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Males' Support Toward Females After Sexual Assault

Description: The current study explored the relations among rape myths, attitudes toward rape victims, perceived social support, sex role, and social reactions in a male undergraduate sample (N = 205). Males who have provided support to a sexual assault victim were compared to those who have not provided support to a sexual assault victim on several measures. Social reactions of those who have provided support to a sexual assault victim were compared to hypothetical reactions provided by individuals who have not previously provided support. Results indicated that rape related attitudes and beliefs did not differ between those who have and have not provided support to a sexual assault victim. In addition, individuals who were responding to a hypothetical situation reported that they would provide more positive social support than individuals who were responding to an actual situation. Implications for clinical work and future research in this area are discussed.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Reck, Jennifer K.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Factor Structure of the Neurocognitive Battery in a Geriatric Sample with Cognitive Impairments

Description: The present study was designed to empirically validate six theoretically derived cognitive domains (verbal memory, visual memory, working memory, attention-concentration, executive functions, and visuospatial abilities) assessed by a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests used in the Geriatric Memory Clinic at the University of North Texas Health Science Center in Fort Worth, Texas. The study examined the extent to which various cognitive dimensions are tapped by this battery in a heterogeneous geriatric sample of 114 patients with cognitive impairments. The proposed six-factor model of cognitive functioning has not been supported. Further exploratory factor analysis arrived at a five-factor solution. Factor pattern of the 23 tests supported the following five dimensions: memory, executive control, attention, visuospatial abilities, and cognitive flexibility.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Serova, Svetlana
Partner: UNT Libraries

Acculturation, Parental Control, and Adjustment among Asian Indian Women

Description: The present study examines the relationship between acculturation, parental control, and psychological adjustment among adult first and second-generation Asian Indian women who have immigrated, or whose parents have immigrated to the United States, from the Indian state of Kerala. Data from 73 participants indicate second-generation immigrants report poorer psychological adjustment than do their counterparts. Additionally, regression analyses reveal discomfort towards Kerala culture significantly predicts depressive symptoms, while high maternal control predicts self-esteem. Qualitative data were collected to provide richer understanding of immigrants' adaptation to the U.S. Implications of this research may impact mental health practitioners' ability to improve quality of life with Asian Indian women from Kerala.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Varghese, Anitha
Partner: UNT Libraries

The role of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and parental misperceptions in risk for child physical abuse

Description: Voice over IP (VoIP) is a key enabling technology for the migration of circuit-switched PSTN architectures to packet-based IP networks. However, this migration is successful only if the present problems in IP networks are addressed before deploying VoIP infrastructure on a large scale. One of the important issues that the present VoIP networks face is the problem of unwanted calls commonly referred to as SPIT (spam over Internet telephony). Mostly, these SPIT calls are from unknown callers who broadcast unwanted calls. There may be unwanted calls from legitimate and known people too. In this case, the unwantedness depends on social proximity of the communicating parties. For detecting these unwanted calls, I propose a framework that analyzes incoming calls for unwanted behavior. The framework includes a VoIP spam detector (VSD) that analyzes incoming VoIP calls for spam behavior using trust and reputation techniques. The framework also includes a nuisance detector (ND) that proactively infers the nuisance (or reluctance of the end user) to receive incoming calls. This inference is based on past mutual behavior between the calling and the called party (i.e., caller and callee), the callee's presence (mood or state of mind) and tolerance in receiving voice calls from the caller, and the social closeness between the caller and the callee. The VSD and ND learn the behavior of callers over time and estimate the possibility of the call to be unwanted based on predetermined thresholds configured by the callee (or the filter administrators). These threshold values have to be automatically updated for integrating dynamic behavioral changes of the communicating parties. For updating these threshold values, I propose an automatic calibration mechanism using receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC). The VSD and ND use this mechanism for dynamically updating thresholds for optimizing their accuracy of detection. In addition to unwanted calls ...
Date: December 2007
Creator: LaBorde, Cicely T.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The impact of organizational learning and training on multiple job satisfaction factors.

Description: This study explored benefits of providing employee training and development beyond the specific content covered in such interventions. The relationship between training and development opportunities, and associated factors (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intent) were significant among participants. Implications for training and development investment returns are considered. Previous research has identified training and development as an antecedent to perceived organizational support. Results failed to confirm perceived organizational support as mediating the relationship between training and organizational commitment. Age was found to be significantly correlated with job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intent, while education level was not found to have an impact. Limitations of this study, practical implications and recommendations for further study are discussed.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Barcus, Sydney Anne
Partner: UNT Libraries

The psychosocial functioning in pediatric cancer survivors: The role of neurocognitive abilities.

