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Research Opportunities for Studies of Contaminant Transport in Fluvial Systems at the TIMS Branch - Steed Pond System, Savannah River Site

Description: A workshop to identify the scientific issues associated with contamination in riparian, fluvial, and hyporheic systems was held in March 2003 at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The workshop examined the general scientific remediation challenges and research opportunities in such systems and on Tims Branch - Steed Pond, a specific uranium- and heavy-metal-contaminated riparian system at SRS. A diverse group of scientists representing a wide range of scientific disciplines came from academia, national laboratories, and research centers to develop recommendations for future ERSD research opportunities. There was agreement among the workshop participants that riparian, fluvial, and hyporheic systems represent a unique opportunity to advance science and to enable progress on DOE's environmental cleanup of contaminated sites. The participants at this workshop documented both the critical need and the great promise for research on hydrological and biogeochemical processes controlling contaminant transport and fate in contaminated surface and near-surface systems. The approach of the workshop was to assess the Tims Branch - Steed Pond system at the SRS as an appropriate site to identify research needs that support potential remediation strategies.
Date: August 13, 2003
Creator: Looney, B. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CHARACTERIZATION OF AIRFLOWS NEAR THE EXIT OF HVAC REGISTERS USING LASER DOPPLER VELOCIMETRY (LDV).

Description: A facility to characterize the airflow at the exit of HVAC registers was designed and fabricated. The objective of this work is to obtain velocity and turbulence data at the exit of registers, which can then be used as an input boundary condition in a modern Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code to predict the velocity and temperature distribution in an enclosure, and also the register performance parameters such as throw. During the course of this work, two commonly used registers were tested. Both registers were 8 inch x 4 inch sidewall registers. Laser Doppler Velocimetry was used to measure the axial and vertical components of the velocity vector at various locations across the face of the registers. For the two cases of registers studied here, the results suggest that the velocity field at the very exit of each of these registers scales with the flow rate through the registers. This means that, in the mode of operation in which the supply fan (of an HVAC system) has a ''High'' and ''Low'' setting, similar velocity scaling would result for the type of registers tested here.
Date: March 13, 2003
Creator: TUTU,N.K.; KRISHNA,C.R.; ANDREWS,J.W. & BUTCHER,T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluating the Effects of Tri-Butyl Phosphate and Normal Paraffin Hydrocarbon in Simulated Low-Activity Waste Solution on Ion Exchange

Description: Ultrafiltration and ion exchange are among the pretreatment processes selected for the WTP at the Hanford Site. This study is the second part of a two-part study on Evaluating the Effects of Tri-Butyl Phosphate and Normal Paraffin Hydrocarbon in Simulated Low-Activity Waste Solution on Ultrafiltration and Ion Exchange.
Date: May 13, 2003
Creator: Adu-Wusu, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Tokamak Plasmas in the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment

Description: The Advanced Tokamak (AT) capability of the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) burning plasma experiment is examined with 0-D systems analysis, equilibrium and ideal-MHD stability, radio-frequency current-drive analysis, and full discharge dynamic simulations. These analyses have identified the required parameters for attractive burning AT plasmas, and indicate that these are feasible within the engineering constraints of the device.
Date: October 13, 2003
Creator: Kessel, C.E.; Meade, D.; Swain, D.W.; Titus, P. & Ulrickson, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

Description: The objective of this project is to: (1) Develop a database of additional and better maturity indicators for paleo-heat flow calibration; (2) Develop maturation models capable of predicting the chemical composition of hydrocarbons produced by a specific kerogen as a function of maturity, heating rate, etc.; assemble a compositional kinetic database of representative kerogens; (3) Develop a 4 phase equation of state-flash model that can define the physical properties (viscosity, density, etc.) of the products of kerogen maturation, and phase transitions that occur along secondary migration pathways; (4) Build a conventional basin model and incorporate new maturity indicators and data bases in a user-friendly way; (5) Develop an algorithm which combines the volume change and viscosities of the compositional maturation model to predict the chemistry of the hydrocarbons that will be expelled from the kerogen to the secondary migration pathways; (6) Develop an algorithm that predicts the flow of hydrocarbons along secondary migration pathways, accounts for mixing of miscible hydrocarbon components along the pathway, and calculates the phase fractionation that will occur as the hydrocarbons move upward down the geothermal and fluid pressure gradients in the basin; and (7) Integrate the above components into a functional model implemented on a PC or low cost workstation.
Date: February 13, 2003
Creator: Blanco, Mario; Cathles, Lawrence; Manhardt, Paul; Meulbroek, Peter & Tang, Yongchun
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Department of Energy Support for Operations of the WMO/GAW Quality Control/Science Activity Center for the Americas

