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Experience base for Radioactive Waste Thermal Processing Systems: A preliminary survey

Description: In the process of considering thermal technologies for potential treatment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory mixed transuranic contaminated wastes, a preliminary survey of the experience base available from Radioactive Waste Thermal Processing Systems is reported. A list of known commercial radioactive waste facilities in the United States and some international thermal treatment facilities are provided. Survey focus is upon the US Department of Energy thermal treatment facilities. A brief facility description and a preliminary summary of facility status, and problems experienced is provided for a selected subset of the DOE facilities.
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Mayberry, J.; Geimer, R.; Gillins, R.; Steverson, E.M.; Dalton, D. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)) & Anderson, G.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Stress analysis of MFTF-B getter system bellows. Final report

Description: The MFTF-B design includes a retractable getter system. Eight getter assemblies are planned (4 in each end plug). Electrically heated Ti wires are mounted on a telescoping insertion mechanism and, between machine shots (pulses), are extended into the chamber in the vicinity of inward-facing water-cooled magnet liners. During the shots, the sublimators must be withdrawn because they will intrude into plasma and diagnostic space. Each of the getter assemblies will be mounted on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Bellows are used to keep essentially all of the mechanism isolated from the vessel vacuum. The bellows come in two sizes (8.25'' O.D. and 14'' O.D.). The smaller of the two bellows has been qualified by testing up to 94,000 cycles by empirically adjusting details of the bellow design (geometry and thickness). The process required 12 different test samples and took over a one-year period to accomplish. The bellows consistently failed in the inside diameter weld heat-affected zone. Results from stress analysis studies are presented.
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: Tokarz, F. J.; Johnson, J. J.; Mukherjee, A. N. & Dalder, E. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Interactions of tailings leachate with local liner materials found at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania.

Description: The mill tailings site at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania is the first mill site to receive remedial action under the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program. Part of this remedial action will require excavating the 53,500 m/sup 3/ (70,000 yd/sup 3/) of tailings on the site having a specific activity exceeding 100 pCi/g, and encapsulating these contaminated tailings in a clay-lined cell. As part of the remedial action effort, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been studying the interactions of tailings and tailings leachate with locally occurring clays proposed for liner materials. These studies include physical and chemical characterization of amended and unamended local clays, chemical characterization of the tailings, column studies of tailings leached with deionized water, and column studies of clays contacted with tailings solutions to determine the attenuation properties of the proposed liner materials. Column studies of tailings leached with deionized water indicated that the Canonsburg tailings could represent a source of soluble radium-226 and uranium-238, several trace metals, cations, and the anions SO/sub 4/, NO/sub 3/, and Cl. Of these soluble contaminants, uranium-238, radium-226, the trace metals As and Mo, and the anions F and SO/sub 4/ were present at levels exceeding maximum concentration levels in the tailings leaching column effluents. However, local clays, both in amended and unamended form were effective in attenuating contaminant migration. The soil amendments tested failed to increase radium attenuation. The tailings leaching studies indicated that the tailings will produce leachates of neutral pH and relatively low contaminant levels for at least 200 years. We believe that compacting the tailings within the encapsulation cell will help to reduce leaching of contaminants from the liner system, since very low permeabilities (<10/sup -8/ cm/s) were observed for even slightly compacted tailings materials.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Dodson, M.E.; Gee, G.W. & Serne, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chemical Technology Division Unit Operations Section Monthly Progress Report, September 1961

Description: Nine samples of ThO/sub 2/ -UO/sub 2/ prepared as part of the solgel process development studies showed no consistent effects from small variations in several process parameters. The reaction of methane and copper oxide was studied. Engineering studies of the continuous dissolution of simulated U-Zr-Sn fuels in 6.5 M NH4F, 0.6-1.0 M NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/, 0.1 M H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ were continued in modified 6-in.-dia. equipment. A total of 1642 kg of U from NaK bonded SRE Core I fuel rods wad dejacketed to date/su Initial operability tests of the 250 ton prototype shear unit showed a number of minor modifications are warranted. Center tube temperatures measured in a vertical 64 tube electrically heated simulated fuel element bundle were very near those previously obtained in the horizontal position. A 304 SS tube containing eutectic NaK was dissolved by HF in fused saIt at a tube wall penetration rate of approximates 2 mils/hr. Partial differential equations were derived from the concentration of unreacted UF/sub 6/ as a function of time and position in a sphere of NaF during sorption of UF/sub 6/. Calcium nitrate solution was added directly to the pot calciner during Purex feeding to give smoother operation of the feeding system. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1962
Creator: Whatley, M. E.; Haas, P. A.; Horton, R. W.; Ryon, A. D.; Suddath, J. C. & Watson, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Energy-Exchange Project