Description: With the increase in survival for children with cancer, part of the focus of current research is aimed towards evaluating how these children are adapting psychosocially. Neurocognitive deficits have been well established. However, there are multiple facets encompassing quality of life, including general mental health, lifestyles and health behaviors, and academic and cognitive functioning. The relationship between neurocognitive and psychosocial functioning has yet to be thoroughly evaluated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between neurocognitive and psychosocial functioning in survivors of brain tumors and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Data was collected from existing archival database comprised of patients of the at Cook Children's Medical Center in Texas. The sample consisted of 177 patients between the ages of 3 and 12 who were at least two years post-diagnosis. Measures used included the NEPSY and the Behavioral Assessment for Children. Statistical analyses included a several one-way analysis of variances, an independent samples t-test, a univariate analysis of variance, a hierarchical multiple regression, and odds ratio analyses. Results indicated survivors treated with neurosurgery alone appear to be less at risk for developing behavior problems than other treatment modalities. Also, brain tumor survivors demonstrate more problematic behaviors than survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Visuospatial functioning, diagnosis, and type of treatment were found to be predictive variables of behavior problems. Attention, and perhaps language, deficits may predispose children to more problems in their behavior. It is concluded that there are other factors affecting behavior in this population that were not accounted for in this analysis. It is recommended for future studies to research the individual clinical scales of the Behavior Assessment System for Children, obtain information from multiple informants, study this relationship longitudinally, and research additional factors that may be influencing the relationship between neurocognitive and psychosocial functioning. This provides evidence of ...
Date: August 2007
Creator: Begyn, Elizabeth
Partner: UNT Libraries

Parental bonding, adult romantic attachment, fear of intimacy, and cognitive distortions among child molesters.

Description: Path models assessed different models of influential order for parental bonding; adult romantic attachment; views of self, world/others, and the future; the fear of intimacy; and cognitive distortions among child molesters and non-offending controls. Child molesters receiving sex offender treatment reported more problematic parental bonding; insecure adult romantic attachment; negative views of self, world/others, and the future; a greater fear of intimacy, and more cognitive distortions regarding adult-child sex. The predicted path models were not established as the models did not adequately fit the data. However, post hoc logistic regressions indicated that Maternal Optimal Bonding, Preoccupied attachment, and cognitive distortions regarding adult-child sex significantly predicted child molester status. Overall, the findings provide support for a multi-factorial model of child molestation derived from attachment theory. Limitations of the study and areas for future research are also discussed.
Date: August 2007
Creator: Wood, Eric
Partner: UNT Libraries

Examining the relationship between employee-superior conflict and voluntary turnover in the workplace: A comparison of companies across industries.

Description: Employee turnover is a topic of concern for a multitude of organizations. A variety of work-related factors play into why an individual chooses to change jobs, but these are often symptoms of underlying issues, such as conflict. This study set out to determine if conflict between employees and their superiors has an impact on the level of turnover in an organization, and if manufacturing versus non-manufacturing industry type makes a difference. The generated data were based on 141 selected cases from the ethnographic cases in the Workplace Ethnography Project. Linear and logistic regressions were performed, finding that there is a significant relationship between conflict with superiors and the level of turnover.
Date: August 2007
Creator: West, Lindsey Straka
Partner: UNT Libraries

Psychological Abuse and Health: What Role Does Forgiveness Play?

Description: Existent literature suggests forgiveness could lead to either greater psychological abuse (reinforcement theory), or lower psychological abuse (interpersonal theory). Questionnaires were completed by 291 participants who were dating at least 2 months. More forgiveness-particularly Absence of Negativity-was related to less abuse received from their partner, and this effect was stronger for females than for males. Absence of Negativity (AN) was predictive of health variables (psychosomatic symptoms, mental and physical health), although Presence of Positive forgiveness did not predict health beyond the impact of AN. Abuse-forgiveness and assertiveness-forgiveness interaction terms were not significant predictors of health. Results indicate interpersonal theory describes the link between forgiveness and psychological abuse. Results suggest that focus on AN could be sufficient for mental or physical health change
Date: August 2007
Creator: Scherbarth, Andrew J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Educational Attainment among High-Risk Teenage Mothers

Description: Decreased educational attainment has been associated with numerous factors such as teenage pregnancy, repeat pregnancy, risky sexual behavior, substance use, depression, and parental distress. Educational attainment was examined among a group of predominantly Mexican American teenage mothers who were considered at high risk to have a repeat pregnancy, contract sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and use substances. Project Success Longitudinal Study is part of a national study funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention. Participants were recruited from eight traditional high schools in a large South Texas school district, an area with a high rate of teenage pregnancy and substance use. The treatment intervention included a multidimensional curriculum that was implemented in the participants' high schools in addition to home- and school-based case management services. It was hypothesized that participants who received the intervention would be more likely to attain their high school degree or equivalent and that amount of treatment received would be associated with educational attainment. Additionally, it was hypothesized that profiles of participants who attained their high school degree or equivalent would differ in the areas of parental distress, social support, symptoms of depression, and substance use when compared to participants who did not attain their high school degree or equivalent. Results indicated that participants who received the intervention reported increased educational attainment during the first two years of the study. Additionally, all participants experienced positive changes on various psychosocial measures.
Date: August 2007
Creator: Ortiz, Lisa M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Evaluation of the Situational Judgment Test