Description: As a formal activity of the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch, to provide, through agency collaboration, a center of excellence in the United States that would impose quality assurance techniques on data collected by national air and precipitation quality networks operating in the Americas (north, south, and central).
Date: November 13, 2003
Creator: Hicks, B. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Radionuclides through the Vadose Zone

Description: This project seeks to improve the basic understanding of the role of colloids in facilitating the transport of contaminants in the vadose zone. We focus on three major thrusts: (1) thermodynamic stability and mobility of colloids formed by reactions of sediments with highly alkaline tank waste solutions, (2) colloid-contaminant interactions, and (3) in situ colloid mobilization and colloid facilitated contaminant transport occurring in both contaminated and uncontaminated Hanford sediments.
Date: June 13, 2003
Creator: Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B.; Zachara, John M.; McCarthy, John F. & Lichtner, Peter C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scaling Rules for Pre-Injector Design

Description: Proposed designs of the prebunching system of the NLC and TESLA are based on the assumption that scaling the SLC design to NLC/TESLA requirements should provide the desired performance. A simple equation is developed to suggest a scaling rule in terms of bunch charge and duration. Detailed simulations of prebunching systems scaled from a single design have been run to investigate these issues.
Date: July 13, 2003
Creator: Schwarz, Tom & Amidei, Dan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IRON PHOSPHATE GLASSES: AN ALTERNATIVE FOR VITRIFYING CERTAIN NUCLEAR WASTES

Description: During the past year, iron phosphate glasses containing the following three types of nuclear waste, as recommended by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) group, have been investigated. (1) a high sodium/sulfate Hanford Low-Activity Waste (LAW) (2) a High Chrome Waste (HCW) at Hanford, and (3) a Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Over three hundred trial melts, ranging in size from 50 g to more than 10 kg, have been evaluated. The experimental work consisted of (1) evaluating the melting behavior and characteristics, (2) measurement of the viscosity and electrical conductivity of promising melts over their melting range, (3) determining the chemical durability by the PCT and VHT methods of both glassy and partially crystallized iron phosphate wasteforms, (4) determining the solubility limit for chrome oxide in selected iron phosphate melts, (5) examining the feasibility of melting iron phosphate glasses by Cold Crucible Induction melting (CCIM), Hot Crucible Induction Melting (HCIM), and Microwave Melting, (6) and measuring the corrosion of Inconel 690 and 693, potential electrode materials, in an iron phosphate melt. In the past year, the results of the above experimental work have been described in eight technical papers and reports that have been submitted for publication.
Date: June 13, 2003
Creator: Day, Delbert E.; Ray, Chandra S.; Kim, Cheol-Woon & Zhu, Dongmei
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear data and measurements series.

Description: Results of measurements of neutron scattering from elemental rhenium are presented over two incident-energy regions: (1) 0.3-1.5 MeV, and (2) 4.5-10.0 MeV. The first of these supplements previously-reported work at this Laboratory, and the second consists of information in an entirely new energy range. These experimental results are interpreted in terms of optical-statistical and coupled-channels models, including consideration of dispersive effects, and of scalar and vector potentials. Some basic and applied physical implications of these considerations are discussed. Comparisons are made with other regional and/or global models, and with evaluated nuclear-data files used in applications.
Date: August 13, 2003
Creator: Smith, A. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Local Government Implementation of Long-Term Stewardship at Two DOE Facilities

Description: The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleaning up the radioactive and chemical contamination that resulted from the production of nuclear weapons. At more than one hundred sites throughout the country DOE will leave some contamination in place after the cleanup is complete. In order to protect human health and the environment from the remaining contamination DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), state environmental regulatory agencies, local governments, citizens and other entities will need to undertake long-term stewardship of such sites. Long-term stewardship includes a wide range of actions needed to protect human health in the environment for as long as the risk from the contamination remains above acceptable levels, such as barriers, caps, and other engineering controls and land use controls, signs, notices, records, and other institutional controls. In this report the Environmental Law Institute (ELI) and the Energy Communities Alliance (ECA) examine how local governments, state environmental agencies, and real property professionals implement long-term stewardship at two DOE facilities, Losa Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge Reservation.
Date: August 13, 2003
Creator: Pendergrass, John; Czebiniak, Roman; Mott, Kelly; Kirshenberg, Seth; Eidelman, Audrey; Lamb, Zachary et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

