior to burial leaving the bare waste form in contact with the lysimeter soil. 11 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1988
Creator: Jones, T.L.; Serne, R.J. & Toste, A.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Interactions of tailings leachate with local liner materials found at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania.

Description: The mill tailings site at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania is the first mill site to receive remedial action under the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program. Part of this remedial action will require excavating the 53,500 m/sup 3/ (70,000 yd/sup 3/) of tailings on the site having a specific activity exceeding 100 pCi/g, and encapsulating these contaminated tailings in a clay-lined cell. As part of the remedial action effort, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been studying the interactions of tailings and tailings leachate with locally occurring clays proposed for liner materials. These studies include physical and chemical characterization of amended and unamended local clays, chemical characterization of the tailings, column studies of tailings leached with deionized water, and column studies of clays contacted with tailings solutions to determine the attenuation properties of the proposed liner materials. Column studies of tailings leached with deionized water indicated that the Canonsburg tailings could represent a source of soluble radium-226 and uranium-238, several trace metals, cations, and the anions SO/sub 4/, NO/sub 3/, and Cl. Of these soluble contaminants, uranium-238, radium-226, the trace metals As and Mo, and the anions F and SO/sub 4/ were present at levels exceeding maximum concentration levels in the tailings leaching column effluents. However, local clays, both in amended and unamended form were effective in attenuating contaminant migration. The soil amendments tested failed to increase radium attenuation. The tailings leaching studies indicated that the tailings will produce leachates of neutral pH and relatively low contaminant levels for at least 200 years. We believe that compacting the tailings within the encapsulation cell will help to reduce leaching of contaminants from the liner system, since very low permeabilities (<10/sup -8/ cm/s) were observed for even slightly compacted tailings materials.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Dodson, M.E.; Gee, G.W. & Serne, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chemical Technology Division Unit Operations Section Monthly Progress Report, September 1961

Description: Nine samples of ThO/sub 2/ -UO/sub 2/ prepared as part of the solgel process development studies showed no consistent effects from small variations in several process parameters. The reaction of methane and copper oxide was studied. Engineering studies of the continuous dissolution of simulated U-Zr-Sn fuels in 6.5 M NH4F, 0.6-1.0 M NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/, 0.1 M H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ were continued in modified 6-in.-dia. equipment. A total of 1642 kg of U from NaK bonded SRE Core I fuel rods wad dejacketed to date/su Initial operability tests of the 250 ton prototype shear unit showed a number of minor modifications are warranted. Center tube temperatures measured in a vertical 64 tube electrically heated simulated fuel element bundle were very near those previously obtained in the horizontal position. A 304 SS tube containing eutectic NaK was dissolved by HF in fused saIt at a tube wall penetration rate of approximates 2 mils/hr. Partial differential equations were derived from the concentration of unreacted UF/sub 6/ as a function of time and position in a sphere of NaF during sorption of UF/sub 6/. Calcium nitrate solution was added directly to the pot calciner during Purex feeding to give smoother operation of the feeding system. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1962
Creator: Whatley, M. E.; Haas, P. A.; Horton, R. W.; Ryon, A. D.; Suddath, J. C. & Watson, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Energy-Exchange Project

Description: The purpose of the study was to determine what energy savings can be achieved by coordinating the resources and requirements of two facilities, the 26th Ward Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) and a housing development named Starrett City with its own total energy system. It was determined that three energy exchange options were economically and technically feasible. These include: the transfer of digester gas produced at the 26th Ward to the boilers at the Starrett City's total energy plant (TEP); the transfer of hot water heated at the TEP to the 26th Ward for space and process heating; and the transfer of coal effluent waste water from the 26th Ward to the condenser cooling systems at the TEP. Technical information is presented to support the findings. The report addresses those tasks of the statement of work dedicated to data acquisition, analysis, and energy conservation strategies internal to the Starrett City TEP and the community it supplies as well as to the 26th Ward WPCP. (MCW)
Date: April 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Murgatroyd-an Ibm 7090 Program for the Analysis of the Kinetics of the Msre