Description: This research attempts to confirm the reliability and construct validity of a personnel selection instrument called a Situational Judgment Test (SJT) through reliability analysis and factor analysis. The existing literature on SJTs is reviewed, including the advantages of using SJTs in personnel selection as well as the debate on whether SJTs measure a single construct or whether they can be multidimensional depending on the content. The specific SJT in this research was theoretically developed and received expert ratings to assess four general constructs: problem solving, planning, priority setting, and leadership. No support from alpha internal consistency reliability analysis was found for the assembly of these items into the four a priori subscales, thus assembly of these items into the theoretical subscales and scales was not supported.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Conner, Lane A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Personality and Rater Leniency: Comparison of Broad and Narrow Measures of Conscientiousness and Agreeableness

Description: Performance appraisal ratings provide the basis for numerous employment decisions, including retention, promotion, and salary increases. Thus, understanding the factors affecting the accuracy of these ratings is important to organizations and employees. Leniency, one rater error, is a tendency to assign higher ratings in appraisal than is warranted by actual performance. The proposed study examined how personality factors Agreeableness and Conscientiousness relate to rater leniency. The ability of narrower facets of personality to account for more variance in rater leniency than will the broad factors was also examined. The study used undergraduates' (n = 226) evaluations of instructor performance to test the study's hypotheses. In addition to personality variables, students' social desirability tendency and attitudes toward instructor were predicted to be related to rater leniency. Partial support for the study's hypotheses were found. The Agreeableness factor and three of the corresponding facets (Trust, Altruism and Tender-Mindedness) were positively related to rater leniency as predicted. The hypotheses that the Conscientiousness factor and three of the corresponding facets (Order, Dutifulness, and Deliberation) would be negatively related to rater leniency were not supported. In the current sample the single narrow facet Altruism accounted for more variance in rater leniency than the broad Agreeableness factor. While social desirability did not account for a significant amount of variance in rater leniency, attitude toward instructor was found to have a significant positive relationship accounting for the largest amount of variance in rater leniency.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Grahek, Myranda
Partner: UNT Libraries

Culture and Mental Health Help-Seeking Attitudes in Mexico.

Description: This study was designed to investigate 1) the cultural factors involved with Mexican citizens' attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help and 2) Mexican citizens' explanatory models of mental distress. Questionnaire data from 110 Mexican college students indicate that those who report a higher tolerance for stigma report lower endorsement of both the construct of personalismo and the machismo. Respondents who reported more interpersonal openness also reported a lower endorsement of the machismo construct. Participants from a large city reported significantly more stigma tolerance than those from a small city. Regression analyses reveal machismo as a significant predictor of stigma tolerance. Qualitative data was collected to provide additional in-depth information. Study results could be used to provide culturally appropriate mental health services.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Gomez, Steven David
Partner: UNT Libraries

Women's Gender Role Attitudes: Association of Demographic Characteristics, Work Related Factors, and Life Satisfaction

Description: Factors related to women's gender role attitudes were assessed using data from a national survey in 1988 in which 3,507 members of the Young Women cohort were interviewed by phone. The demographic characteristics were education, age, marital status, and region of residence. Older women, married women, and those of Southern residence were hypothesized to have traditional gender role attitudes. These hypotheses were supported by the data (p &tn; .05, p &tn; .05, p &tn; .01, respectively). As hypothesized, those with high educational levels (p &tn; .01) had egalitarian attitudes. Four work related variables (labor force participation, hours worked at one's paid position, personal income, and earnings as percent of total family income) were hypothesized to relate to non-traditional gender role attitudes. Job dissatisfaction was hypothesized to relate to traditional gender role attitudes. Personal income (p &tn; .01) was related to non-traditional gender role attitudes. There was no relationship between labor force participation and hours worked at one's position and gender role attitudes. Percent of total family income (p &tn; .01) was related to traditional gender role attitudes, not egalitarian attitudes, and, as hypothesized, job dissatisfaction (p &tn; .05) was related to traditional gender role attitudes. Life dissatisfaction was hypothesized to relate to egalitarian attitudes; however (p &tn; .01) was associated with traditional, not egalitarian, gender role attitudes. When exploring practical reasons for women working, a negative relationship was found between Southern (p &tn; .01) residence and labor force participation (p &tn; .01) and practical reasons for women working. Higher educational levels (p &tn; .01) were positively related.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Lee, Audra
Partner: UNT Libraries