Description: The objective of this project is to: (1) Develop a database of additional and better maturity indicators for paleo-heat flow calibration; (2) Develop maturation models capable of predicting the chemical composition of hydrocarbons produced by a specific kerogen as a function of maturity, heating rate, etc.; assemble a compositional kinetic database of representative kerogens; (3) Develop a 4 phase equation of state-flash model that can define the physical properties (viscosity, density, etc.) of the products of kerogen maturation, and phase transitions that occur along secondary migration pathways; (4) Build a conventional basin model and incorporate new maturity indicators and data bases in a user-friendly way; (5) Develop an algorithm which combines the volume change and viscosities of the compositional maturation model to predict the chemistry of the hydrocarbons that will be expelled from the kerogen to the secondary migration pathways; (6) Develop an algorithm that predicts the flow of hydrocarbons along secondary migration pathways, accounts for mixing of miscible hydrocarbon components along the pathway, and calculates the phase fractionation that will occur as the hydrocarbons move upward down the geothermal and fluid pressure gradients in the basin; and (7) Integrate the above components into a functional model implemented on a PC or low cost workstation.
Date: February 13, 2003
Creator: Blanco, Mario; Cathles, Lawrence; Manhardt, Paul; Meulbroek, Peter & Tang, Yongchun
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Axial Pressure Drop Measurements during Pilot-Scale Testing of a Mott Crossflow Filter

Description: The Department of Energy selected caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) as the preferred cesium removal technology for Savannah River Site waste. As a pretreatment step for the CSSX flowsheet, personnel contact the incoming salt solution that contains entrained sludge with monosodium titanate (MST) to adsorb strontium and select actinides. They filter the resulting slurry to remove the sludge and MST. The conclusions from this work is detailed in this report.
Date: May 13, 2003
Creator: Poirier, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

First PGAA and NAA experimental results from a compact high intensity D-D neutron generator

Description: Various types of neutron generator systems have been designed and tested at the Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. These generators are based on a D-D fusion reaction. These high power D-D neutron generators can provide neutron fluxes in excess of the current state of the art D-T neutron generators, without the use of pre-loaded targets or radioactive tritium gas. Safe and reliable long-life operations are the typical features of these D-D generators. All of the neutron generators developed in the Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group are utilizing powerful RF-induction discharge to generate the deuterium plasma. One of the advantages of using the RF-induction discharge is it's ability to generate high fraction of atomic ions from molecular gases, and the ability to generate high plasma densities for high extractable ion current from relatively small discharge volume.
Date: May 13, 2003
Creator: Reijonen, J.; Leung, K.-N.; Firestone, R.B.; English, J.A.; Perry, D.L.; Smith, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

Description: The objective of this project is to: (1) Develop a database of additional and better maturity indicators for paleo-heat flow calibration; (2) Develop maturation models capable of predicting the chemical composition of hydrocarbons produced by a specific kerogen as a function of maturity, heating rate, etc.; assemble a compositional kinetic database of representative kerogens; (3) Develop a 4 phase equation of state-flash model that can define the physical properties (viscosity, density, etc.) of the products of kerogen maturation, and phase transitions that occur along secondary migration pathways; (4) Build a conventional basin model and incorporate new maturity indicators and data bases in a user-friendly way; (5) Develop an algorithm which combines the volume change and viscosities of the compositional maturation model to predict the chemistry of the hydrocarbons that will be expelled from the kerogen to the secondary migration pathways; (6) Develop an algorithm that predicts the flow of hydrocarbons along secondary migration pathways, accounts for mixing of miscible hydrocarbon components along the pathway, and calculates the phase fractionation that will occur as the hydrocarbons move upward down the geothermal and fluid pressure gradients in the basin; and (7) Integrate the above components into a functional model implemented on a PC or low cost workstation.
Date: February 13, 2003
Creator: Blanco, Mario; Cathles, Lawrence; Manhardt, Paul; Meulbroek, Peter & Tang, Yongchun
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program 2002

Description: Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2002 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report.
Date: May 13, 2003
Creator: West, W. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of E-Area Slit Trench Performance Under As-Filled Conditions

Description: Waste acceptance criteria for the E-Area Slit Trenches are based on a Performance Assessment and subsequent Special Analyses. The purpose of this Special Study is to assess the performance of E-Area Slit Trenches under as-filled conditions in Slit Trenches 1, and compare predicted peak aquifer concentration to PA results.
Date: August 13, 2003
Creator: Flach, G.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of the Auger Recombination Rate in p-type 0.54-eV GaInAsSb by Time-Resolved Photoluminescence

