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Building a Bridge to the Ethanol Industry--Follow-up Project: Period of Performance; February 22, 2001- December 31, 2002

Description: Subcontract report summarizing results of a trial of a corn fiber pretreatment process. The results of the trial showed that the carbohydrates in the pretreated liquid and solid streams are readily hydrolyzed by enzymes and easily fermentable to ethanol by yeast.
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: Ladisch, M.; Mosier, N.; Welch, G. & Dien, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Biological Review of the Hanford Solid Waste EIS - Borrow Area C (600 Area), Stockpile and Conveyance Road Area (600 Area), Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) (600 Area), Central Waste Complex (CWC) Expansion (200 West), 218-W-5 Expansion Area (200 West), New Waste Processing Facility (200 West)...ECR No. 2002-600-012b

Description: This letter report is a supplement to the letter reports submitted previously under ECRs No. 2002-600-012 (Borrow Area C) and No. 2002-600-012a (CWC expansion). This letter report covers all areas that may be subject to surface disturbance under Alternative Groups A, B, C, D1, D2, D3, E1, E2, E3, and the No Action Alternative of the Hanford Solid Waste Environmental Impact Statement (HSW EIS), except for the following Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs). The LLBGs proposed for use in the HSW EIS that are not subject of this letter report (218-W-3A, 218-W-3AE, 218-W 4B, 218-W-5, the developed portion of 218-W-4C, and the eastern half [except the northeastern corner] of 218-W-6 in the 200 West Area; and 218-E-10 and 218-E-12B in the 200 East Area) are surveyed annually. Annual letter reports concerning these are currently sent to Mr. Brett M. Barnes of Fluor Hanford, Inc. For the areas of surface disturbance described herein we provide a summary of field survey methods, survey results, and considerations and recommendations based on these results.
Date: April 7, 2003
Creator: Sackschewsky, Michael R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Final Focus Spot Size in a Solenoid Focusing System

Description: A linear lens can focus a cold beam to a singular point. Unfortunately, this ideal situation would never occur in the real world. Besides nonlinearity of the lens, any deviation of the beam parameters from the ideal beam's nominal beam parameters would lead to nonzero final spot size. In other words, the final spot size of a beam focused by a focusing lens with a given focusing strength depends on its beam parameters, such as the emittance, variations in beam current, energy, envelope and envelope slopes, and nonlinearity of the focusing lens. There are many types of final focusing systems. We consider only the system using a ''thin'' solenoid lens in this notes. Generally, the net focusing force in a solenoid focusing system is not sensitive to the beam current for an emittance dominated beam. For simplicity, we will ignore the space charge forces in the discussion, and focus on the contributions of beam emittance, energy variation and nonlinearity of the lens to the final spot size here.
Date: April 8, 2003
Creator: Chen, Y. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Thick Liquid-Walled Spheromak Magnetic Fusion Power Plant

Description: We assume a spheromak configuration can be made and sustained by a steady plasma gun current, which injects particles, current and magnetic field, i.e., helicity injection. The magnetic configuration is evaluated with an axisymmetric free-boundary equilibrium code, where the current profile is tailored to support an average beta of 10%. An injection current of 100 kA (125 MW of gun power) sustains the toroidal current of 40 MA. The flux linking the gun is 1/1000th of the flux in the spheromak. The geometry allows a flow of liquid, either molten salt (flibe-Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} or flinabe-LiNaBeF{sub 4}) or liquid metal, such as SnLi, which protects most of the walls and structures from neutron damage. The free surface between the liquid and the burning plasma is heated by bremsstrahlung and optical radiation and neutrons from the plasma. The temperature of the free surface of the liquid is calculated and then the evaporation rate is estimated. The impurity concentration in the burning plasma is estimated and limited to a 20% reduction in the fusion power ({approx}0.8% fluorine impurity). The divertor power density of 620 MW/m{sup 2} is handled by high-speed (100 m/s) liquid jets. Calculations show that the tritium breeding is adequate with enriched {sup 6}Li and appropriate design of the walls not covered by flowing liquid (15% of the total). A number of problem areas need further study to make the design self consistent and workable, including lowering the divertor power density by expanding the flux tube size.
Date: April 28, 2003
Creator: Moir, R W; Bulmer, R H; Fowler, T K; Rognlien, T D & Youssef, M Z
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Second Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2003