Description: The purpose of the study was to determine what energy savings can be achieved by coordinating the resources and requirements of two facilities, the 26th Ward Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) and a housing development named Starrett City with its own total energy system. It was determined that three energy exchange options were economically and technically feasible. These include: the transfer of digester gas produced at the 26th Ward to the boilers at the Starrett City's total energy plant (TEP); the transfer of hot water heated at the TEP to the 26th Ward for space and process heating; and the transfer of coal effluent waste water from the 26th Ward to the condenser cooling systems at the TEP. Technical information is presented to support the findings. The report addresses those tasks of the statement of work dedicated to data acquisition, analysis, and energy conservation strategies internal to the Starrett City TEP and the community it supplies as well as to the 26th Ward WPCP. (MCW)
Date: April 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Murgatroyd-an Ibm 7090 Program for the Analysis of the Kinetics of the Msre

Description: The IBM 7090 program Murgatroyd is a revised and extended version of the IBM 704 program PET-I, which solves (by a fifth-order Runge-Kutta procedure) the coupled firstorder differential equations for power, delayed neutron concentration, and temperature in a one-region reactor as a function of time, given an input reactivity variation represented by a series of linear ramps. The basic extensions were those which were necessary to include the effects of the separate heat capacities and temperature coefficients of the fuel sait and graphite in the MSRE, and of heat transfer between the fuel and graphite. In addition, the input and output sections of the previous program were modified to facilitate the use of the program in extensive parameter studies, and a calculation of the pressure rise in the core was included. Typical running times are of the order of l2 milliseconds per time step; a calculation of a 30-second power history using a 10 millisecond time step requires about 36 seconds of machine time. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1962
Creator: Nestor, C. W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Oscillating Vertical Magnetic Dipole Above a Conducting Half-Space

Description: The electromagnetic field produced by a vertical oscillating magnetic dipole above a plane conducting earth is obtained in integral form. An exact solution in closed form is obtained for the case in which the dipole and the point of observation are both located on the surface of the earth. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1961
Creator: Wesley, J. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Westinghouse independent safety review of Savannah River production reactors

Description: Westinghouse Electric Corporation has performed a safety assessment of the Savannah River production reactors (K,L, and P) as requested by the US Department of Energy. This assessment was performed between November 1, 1988, and April 1, 1989, under the transition contract for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company's preparations to succeed E.I. du Pont de Nemours Company as the US Department of Energy contractor for the Savannah River Project. The reviewers were drawn from several Westinghouse nuclear energy organizations, embody a combination of commercial and government reactor experience, and have backgrounds covering the range of technologies relevant to assessing nuclear safety. The report presents the rationale from which the overall judgment was drawn and the basis for the committee's opinion on the phased restart strategy proposed by E.I. du Pont de Nemours Company, Westinghouse, and the US Department of Energy-Savannah River. The committee concluded that it could recommend restart of one reactor at partial power upon completion of a list of recommended upgrades both to systems and their supporting analyses and after demonstration that the organization had assimilated the massive changes it will have undergone.
Date: April 1, 1989
Creator: Leggett, W. D.; McShane, W. J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Liparulo, N. J.; McAdoo, J. D.; Strawbridge, L. E. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Nuclear and Advanced Technology Div.); Toto, G. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Nuclear Services Div.) et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Mechanical transport in two-dimensional networks of fractures

Description: The objectives of this research are to evaluate directional mechanical transport parameters for anisotropic fracture systems, and to determine if fracture systems behave like equivalent porous media. The tracer experiments used to measure directional tortuosity, longitudinal geometric dispersivity, and hydraulic effective porosity are conducted with a uniform flow field and measurements are made from the fluid flowing within a test section where linear length of travel is constant. Since fluid flow and mechanical transport are coupled processes, the directional variations of specific discharge and hydraulic effective porosity are measured in regions with constant hydraulic gradients to evaluate porous medium equivalence for the two processes, respectively. If the fracture region behaves like an equivalent porous medium, the system has the following stable properties: (1) specific discharge is uniform in any direction and can be predicted from a permeability tensor; and (2) hydraulic effective porosity is directionally stable. Fracture systems with two parallel sets of continuous fractures satisfy criterion 1. However, in these systems hydraulic effective porosity is directionally dependent, and thus, criterion 2 is violated. Thus, for some fracture systems, fluid flow can be predicted using porous media assumptions, but it may not be possible to predict transport using porous media assumptions. Two discontinuous fracture systems were studied which satisfied both criteria. Hydraulic effective porosity for both systems has a value between rock effective porosity and total porosity. A length-density analysis (LDS) of Canadian fracture data shows that porous media equivalence for fluid flow and transport is likely when systems have narrow aperture distributions. 54 references, 90 figures, 7 tables.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Endo, H.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Optical properties of flyash