Description: The IBM 7090 program Murgatroyd is a revised and extended version of the IBM 704 program PET-I, which solves (by a fifth-order Runge-Kutta procedure) the coupled firstorder differential equations for power, delayed neutron concentration, and temperature in a one-region reactor as a function of time, given an input reactivity variation represented by a series of linear ramps. The basic extensions were those which were necessary to include the effects of the separate heat capacities and temperature coefficients of the fuel sait and graphite in the MSRE, and of heat transfer between the fuel and graphite. In addition, the input and output sections of the previous program were modified to facilitate the use of the program in extensive parameter studies, and a calculation of the pressure rise in the core was included. Typical running times are of the order of l2 milliseconds per time step; a calculation of a 30-second power history using a 10 millisecond time step requires about 36 seconds of machine time. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1962
Creator: Nestor, C. W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Computation of self-consistent 2-D MHD with neutral-beam and bootstrap currents in elongated plasmas

Description: The observation of substantial current drive from neutral beam injection (NBI) in TFTR, JET and DIII-D has led to renewed interest in a steady state, non-inductively driven tokamak. The discovery of apparently considerable neoclassical (bootstrap) current in TFTR, makes a steady state device even more attractive since the bootstrap portion of the current could be obtained without additional power input. Motivated by these results, we have developed a code, ACCOME, which self-consistently computes the 2-D MHD equilibrium with the current driven by neutral beams, bootstrap and the electric field. In this paper we first describe some details of the code in the next section and in the subsequent section show some applications to DIII-D and to a possible ITER design.
Date: April 5, 1983
Creator: Devoto, R. S.; Tani, K. & Azumi, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Phase I, Final report. Appendix A: mission analysis and performance specification studies. Volume I

Description: Studies are described which were performed for the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle program to determine passenger car usage patterns and to correlate these trip mission characteristics with vehicle design and performance specifications. (LCL)
Date: April 20, 1979
Creator: Traversi, M. & Barbarek, L.A.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Oscillating Vertical Magnetic Dipole Above a Conducting Half-Space

Description: The electromagnetic field produced by a vertical oscillating magnetic dipole above a plane conducting earth is obtained in integral form. An exact solution in closed form is obtained for the case in which the dipole and the point of observation are both located on the surface of the earth. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1961
Creator: Wesley, J. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Cause of pitting in beryllium

Description: Light microscopy, bare-film radiography, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, electron microprobe and physical testing were used to examine beryllium specimens exhibiting a stratified, pitted, pattern after chemical milling. The objective was to find the cause of this pattern. Specimens were found to have voids in excess of density specification allowances. These voids are attributed, at least in part, to the sublimation of beryllium fluoride during the vacuum hot pressing operation. The origin of the pattern is attributed to these voids and etching out of fines and associated impurities. Hot isostatic pressing with a subsequent heat treatment close residual porosity and dispersed impurities enough to correct the problem.
Date: April 16, 1982
Creator: Kershaw, R. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Westinghouse independent safety review of Savannah River production reactors

Description: Westinghouse Electric Corporation has performed a safety assessment of the Savannah River production reactors (K,L, and P) as requested by the US Department of Energy. This assessment was performed between November 1, 1988, and April 1, 1989, under the transition contract for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company's preparations to succeed E.I. du Pont de Nemours Company as the US Department of Energy contractor for the Savannah River Project. The reviewers were drawn from several Westinghouse nuclear energy organizations, embody a combination of commercial and government reactor experience, and have backgrounds covering the range of technologies relevant to assessing nuclear safety. The report presents the rationale from which the overall judgment was drawn and the basis for the committee's opinion on the phased restart strategy proposed by E.I. du Pont de Nemours Company, Westinghouse, and the US Department of Energy-Savannah River. The committee concluded that it could recommend restart of one reactor at partial power upon completion of a list of recommended upgrades both to systems and their supporting analyses and after demonstration that the organization had assimilated the massive changes it will have undergone.
Date: April 1, 1989
Creator: Leggett, W. D.; McShane, W. J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Liparulo, N. J.; McAdoo, J. D.; Strawbridge, L. E. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Nuclear and Advanced Technology Div.); Toto, G. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Nuclear Services Div.) et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Mechanical transport in two-dimensional networks of fractures