Description: This describes the earthquakes that occurred on and near the Hanford Site during the second quarter of FY03. Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. For the Hanford Seismic Network, there were 271 triggers during the second quarter of fiscal year 2003. Of these triggers, 141 were earthquakes. Twenty earthquakes were located in the Hanford Seismic Network area. Stratigraphically 9 earthquakes occurred in the Columbia River basalt, 2 were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, and 9 were earthquakes in the crystalline basement. Geographically, 6 earthquakes occurred in swarm areas, 2 earthquakes were associated with a major geologic structure, and 12 were classified as random events.
Date: April 16, 2003
Creator: Hartshorn, Donald C.; Reidel, Steve P. & Rohay, Alan C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Laboratory Voice Data Entry System.

Description: We have assembled a system using a personal computer workstation equipped with standard office software, an audio system, speech recognition software and an inexpensive radio-based wireless microphone that permits laboratory workers to enter or modify data while performing other work. Speech recognition permits users to enter data while their hands are holding equipment or they are otherwise unable to operate a keyboard. The wireless microphone allows unencumbered movement around the laboratory without a ''tether'' that might interfere with equipment or experimental procedures. To evaluate the potential of voice data entry in a laboratory environment, we developed a prototype relational database that records the disposal of radionuclides and/or hazardous chemicals Current regulations in our laboratory require that each such item being discarded must be inventoried and documents must be prepared that summarize the contents of each container used for disposal. Using voice commands, the user enters items into the database as each is discarded. Subsequently, the program prepares the required documentation.
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: Praissman, J. L. & Suthernland, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Data Package for Groundwater Monitoring Well 299-W15-43 at the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit

Description: One new groundwater monitoring well was constructed at the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit in November 2002. This document provides the information on drilling and construction of this well. One new groundwater monitoring well was constructed in the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit in November 2002. The purpose of the well is to monitor carbon tetrachloride concentrations in response to the 200-ZP-1 carbon tetrachloride pump-and-treat operations. The well name is 299-W15-43 and the corresponding well number is C3955. Well 299-W15-43 is located about 8 meters west of the 216-T-25 trench. The location of the well is shown on Figure 1. Well 299-W15-43 was drilled in response to the recommendations of a Data Quality Objectives process that indicated a need for additional monitoring wells in the area (BHI-01576). The new well was constructed to the specifications and requirements described in Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-160 and WAC 173-303, the Data Quality Objectives document (BHI-01576), and the description of work for well drilling and construction. This document compiles information on the drilling and construction, geophysical logging, and sediment and groundwater sampling applicable to the installation of well 299-W15-43. The information on drilling and construction, well development, and pump installation is summarized from CP-14265. Appendix A contains the Well Summary Sheets (as-built diagrams), the Well Construction Summary Reports, and the geologist's logs; Appendix B contains results of physical properties testing; Appendix C contains the analytical results from groundwater samples obtained during drilling; and Appendix D contains borehole geophysical logs. Additional documentation concerning well construction can be found in CP-14265 and is on file with Fluor Hanford, Inc., Richland, WA.
Date: April 25, 2003
Creator: Horton, Duane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Understanding the CCA Standard Through Decaf

