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STUDY OF REMOTE MILITARY POWER APPLICATIONS REPORT NO. 1. SUMMARY

Description: An economic evaluation of the construction and operation of 5 to 46 Mw(e) nuclear power plants at several military installations throughout the world is presented. After an evaluation of economic factors involved, 10 sites were chosen for which the cost of nuclear power is most nearly economically competitive with conventional power costs. The 10 sites include Okinawa, Guam, Thule, Asmara (Eritrea), Inchon, McMurdo Sound (Antarctica), a barge in the Atlantic Ocean, and three sites in the U. S. (NORAD, Super Sage, and Nike-Zeus). A comparison between the capital cost for the nuclear power plant and the conventional power plant is made for all sites. Operating, maintenance, labor, supply, and fuel-oil costs were calculated for an annual cost that could be applied over the assumed 20-year life of the plant. Descriptions and designs of each site are included. (C.J.G.)
Date: January 1, 1960
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interaction of $sup 238$PuO$sub 2$ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments

Description: Radioisotope thermoelectric generators used in space missions are designed with a great factor of safety to ensure that they will withstand reentry from orbit and impact with the earth, and safely contain the nuclear fuel until it is recovered. Existing designs, utilizing $sup 238$PuO$sub 2$ fuel, have proved more than adequately safe. More data about the interaction of this material with terrestrial and aquatic environments is continually being sought to predict the behavior of these heat sources in the extremely unlikely contact of these materials with the land or ocean. Terrestrial environments are simulated with large environmental chambers that permit control of temperature, humidity, and rainfall using different kinds of soils. Rain falling on thermally hot chunks of $sup 238$PuO$sub 2$ causes the spallation of the surface of the fuel into extremely fine particles, as small as 50 nm, that are later transported downward through the soil. Some of the plutonia particles become agglomerated with soil particles. Plutonium transport is more significant during winter than during summer because evaporation losses from the soil are less in winter. Aquatic environments are simulated with large aquaria that provide temperature and aeration control. Earlier fuel designs that employed a plutonia-molybdenum cermet showed plutonium release rates of about 10 $mu$Ci/m$sup 2$ - s, referred to the total surface area of the cermet. Present advanced fuels, employing pure plutonium oxide, show release rates of about 20 nCi/m$sup 2$ - s in seawater and about 150 nCi/m$sup 2$ - s in freshwater. The temperature of these more advanced heat sources does not seem to affect the release rate in seawater. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Patterson, J.H.; Nelson, G.B.; Matlack, G.M. & Waterbury, G.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE USE OF MODERATELY HIGH PRESSURES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES

Description: The application of moderately high pressures to work at low temperatures is described. The problems involved in the merging of these two disciplines are discussed as they relate to laboratory research as well as to large scale nuclear rocket testing facility usage. The equipment used to determine some physical properties of liquid cryogens up to 50000 lb/in./sup 2/ are also described. The methods of obtaining and applying the low temperature to the high pressure volume will be mentioned. The use of a reciprocating piston pump to pump cryogenic liquids to high pressures is described. Consideration is also given to the problems of cryogenic seals for large size vacuum jacketed cryogenic piping. Safety requirements are also mentioned. (P.C.H.)
Date: January 1, 1963
Creator: Edeskuty, F.J. & Mills, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A REPORT ON THE STATUS OF GAS LUBRICATION FOR TURBOMACHINERY

Description: A discussion is presented concerning the reasons why gas bearings are being used in specialized turbomachinery. An outline of the factors that must be considered in bearing selection and design is included. Gas bearing limitations and problem areas are examined. (J.R.D.)
Date: January 1963
Creator: Crowe, W. E.; Russell, J. H. & Sternlicht, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biomolecular Materials. Report of the January 13-15, 2002 Workshop

Description: Twenty-two scientists from around the nation and the world met to discuss the way that the molecules, structures, processes and concepts of the biological world could be used or mimicked in designing novel materials, processes or devices of potential practical significance. The emphasis was on basic research, although the long-term goal is, in addition to increased knowledge, the development of applications to further the mission of the Department of Energy.
Date: January 15, 2002
Creator: Alper, M. D. & Stupp, S. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS: CLINICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF MANGANESE

Description: From Symposium on Radioactivation Analysis and its Application to the Biological Sciences, Saclay, France, Sept. 1963. The use of neutron activation analysis for studying the metabolism of manganese in the body is discussed. Results of various clinical and biological studies of manganese metabolism are described. Some of the results indicate that pigments (melanin) in general contain high manganese concentrations and might play a role in extrapyramidal diseases. (D.L.C.)
Date: January 1, 1962
Creator: Cotzias, G.C.; Papavasiliou, P.S. & Miller, S.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FIELD STUDY OF THE AgPO$sub 3$ GLASS PERSONNEL DOSIMETER (U.S. NAVY DT-60)