Description: The objectives of this research are to evaluate directional mechanical transport parameters for anisotropic fracture systems, and to determine if fracture systems behave like equivalent porous media. The tracer experiments used to measure directional tortuosity, longitudinal geometric dispersivity, and hydraulic effective porosity are conducted with a uniform flow field and measurements are made from the fluid flowing within a test section where linear length of travel is constant. Since fluid flow and mechanical transport are coupled processes, the directional variations of specific discharge and hydraulic effective porosity are measured in regions with constant hydraulic gradients to evaluate porous medium equivalence for the two processes, respectively. If the fracture region behaves like an equivalent porous medium, the system has the following stable properties: (1) specific discharge is uniform in any direction and can be predicted from a permeability tensor; and (2) hydraulic effective porosity is directionally stable. Fracture systems with two parallel sets of continuous fractures satisfy criterion 1. However, in these systems hydraulic effective porosity is directionally dependent, and thus, criterion 2 is violated. Thus, for some fracture systems, fluid flow can be predicted using porous media assumptions, but it may not be possible to predict transport using porous media assumptions. Two discontinuous fracture systems were studied which satisfied both criteria. Hydraulic effective porosity for both systems has a value between rock effective porosity and total porosity. A length-density analysis (LDS) of Canadian fracture data shows that porous media equivalence for fluid flow and transport is likely when systems have narrow aperture distributions. 54 references, 90 figures, 7 tables.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Endo, H.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Preliminary geochemical and physical testing of materials for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt

Description: The available data on environmental conditions (both natural and man-made) at the Hanford Site are sufficient for preconceptual plug system design. Results of the geochemical testing program indicate that preferred candidate plug materials are chemically nonreactive during laboratory tests that simulated some of the expected environmental conditions. Agitated, crushed-basalt samples and mixtures containing basalt were found to be self-cementing under the hydrothermal conditions. Materials considered most suitable for consideration in future test programs and preconceptual plug design are mixtures of natural materials (basalt, clay, glaciofluvial sand, gravel, and zeolite) and processed natural materials (portland cement Type V and grouts plus additives).
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Taylor, C.L.; Anttonen, G.J.; O'Rourke, J.E. & Allirot, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Optical properties of flyash

Description: The general aims of this research are to provide a fundamental scientific basis for the physical understanding and reliable calculation of heat transfer in coal combustion systems, particularly as it is influenced by the presence of inorganic constituents deriving from mineral matter in coal. (VC)
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Self, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Synergistic capture mechanisms for alkali and sulfur species from combustion

Description: This report presents work done on a laboratory combustor in an attempt to identify mechanisms that govern the simultaneous capture of alkali and sulfur species using sorbent injection techniques. The mechanisms of capture fall into two broad categories i.e. Physical transport of alkali species (in vapor or condensed phase) to the sorbent surface and surface reaction between the alkali species and the sorbents. Water solubility, though not specific, has been used to get an indication of relative significance of these two broad mechanisms. It is assumed that the physically adsorbed alkali species on sorbents are predominantly water soluble while the chemically reacted alkali content is predominantly water insoluble. In order to infer possible dominant mechanisms, specific parameters has been varied during experimentation. Such parameters include, speciation, particle time-temperature history, and furnace burning conditions.
Date: April 23, 1992
Creator: Peterson, T.W.; Shadman, F.; Wendt, J.O.L. & Mwabe, P.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Measurement of Xenon Poisoning in the HRT

Description: Measurements obtained during three periods of HRT operations indicated that the xenon poison fraction was approximately 0.010. The technique used was based on mass spectrographic analyses of the stable xenon isotopes in the reactor off-gas stream. Models proposed to explain the measurements show that xenon, which is formed primarily by decay of iodine adsorbed on the pipe walls, is held up on the walls, out of the circulating stream, for an average period of about eight hours. (auth)
Date: April 19, 1962
Creator: Burch, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Facilities evaluation report

Description: The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development whose mission is to evaluate different new and existing technologies and determine how well they address DOE community waste remediation problems. Twenty-three Technical Task Plans (TTPs) have been identified to support this mission during FY-92; 10 of these have identified some support requirements when demonstrations take place. Section 1 of this report describes the tasks supported by BWID, determines if a technical demonstration is proposed, and if so, identifies the support requirements requested by the TTP Principal Investigators. Section 2 of this report is an evaluation identifying facility characteristics of existing Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) facilities that may be considered for use in BWID technology demonstration activities.
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Sloan, P.A. & Edinborough, C.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Measurement of Energy and Intensity of Gamma Rays by Use of a Scintillation Spectrometer

Description: The analysis of gamma-ray spectra measured with a scintillation counter with an anticoincidence annulus is described in detail. In particular the problem of the determination of the energy and intensity of gamma rays from such measurements is considered. The shapes of the full-energy peaks in observed complex spectra are studied and an attempt is made to justify their description in terms of a Gaussian response function. The details of the statistical analysis of complex gamma-ray spectra are given and, finally, procedures which have been used to confirm the validity of error estimates in energy and intensity measurements are described. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1962
Creator: Julke, R. T.; Monahan, J. E.; Raboy, S. & Trail, C. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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