Description: This document is a tutorial on the CCA Standard as realized through the Decaf implementation. Decaf does not equal the CCA standard much in the same way that Microsoft Visual C++ is not ANSI/ISO C++. This document was created because the CCA standard is evolving and still too fluid to nail down in a tutorial document. Because of its fluidity, and that it represents a hotbed of research and development, beginners can only start learning CCA by choosing one of the frameworks (warts and all). Decaf has just enough functionality to be a useful tool for beginners in the CCA to get started on. Though it lacks many features of the bigger CCA frameworks (CCAFE [3], XCAT [10], and SciRUN [8]) where the heavy-duty research is still going on, it is the first CCA framework that is underpinned by Babel, which provides its language interoperability features. This document can also serve the dual-purpose of providing a reasonable-sized example of building an application using Babel. The entire source for Decaf is included in the examples/subdirectory of the Babel code distribution. This manual assumes the reader is a programmer who has a conceptual understanding of the Babel Language Interoperability Tool. They should be proficient in two or more of the following languages: Fortran77, C, C++, Java, or Python. Furthermore, this manual assumes the reader is familiar with the SPMD{sup 2} programming model that pervades the scientific computing community. Knowledge of and experience with MPI programming is helpful, but not strictly required.
Date: April 17, 2003
Creator: Kumfert, G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Collaboration on DIII-D Five Year Plan

Description: This document summarizes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) plan for fusion research on the DIII-D Tokamak, located at General Atomics (GA) in San Diego, California, in the time period FY04-FY08. This document is a companion document to the DIII-D Five-Year Program Plan; which hereafter will be referred to as the ''D3DPP''. The LLNL Collaboration on DIII-D is a task-driven program in which we bring to bear the full range of expertise needed to complete specific goals of plasma science research on the DIII-D facility. This document specifies our plasma performance and physics understanding goals and gives detailed plans to achieve those goals in terms of experimental leadership, code development and analysis, and diagnostic development. Our program is designed to be consistent with the long-term mission of the DIII-D program as documented in the D3DPP. The overall DIII-D Program mission is ''to establish the scientific basis for the optimization of the tokamak approach to fusion energy production''. LLNL Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) supports this mission, and we contribute to two areas of the DIII-D program: divertor physics and advanced tokamak (AT) physics. We lead or contribute to the whole cycle of research: experimental planning, diagnostic development, execution of experiments, and detailed analysis. We plan to continue this style in the next five years. DIII-D has identified three major research themes: AT physics, confinement physics, and mass transport. The LLNL program is part of the AT theme: measurement of the plasma current profile, and the mass transport theme: measurement and modeling of plasma flow. In the AT area, we have focused on the measurement and modeling of the current profile in Advanced Tokamak plasmas. The current profile, and it's effect on MHD stability of the high-{beta} ''AT'' plasma are at the heart of the DIII-D program. LLNL has played a key role …
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: Allen, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Impact of 2004 Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Buildings-Related Projects on United States Employment and Earned Income

Description: The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of projects on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model called ImBuild II is used in this study of all 37 buildings-related projects reported to the Office of Management and Budget on February 3, 2003 for inclusion in the revised FY 2004 budget request. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and earned income are reported by project for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings and investments from these projects have the potential of creating a total of 297,000 jobs and about $4.16 billion in earned income (2002$) by the year 2030.
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: Scott, Michael J.; Anderson, David M.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.; Elliott, Douglas B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Post Hoc Evaluation of Long-Term Goals for Energy Savings in the Buildings Sector: Lessons from Hindsight

Description: This report is one of two that re-examines the forecasted impact of individual programs currently within the Buildings Technology Program (BT) and the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP) that appeared in the FY2000 Presidential Budget request. This report outlines the effects of re-estimating the FY 2000 budget request based on overlaying project data from subsequent years essentially revised out-year forecasts of project benefits. It shows that year-to-year long-term projections of primary energy savings can vary widely as models improve and programs change. Note that the FY2000 budget request was originally analyzed under the former Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS), where BT and WIP were previously combined. Throughout the document, reference will be made to the predecessor of the BT and WIP programs, BTS, as FY2000 reflected that organization. A companion report develops potential methods for allowing inherent risk to be captured in the project benefits analysis. The point estimates in this paper are not influenced by uncertainty or risk. That report develops potential methods for allowing inherent risk to affect the benefits analysis via Monte Carlo simulation.
Date: April 28, 2003
Creator: Anderson, Dave M. & Hostick, Donna J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Summary of Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2002