Description: The general aims of this research are to provide a fundamental scientific basis for the physical understanding and reliable calculation of heat transfer in coal combustion systems, particularly as it is influenced by the presence of inorganic constituents deriving from mineral matter in coal. (VC)
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Self, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Facilities evaluation report

Description: The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development whose mission is to evaluate different new and existing technologies and determine how well they address DOE community waste remediation problems. Twenty-three Technical Task Plans (TTPs) have been identified to support this mission during FY-92; 10 of these have identified some support requirements when demonstrations take place. Section 1 of this report describes the tasks supported by BWID, determines if a technical demonstration is proposed, and if so, identifies the support requirements requested by the TTP Principal Investigators. Section 2 of this report is an evaluation identifying facility characteristics of existing Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) facilities that may be considered for use in BWID technology demonstration activities.
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Sloan, P.A. & Edinborough, C.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Measurement of Energy and Intensity of Gamma Rays by Use of a Scintillation Spectrometer

Description: The analysis of gamma-ray spectra measured with a scintillation counter with an anticoincidence annulus is described in detail. In particular the problem of the determination of the energy and intensity of gamma rays from such measurements is considered. The shapes of the full-energy peaks in observed complex spectra are studied and an attempt is made to justify their description in terms of a Gaussian response function. The details of the statistical analysis of complex gamma-ray spectra are given and, finally, procedures which have been used to confirm the validity of error estimates in energy and intensity measurements are described. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1962
Creator: Julke, R. T.; Monahan, J. E.; Raboy, S. & Trail, C. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Photovoltaic systems concept study. Volume IV. Final report

Description: This report has been prepared in nine sections plus appendices, separated into five separate volumes. This volume contains three sections. Separate abstracts were prepared for each section. (MHR)
Date: April 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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MetaBrowser: A combined browsing, query, and analysis tool

Description: The MetaBrowser design is based on the premise that scientists should not be forced to learn new languages or commands for finding the data they are interested in and for selecting subsets of the data for further analysis. Furthermore, there should be a single system that permits browsing, query, and analysis of the data, so that the scientist does not have to switch between systems. The current version for the MetaBrowser was designed for the DOE CEDR (Comprehensive Epidemiological Data Resource) project, but the same principles can apply to other scientific disciplines. Browsing and query should be combined. It is quite natural for a user to explore the information in the database before deciding what subset of the data to select for further analysis. In general, if there is a large number of datasets (i.e. databases) in the system, then the user would want to find out information about the various datasets (called metadata), before choosing one or more datasets for further exploration. Thus, a metadatabase that holds information about datasets in the systems must exist.
Date: April 1, 1991
Creator: Shoshani, A. & Szeto, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Nuclear magnetic resonance study of metallic scandium chlorides

Description: The /sup 45/Sc nuclear magnetic resonance was studied in samples having the general composition CsSc/sub x/Cl/sub 3/ (0.67 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 1.0) in the CsCl-ScCl/sub 3/-Sc system. In particular the structure of CsScCl/sub 3/ suggests that it may be a one-dimensional conductor, and an attempt was therefore made to detect the occurrence of a metal-insulator transition of the type characteristic of one-dimensional conductors. Conventional crossed-coil (nuclear induction) techniques were employed. The /sup 45/Sc resonance was studied over a wide frequency range (4 to 24 MHz) at 300K, these measurements yielding the Knight shift and nuclear electric quadrupole coupling parameters. No significant variation in the spectra occurred from 4.2K to 450K, indicating the absence of a metal-insulator transition in this temperature range.
Date: April 1, 1978
Creator: McMullen, T.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Experimental study of weak interactions by precision measurement of rare kaon decay, Task B

Description: This report discusses research on the following decay schemes and parameters: {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}; {Phi}{sub 00} {minus} {Phi}+{minus}; K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}; K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{delta}{delta}; {pi}{sup 0} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}; K{sub LS} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}{delta}; K{sub e4}; K{sub e3}; K{sub L} {yields} 3{pi}{sup 0} decay constant.
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Winston, Roland
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Response of Dual-Purpose Reinforced-Concrete Mass Shelter