Description: Auger recombination in p-type GaSb, InAs and their alloys is enhanced due to the proximity of the bandgap energy and the energy separation to the spin split-off valence band. This can affect the device performance even at moderate doping concentration. They report electron lifetime measurements in a p-type 0.54-eV GaInAsSb alloy, commonly used in a variety of infrared devices. They have studied a series of double-capped heterostructures with varied thicknesses and doping levels, grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy on GaSb substrates. The Auger coefficient value of 2.3 x 10{sup -28} cm{sup 6}/s is determined by analyzing the photoluminescence decay constants with a systematic separation of different recombination mechanisms.
Date: June 13, 2003
Creator: Anikeev, S.; Donetsky, D.; Belenky, G.; Luryi, S.; Wang, C.A.; Borrego, J.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accounting for fuel price risk: Using forward natural gas prices instead of gas price forecasts to compare renewable to natural gas-fired generation

Description: Against the backdrop of increasingly volatile natural gas prices, renewable energy resources, which by their nature are immune to natural gas fuel price risk, provide a real economic benefit. Unlike many contracts for natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation is typically sold under fixed-price contracts. Assuming that electricity consumers value long-term price stability, a utility or other retail electricity supplier that is looking to expand its resource portfolio (or a policymaker interested in evaluating different resource options) should therefore compare the cost of fixed-price renewable generation to the hedged or guaranteed cost of new natural gas-fired generation, rather than to projected costs based on uncertain gas price forecasts. To do otherwise would be to compare apples to oranges: by their nature, renewable resources carry no natural gas fuel price risk, and if the market values that attribute, then the most appropriate comparison is to the hedged cost of natural gas-fired generation. Nonetheless, utilities and others often compare the costs of renewable to gas-fired generation using as their fuel price input long-term gas price forecasts that are inherently uncertain, rather than long-term natural gas forward prices that can actually be locked in. This practice raises the critical question of how these two price streams compare. If they are similar, then one might conclude that forecast-based modeling and planning exercises are in fact approximating an apples-to-apples comparison, and no further consideration is necessary. If, however, natural gas forward prices systematically differ from price forecasts, then the use of such forecasts in planning and modeling exercises will yield results that are biased in favor of either renewable (if forwards < forecasts) or natural gas-fired generation (if forwards > forecasts). In this report we compare the cost of hedging natural gas price risk through traditional gas-based hedging instruments (e.g., futures, swaps, and fixed-price physical supply ...
Date: August 13, 2003
Creator: Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan & Golove, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Testing of the SpinTek Rotary Microfilter Using Actual Waste

Description: The Department of Energy selected caustic-side solvent extraction (CSSX) as the preferred cesium-removal technology for SRS high-level waste. In the pretreatment step of the CSSX flowsheet, the incoming salt solution, which contains entrained sludge, is contacted with MST to adsorb strontium and selected actinides. An alternative approach replaces MST with the addition of sodium permanganate, strontium nitrate, and hydrogen peroxide. The pretreatment operation then filters the resulting slurry to remove the sludge and MST or manganese oxide and strontium carbonate solids. The filtrate receives further treatment in the solvent extraction system
Date: May 13, 2003
Creator: Herman, D.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building 773-A, Lab F003 Glovebox Project Radiological Design Summary Report

Description: Engineering Standards present the radiological design criteria and requirements, which must be satisfied for all SRS facility designs. The radiological design criteria and requirements specified in the standard are based on the Code of Federal Regulations, DOE Orders, Site manuals, other applicable standards, and various DOE guides and handbooks. This report contains top-level requirements for the various areas of radiological protection for workers. For the purposes of demonstrating compliance with these requirements, the designer must examine the requirement for the design and either incorporate or provide a technical justification as to why the requirement is not incorporated. This document reports a radiological design review for the STREAK lab glovebox upgrades of inlet ventilation, additional mechanical and electrical services, new glovebox instrumentation and alarms. This report demonstrates that the gloveboxes meet the radiological design requirements of Engineering Standards.
Date: November 13, 2003
Creator: Gaul, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

Description: Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL.
Date: January 13, 2003
Creator: Croft, Stephen; Martancik, David; Young, Brian; Chard, Patrick M. J.; Estop, Robert J.; Melton, Sheila et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department