Description: This report is a summary of the larger report, ''Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2002.'' The report provides highlights of monitoring groundwater, vadose zone activities, and information about specific contaminant plumes.
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F. & Webber, William D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Angular and Linear Velocity Estimation for a Re-Entry Vehicle Using Six Distributed Accelerometers: Theory, Simulation and Feasibility

Description: This report describes a feasibility study. We are interested in calculating the angular and linear velocities of a re-entry vehicle using six acceleration signals from a distributed accelerometer inertial measurement unit (DAIMU). Earlier work showed that angular and linear velocity calculation using classic nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) solvers is not practically feasible, due to mathematical and numerical difficulties. This report demonstrates the theoretical feasibility of using model-based nonlinear state estimation techniques to obtain the angular and linear velocities in this problem. Practical numerical and calibration issues require additional work to resolve. We show that the six accelerometers in the DAIMU are not sufficient to provide observability, so additional measurements of the system states are required (e.g. from a Global Positioning System (GPS) unit). Given the constraint that our system cannot use GPS, we propose using the existing on-board 3-axis magnetometer to measure angular velocity. We further show that the six nonlinear ODE's for the vehicle kinematics can be decoupled into three ODE's in the angular velocity and three ODE's in the linear velocity. This allows us to formulate a three-state Gauss-Markov system model for the angular velocities, using the magnetometer signals in the measurement model. This re-formulated model is observable, allowing us to build an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for estimating the angular velocities. Given the angular velocity estimates from the EKF, the three ODE's for the linear velocity become algebraic, and the linear velocity can be calculated by numerical integration. Thus, we do not need direct measurements of the linear velocity to provide observability, and the technique is mathematically feasible. Using a simulation example, we show that the estimator adds value over the numerical ODE solver in the presence of measurement noise. Calculating the velocities in the presence of significant measurement noise is not feasible with a classic …
Date: April 28, 2003
Creator: Clark, Grace
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Vadose Zone Transport Field Study FY 2003 Test Plan

Description: Conceptual models have been identified as one of the sources of uncertainty in the interpretation and prediction of contaminant migration through the vadose zone at Hanford. Current conceptual models are limited partly because they often do not account for the random heterogeneity that occurs under the extremes of very nonlinear flow behavior typical of the Hanford vadose zone. Over the last two years significant progress has been made in characterizing physical heterogeneity and in the development of techniques for incorporating this heterogeneity into predictive and inverse models for field-scale subsurface flow. One of the remaining pieces of the puzzle is the impact of heterogeneity on the distribution of reactive contaminants. Reactive transport occurs over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. However, the manner in which the various subsurface physical and chemical processes interact to influence transport is not very well understood. Hydrogeologic characterization and model analysis, however, have traditionally focused on measurement of physical properties and predicting the effects of variability in these properties on flow and transport. As a result, the role of geochemical heterogeneity on solute transport has remained largely unexplored. This project will use a combination of geophysical and soil physics techniques to investigate the infiltration and redistribution of water and reactive tracers in a controlled field experiment at the Army loop Road clastic dike site. In the FY2003 tests, surface deployed ground penetrating radar will be used to identify the discrete three-dimensional pattern of horizonation and small-scale heterogeneities that characterize the test site and to develop a lithofacies map. The transect will be instrumented to allow water to be applied along its length from a line source. Local-scale water content, matric potential, and tracer concentrations will be monitored as a function of spatial scale by multipurpose TDR probes and suction lysimeters. The tension infiltrometer …
Date: April 15, 2003
Creator: Ward, Anderson L. & Gee, Glendon W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Data Package for Groundwater Monitoring Well 299-W19-46 at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit

Description: One new groundwater monitoring well was constructed at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit in November 2002. This document provides the information on drilling and construction. One new groundwater monitoring well was constructed in the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit in November 2002. The purpose of the well is to monitor the concentration of technetium-99 and uranium in groundwater associated with the pump-and-treat systems in the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. The well name is 299-W19-46 and the corresponding well number is C3958. Well 299-W19-46 is located off the southwest corner of the 216-U-17 crib and east of Beloit Avenue. It is a replacement well for well 299-W19-38, which has gone dry. The location of the well is shown on Figure 1. Well 299-W19-46 was drilled in response to the recommendations of a data quality objectives process that indicated a need for additional monitoring wells in the area (BHI-01576). The new well was constructed to the specifications and requirements described in Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-160 and WAC 173-303, the Data Quality Objectives document (BHI-01576), and the description of work for well drilling and construction (Fruchter 2002). This document compiles information on the drilling and construction, geophysical logging, and sediment and groundwater sampling applicable to the installation of well 299-W19-46. The information on drilling and construction, well development, and pump installation is summarized from CP-14265. Appendix A contains the Well Summary Sheets (as-built diagrams), the Well Construction Summary Reports, and the geologist's logs; Appendix B contains results of physical properties testing; Appendix C contains the analytical results from groundwater samples obtained during drilling; and Appendix D contains borehole geophysical logs. Additional documentation concerning well construction can be found in CP-14265 and is on file with Fluor Hanford, Inc., Richland, WA.
Date: April 17, 2003
Creator: Horton, Duane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Highlights of Biopower Technical Assessment: State of the Industry and the Technology

Description: This report summarizes the findings of the Biopower Technical Assessment, which reviews the state of the biopower industry and the technology for producing electricity and heat from biomass.
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: Bain, R. L.; Amos, W. P.; Downing, M. & Perlack, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Dimensional Stability and Microstructure Evolution in Irradiated Systems with Complex Kinetics

Description: We use a combination of molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to explore the role of temperature and dose rate on damage accumulation in a model system with complex kinetics. We describe the accumulation of He-vacancy (HeV) complexes as well as vacancy and interstitial clusters as a function of irradiation temperature, dose, and dose rate. We show that nucleation of stable HeV complexes (voids and bubbles) at low temperature and flux takes place at extremely low doses. We also describe the effect of temperature on the HeV complex size distribution and show that growth beyond a critical nucleation size is not possible in this system at temperatures above 300 K for dose rates smaller than 10{sup -8} dpa/s. We further demonstrate that a temperature shift of 25 K per decade of flux scales the dose rate dependence of He-vacancy complex (voids and bubbles) accumulation when irradiation is carried out to low doses (0.03-0.06 dpa) at temperatures between 150 K and 300 K and dose rates of 10{sup -6}, 10{sup -7}, 10{sup -8}, and 10{sup -9} dpa/s. The results provide an atomistic description of microstructure evolution including void nucleation and the early stages of growth, and should be useful in designing and interpreting accelerated aging experiments.
Date: April 28, 2003
Creator: Diaz de la Rubia, T; Caturla, M J & Fluss, M J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Reaction Kinetics of LiD with Water Vapor

Description: The interaction of LiD with water vapor in the partial pressure range of 10{sup -7} Torr to 20 Torr has been investigated. The reaction probability of water with pure LiD cleaved in an ultra high vacuum environment was obtained using the modulated molecular beam technique. This probability was 0.11 and independent of LiD surface temperature suggesting a negligible activation energy for the reaction in agreement with quantum chemical calculations. The value gradually reduced, however, to .007 as the surface concentration of oxygen containing product (LiOH), which was monitored in-situ by Auger electron spectroscopy on the reaction zone, approached full coverage. As the hydroxide film grew beyond a monolayer, the phase lag of hydrogen product increased from zero to 20 degrees and the reaction probability reduced further until it approached our detection limit ({approx} 10{sup -4}). This phase lag was attributed to a diffusion limited process in this regime. In separate experiments, the film growth has been studied in nitrogen atmosphere with 100% relative humidity using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and in air with 50% relative humidity utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For exposures to environment with high water concentrations and for micrometer thick films, the reaction probability reduced to 4 x 10{sup -7} and was independent of exposure time, The lattice diffusion through the film was no longer controlling the transport of water to the LiD/LiOH interface. Microcracks generated in the film to release stress provided easier pathways to the interface. A modified microscope, capable of both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanoindentation, was employed to investigate the surface morphology of LiOH.H{sub 2}O grown on LiOH at high water vapor partial pressures and the kinetics of this growth.
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: Balooch, M; Dinh, L N & Calef, D F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Shock Scattering in a Multiphase Flow Model