Description: BS>A reinforced-concrete dual-purpose underground parking garage and personnel sheiter designed for a long-duration incident pressure of 40 psi was tested. The sheiter was exposed to shot Priscilla, an approximately 37-kt 700-ft balloon burst (June 24, 1957), at a ground range of 1600 ft (predicted 35-psi peak incident-pressure level). The recorded peak incident pressure at the shelter was approximately 39 psi. Postshot soil borings were made to obtain undisturbed samples for determining soil characteristics. Preshot and postshot field surveys were made to determine the total lateral and vertical displacement of the structure. The test structure provided adequate protection from the effects of the test device at the test GZ distance. Despite failure of the door sealing gasket, a rise in pressure in the interior did not exceed 1.0 psi. The flat-slab roof and supporting structure were more than adequate to resist the 39psi peak incident test loading. (P.C.H.)
Date: April 1, 1961
Creator: Cohen, E.; Laing, E. & Bottenhofer, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Energy-related doctoral scientists and engineers in the United States, 1977

Description: Information is compiled about the number and characteristics of doctoral-level engineers and scientists in primarily energy-related activities. These data are for the year 1977 and are part of the data base for a program of continuing studies on the employment and utilization of all scientists and engineers involved in energy-related activities. Data on mathematics, physics, chemistry, environmental engineering, engineering, life sciences, psychology, and social sciences doctoral degree specialties are included.
Date: April 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Bibliography of reports on research sponsored by the NRC office of nuclear regulatory research, July--December 1977

Description: A bibliography of 198 reports published by contractors of the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during the period July through December 1977 is presented along with abstracts from the Nuclear Safety Information Center computer file. The bibliography has been sorted into the subject categories used by NRC to organize the research program. Within the subject categories, the reports are arranged first by contractor organization and then chronologically. A brief description of the NRC research program precedes the bibliography.
Date: April 1, 1978
Creator: Buchanan, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chemical contaminants on DOE lands and selection of contaminant mixtures for subsurface science research

Description: This report identifies individual contaminants and contaminant mixtures that have been measured in the ground at 91 waste sites at 18 US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities within the weapons complex. The inventory of chemicals and mixtures was used to identify generic chemical mixtures to be used by DOE's Subsurface Science Program in basic research on the subsurface geochemical and microbiological behavior of mixed contaminants (DOE 1990a and b). The generic mixtures contain specific radionuclides, metals, organic ligands, organic solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in various binary and ternary combinations. The mixtures are representative of in-ground contaminant associations at DOE facilities that are likely to exhibit complex geochemical behavior as a result of intercontaminant reactions and/or microbiologic activity stimulated by organic substances. Use of the generic mixtures will focus research on important mixed contaminants that are likely to be long-term problems at DOE sites and that will require cleanup or remediation. The report provides information on the frequency of associations among different chemicals and compound classes at DOE waste sites that require remediation.
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Riley, R.G. & Zachara, J.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Assessment of the theory and hypotheses of the acidification of watersheds

Description: This report documents and critically assesses the evolution and status of the scientific understanding of the effects of acidic deposition on surface waters. The main conclusion is that the dominant theory of surface-water acidification fails to adequately incorporate many important factors and processes that influence surface water acidity. Some of these factors and processes are not well researched or recognized as being important by most scientists in the aquatic effects research area. 258 refs., 14 figs., 23 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1989
Creator: Krug, E.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Radially resolved measurements of ''q'' on the ATC tokamak

Description: This paper describes a new technique for directly measuring the safety factor, or q, profile in a tokamak. A tightly collimated neutral beam capable of injecting approximately 100 mA of 30 keV deuterium atoms was mounted on the ATC tokamak. By proper tangential aiming of the beam a strong concentration of circulating fast ions was created at a chosen plasma minor radius. By examining the orbits of these ions with a multi-sight-line charge exchange detector, it was possible to measure the shifts of the orbits off of magnetic surfaces, and thereby to make local measurements of q. This experiment showed that when q on axis reached unity, strong internal turbulence began, and further lowering of q at the outer edge of the plasma did not lower q(0). A second result was that the measured q(0) was approximately 1.8 times larger than the q(0) deduced from the T/sub e/(r) profile, assuming z/sub eff/ to be independent of minor radius. This suggests a significant peaking of z/sub eff/ on axis in ATC.
Date: April 1, 1978
Creator: Goldston, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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