Description: >The U. S. Navy DT-60 dosimeter was evaluated under field type conditions as to its reproducibility and accuracy of gamma x-ray, thermal and fast neutron and mixed radiation responses. Gamma and x-ray responses from 25 to 600 rads at energies in oxcess of 200 kev were found to be accurate within 20% in 92% of 160 dosimeters examined. Because the DT-60 was found to have no detectable fast neutron response, effort was directed toward exaggerating the thermal neutron response to approximate the total neutron dose from a nuclear detonation and also toward eliminating any neutron response in a mixed neutron- gamma field. This was accomplished by various combinations of lithium, paraffin and cadmium shielding. Data indicate that the DT-60 dosimeter can be modified to approximate more closely doses from specific types of mixed radiations; however, this generally detracts from its value in approximating other types of mixed radiation doses. A paired system of dosimeters, in conjunction with one of the fast neutron dosimetry systems is proposed as being the most satisfactory ar rangement to approximate mixed radiation doses to personnel in the field. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1959
Creator: Ballinger, E.R. & Harris, P.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE RADIOCHEMISTRY OF AMERICIUM AND CURIUM

Description: A review of the nuclear and chemical features of particular interest to the radiochemist, a discussion of problems of dissolution of a sample and counting techniques, and a collection of radiochemical procedures for the elements as found in the literature are given. (W.L.H.)
Date: January 1, 1960
Creator: Penneman, R. A. & Keenan, T. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Programmatic Environmental Analysis: Volume 2 -- Appendices

Description: The programmatic environmental analysis is an initial assessment of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology considering development, demonstration and commercialization. It is concluded that the OTEC development program should continue because the development, demonstration, and commercialization on a single-plant deployment basis should not present significant environmental impacts. However, several areas within the OTEC program require further investigation in order to assess the potential for environmental impacts from OTEC operation, particularly in large-scale deployments and in defining alternatives to closed-cycle biofouling control: (1) Larger-scale deployments of OTEC clusters or parks require further investigations in order to assess optimal platform siting distances necessary to minimize adverse environmental impacts. (2) The deployment and operation of the preoperational platform (OTEC-1) and future demonstration platforms must be carefully monitored to refine environmental assessment predictions, and to provide design modifications which may mitigate or reduce environmental impacts for larger-scale operations. These platforms will provide a valuable opportunity to fully evaluate the intake and discharge configurations, biofouling control methods, and both short-term and long-term environmental effects associated with platform operations. (3) Successful development of OTEC technology to use the maximal resource capabilities and to minimize environmental effects will require a concerted environmental management program, encompassing many different disciplines and environmental specialties. This volume contains these appendices: Appendix A -- Deployment Scenario; Appendix B -- OTEC Regional Characterization; and Appendix C -- Impact and Related Calculations.
Date: January 1980
Creator: Sands, M. Dale
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY 2007 LDRD Director's R&D Progress SummaryProposal Title: Developing a Science Base for Fuel Reprocessing Separations in the Global Nuclear Energy Program

Description: This work is aimed at developing an experimentally validated computational capability for understanding the complex processes governing the performance of solvent extraction devices used for separations in nuclear fuel reprocessing. These applications pose a grand challenge due to the combination of complicating factors in a three-dimensional, turbulent, reactive, multicomponent, multiphase/interface fluid flow system. The currently limited process simulation and scale-up capabilities provides uncertainty in the ability to select and design the separations technology for the demonstration plan of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program. We anticipate the development of science-based models for technology development and design. This project will position ORNL to address the emerging opportunity by creating an expandable process model validated experimentally. This project has three major thrusts, namely, a prototype experimental station, a continuum modeling and simulation effort, and molecular modeling and kinetics support. Excellent progress has been made in corresponding activities in this first year in: (1) defining, assembling, and operating a relevant prototype system for model validation; (2) establishing a mathematical model for fluid flow and transport; (3) deploying sub-scale molecular modeling.
Date: January 1, 2011
Creator: de Almeida, Valmor F; Tsouris, Costas; Birdwell Jr, Joseph F; D'Azevedo, Ed F; Jubin, Robert Thomas; DePaoli, David W et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE RADIOCHEMISTRY OF BARIUM, CALCIUM, AND STRONTIUM

Description: A review of the nuclear and chemical features of particular interest to the radiochemist, a dicusston of problems of dissolution of a sample and counting techniques, and a collectton of radiochemical procedures for the elements as found in the literature are given. (W.L.H)
Date: January 1, 1960
Creator: Sunderman, D.N. & Townley, C.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE RADIOCHEMISTRY OF MOLYBDENUM

Description: A review of the nuclear and chemical features of particular interest to the radiochemist, a discussion of problems of dissolution of a sample and counting techniques, and a collection of radiochemical procedures for the elements as found in the literature are given. (W.L.H.)
Date: January 1, 1960
Creator: Scadden, E.M. & Ballou, N.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department