Description: Multiphase flow models have been proposed for use in situations which have combined Rayleigh-Taylor (RTI) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RMI) instabilities. Such an approach work poorly for the case of a heavy to light shock incidence on a developed interface. The physical original of this difficulty is traced to an inadequate model of the interfacial pressure term as it appears in the momentum and turbulence kinetic energy equations. Constraints on the form of a better model from a variety of sources are considered. In this context it is observed that a new constraint on closures arises. This occurs because of the discontinuity within the shock responsible for the RMI. The proposed model (Shock Scattering) is shown to give useful results.
Date: April 8, 2003
Creator: Klem, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Towards Applications of Quantum Dots: Surface Modification and Novel Electronic Properties

Description: The possibility of quantum confinement causing the intense visible luminescence seen in porous Si, first mentioned by Canham in 1991, led to enormous interest in that material. The large blue-shift in the band gap and increase in luminescent efficiency attributed to quantum confinement in porous Si, while still controversial, continues to fuel research on colloidal Si nanoparticles prepared by sonicating porous Si, and by solution chemistry. This interest continues, and has led naturally to an interest in colloidal Ge nanoparticles, since the elements are both indirect gap semiconductors, and the exciton of Ge has a larger Bohr radius. The earliest preparation of Ge nanoparticles by a colloidal chemistry method started as a continuation of the previous work on Si, but required either high temperatures and pressures, or laser annealing to produce crystalline nanoparticles. There has been only limited work on colloidal Ge nanoparticles prepared by sonicating porous Ge, with interest instead focused primarily on solution preparation of colloidal Ge nanoparticles. The reaction between Mg{sub 2}T and TCl{sub 4} in refluxing diglyme produced silicon and germanium nanoparticles in high yields, and the surface of these nanoparticles may be terminated using Grignard reagents. Since the particles produced by the initial metathesis reaction are from 2-10 nm in diameter, from 10-30% of their atoms are on the surface. With such a large proportion of atoms at the surface, its termination is vital to controlling their properties. Surface termination with Grignard reagents forms a robust protective layer at the surface of the nanoparticle, and provides an opportunity for further chemical manipulation. Though a considerable amount of work remains, chemically manipulating the surface of the nanoparticles may provide the ability to further tailor their properties and incorporate them into composite materials or devices. The ability to chemically change the surface of the nanoparticles yet retain …
Date: April 18, 2003
Creator: Hope-Weeks, L; Foxx, G & Taylor, B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Data Package for Calendar Year 2002 RCRA Groundwater Monitoring Wells at Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area TX-TY

Description: Two new RCRA groundwater monitoring wells were installed at the single-shell tank farm at Waste Management Area TX-TY in October and November 2002. This document provides the information on drilling and construction of these wells. Two new Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) groundwater monitoring wells were installed at the single-shell tank farm Waste Management Area (WMA) TX-TY in October and November 2002 in fulfillment of Tri-Party Agreement (Ecology et al. 1998) Milestone M-24-00N. The well names are 299-W14-19 and 299-W15-44; the corresponding well numbers are C3957 and C3956, respectively. Well 299-W14-19 is located east of the central part of the TX Tank Farm and is a downgradient well filling a gap in the monitoring network between wells 299-W14-14 and 299-W14-6. Well 299-W15-44 is located at the southwest corner of the TX Tank Farm in an area where groundwater flow has been artificially altered toward the southwest by the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit pump-and-treat system. The well is in the cone of depression of the 200-ZP-1 extraction wells and is downgradient of WMA TX-TY. The locations of all wells in the WMA TX-TY monitoring network are shown on Figure 1. The original assessment monitoring plan for WMA TX-TY was issued in 1993 (Caggiano and Chou 1993). That plan was updated for the continued assessment at WMA TX-TY in 2001 (Hodges and Chou 2001). The updated plan provides justification for the new wells. The new wells were constructed to the specifications and requirements described in Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-160 and WAC 173-303, the updated assessment plan for WMA TX-TY (Hodges and Chou 2001), and the description of work for well drilling and construction. This document compiles information on the drilling and construction, geophysical logging, and sediment and groundwater sampling applicable to the installation of wells 299-W14-19 and 299-W15-44. The information on …
Date: April 15, 2003
Creator: Horton, Duane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Furnace System Testing to Support Lower-Temperature Stabilization of High Chloride Plutonium Oxide Items at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant

Description: High chloride content plutonium (HCP) oxides are impure plutonium oxide scrap which contains NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and/or CaCl2 salts at potentially high concentrations and must be stabilized at 950 C per the DOE Standard, DOE-STD-3013-2000. The chlorides pose challenges to stabilization because volatile chloride salts and decomposition products can corrode furnace heating elements and downstream ventilation components. Thermal stabilization of HCP items at 750 C (without water washing) is being investigated as an alternative method for meeting the intent of DOE STD 3013-2000. This report presents the results from a series of furnace tests conducted to develop material balance and system operability data for supporting the evaluation of lower-temperature thermal stabilization.
Date: April 16, 2003
Creator: Schmidt, Andrew J.; Gerber, Mark A.; Fischer, Christopher M. & Elmore, Monte R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

IR Properties of Ge-Doped CH - A Continuation

Description: We have reexamined Ge-doped CH and have found that the material is more reactive to air than previously understood. The Ge-doped material as formed shows by IR the presence of a Ge-H linkage that oxidizes rapidly, giving rise to a significant OH absorption. This broad peak impacts IR layering wavelengths of interest.
Date: April 4, 2003
Creator: Cook, B; Nikroo, A & Czechowicz, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Prediction of Failure Due to Thermal Aging, Corrosion and Environmental Fracture in Amorphous and Titanium Alloys

Description: DARPA is exploring a number of advanced materials for military applications, including amorphous metals and titanium-based alloys. Equipment made from these materials can undergo degradation due to thermal aging, uniform corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, denting, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatigue, hydrogen induced cracking and microbial influenced corrosion. Amorphous alloys have exceptional resistance to corrosion, due in part to the absence of grain boundaries, but can undergo crystallization and other phase instabilities during heating and welding. Titanium alloys are extremely corrosion resistant due to the formation of a tenacious passive film of titanium oxide, but is prone to hydrogen absorption in crevices, and hydrogen induced cracking after hydrogen absorption. Accurate predictions of equipment reliability, necessary for strategic planning, requires integrated models that account for all relevant modes of attack, and that can make probabilistic predictions. Once developed, model parameters must be determined experimentally, and the validity of models must be established through careful laboratory and field tests. Such validation testing requires state-of-the-art surface analytical techniques, as well as electrochemical and fracture mechanics tests. The interaction between those processes that perturb the local environment on a surface and those that alter metallurgical condition must be integrated in predictive models. The material and environment come together to drive various modes of corrosive attack (Figure 1). Models must be supported through comprehensive materials testing capabilities. Such capabilities are available at LLNL and include: the Long Term Corrosion Test Facility (LTCTF) where large numbers of standard samples can be exposed to realistic test media at several temperature levels; a reverse DC machine that can be used to monitor the propagation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in situ; and banks of potentiostats with temperature controlled cells for potentiostatic and potentiodynamic testing (Figure 2).
Date: April 15, 2003
Creator: Farmer, J C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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