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Tax-Advantaged Accounts for Health Care Expenses: Side-by-Side Comparison

Description: This report provides brief summaries and background information about four accounts related to medical expenses: Health Savings Accounts (HSAs), Archer Medical Savings Accounts (MSAs), Flexible Spending Accounts (FSAs), and Health Reimbursement Accounts (HRAs). It also compares them with respect to characteristics such as eligibility, contribution limits, and use of funds.
Date: August 10, 2004
Creator: Lyke, Bob & Peterson, Chris L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA): Resources for Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This report provides resources to help congressional staff respond to constituents' frequently asked questions (FAQs) about the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA; P.L. 111-148, as amended). The report lists selected resources regarding consumers, employers, and other stakeholders, with a focus on federal sources. It also lists Congressional Research Service (CRS) reports that summarize the ACA's provisions. The resources are arranged by topic.
Date: December 10, 2014
Creator: Napili, Angela
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of the Annual Appropriations Process to Block Implementation of the Affordable Care Act (FY2011-FY2016)

Description: Congress remains deeply divided over implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), the health reform law enacted in March 2010. Since the ACA's enactment, lawmakers opposed to specific provisions in the ACA or the entire law have repeatedly debated its implementation and considered bills to repeal, defund, delay, or otherwise amend the law. This report summarizes the ACA-related language added to annual appropriations legislation by congressional appropriators since the ACA was signed into law.
Date: July 10, 2015
Creator: Redhead, C. S. & Cornell, Ada S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prescription Drugs: Trends in Usual and Customary Prices for Commonly Used Drugs

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Prescription drug spending in 2009 totaled approximately $250 billion, of which $78 billion--or about 31 percent--was spent by the federal government. Prescription drug spending by the federal government, patients, and third-party payers, including employers, is driven by many factors, including the prices paid for drugs. In 2007 we reported on trends in retail prices--known as usual and customary (U&C) prices--for prescription drugs. We found that the average U&C price for the commonly used brand-name prescription drugs we reviewed increased about 6 percent per year from January 2000 through January 2007. Some media reports have suggested that prescription drug prices may have increased more during the debate leading up to passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) in March 2010 compared to other recent years. We were requested to examine recent trends in drug prices for brand-name and generic pharmaceuticals. In this report, we (1) examine U&C price trends for commonly used prescription drugs from 2006 through the first quarter of 2010, the latest available data at the time of our analysis, and compare these trends to those of other medical consumer goods and services, and (2) examine price trends using drug prices other than U&C. Congress also asked us to provide information on the extent to which prices for individual brand-name drugs changed over the course of this analysis period. In order to determine U&C price trends from 2006 through the first quarter of 2010, we selected four baskets of drugs that were commonly used by consumers during our analysis period. To select our baskets, we used prescription drug utilization data from the Blue Cross Blue Shield Federal Employee Program (BCBS FEP), a large, nationwide insurance plan that covers nearly 5 million individuals. We selected ...
Date: February 10, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Employees Compensation: Many Claims Have Been Processed, but Action Is Needed to Expedite Processing of Claims Requiring Radiation Exposure Estimates

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Subtitle B of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act, administered by the Department of Labor (Labor), provides eligible workers who developed illnesses from their work, or their survivors, with a onetime total payment of $150,000, and coverage for medical expenses related to the illnesses. For some claims, Labor uses radiation exposure estimates (dose reconstructions) performed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), part of the Department of Health and Human Services' (HHS) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), to determine if the illness claimed was "as least as likely as not" related to employment at a covered facility. GAO was asked to determine (1) how well Labor's procedures and practices ensure the timely and consistent processing of claims that are not referred to NIOSH for dose reconstruction but are being processed by Labor and (2) how well Labor's and NIOSH's procedures and practices ensure the timely and consistent processing of claims that are referred for dose reconstruction. GAO did not assess the quality of Labor's claims decisions."
Date: September 10, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan: Comparison of Implementation and Early Enrollment with the Children's Health Insurance Program

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The federal Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan (PCIP) was created in 2010 to provide access to insurance for individuals previously unable to acquire coverage due to pre-existing conditions. Eligibility is limited to those who have been uninsured for at least 6 months prior to application, thus focusing the program on those who have been locked out of the private insurance market. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), enacted in March 2010, required the establishment of the PCIP program. The program will provide coverage through the end of 2013, at which point enrollees will be guaranteed access to plans offered in the private market. States were given the option to run their own PCIP with federal funding or allow the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to run the program in their state. Early estimates by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) suggested that the program could cover an average of 200,000 individuals per year with the $5 billion appropriated in PPACA, but that demand would likely be greater. In July 2011, we reported on various aspects of the implementation of the PCIP program, including initial enrollment and spending trends, program features, and federal oversight. As part of that work we interviewed PCIP officials from states with and without existing high risk pools (HRP) about the steps taken to implement PCIP in their states. As a new federal program, there is interest both in how the PCIP program has been implemented and how its implementation compares to another publicly funded insurance program--the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP). CHIP was authorized in August 1997 to reduce the number of low-income uninsured children in families with incomes too high to qualify for Medicaid. Like Medicaid, CHIP is funded jointly by ...
Date: November 10, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medicaid: Alternative Measures Could Be Used to Allocate Funding More Equitably

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "GAO identified multiple data sources that could be used to develop measures to allocate Medicaid funding to states more equitably than the current funding formula--known as the Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (FMAP)--which is based solely on per capita income (PCI). To be equitable from the perspective of beneficiaries and allow states to provide a comparable level of services to each person in need, a funding allocation mechanism should take into account the demand for services in each state and geographic cost differences among states. To be equitable from the perspective of taxpayers, an allocation mechanism should ensure that taxpayers in poorer states are not more heavily burdened than those in wealthier ones, by taking into account state resources. To illustrate, GAO identified at least one federal data source that could be used to develop measures of each of these aspects, in order to allocate Medicaid funding more equitably."
Date: May 10, 2013
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medicare Program Integrity: CMS Continues Efforts to Strengthen the Screening of Providers and Suppliers

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Medicare claims are screened against enrollment information, using automated enrollment-related prepayment edits, in an effort to prevent improper payments to ineligible providers and suppliers—such as those that are no longer active in the Medicare program or are not properly licensed to provide the services for which they have submitted claims. Officials with the contractors we interviewed described the use of several types of prepayment edits to ensure that claims data are valid. For example, verification edits are intended to check the provider’s National Provider Identifier (NPI), which indicates whether the claim was submitted by an active provider or supplier. However, factors such as the frequency with which contractors have updated provider and supplier enrollment information and limitations of the data used may affect the timeliness and accuracy of data used to screen claims—in turn limiting the ability of the edits to prevent improper payments from occurring. For example, to update information maintained in the Provider Enrollment, Chain and Ownership System (PECOS)—CMS’s centralized database for Medicare enrollment information—the contractors have relied on a variety of data sources that vary in the frequency with which they are updated and the ease with which the data can be accessed. We have previously reported concerns about the accuracy of the enrollment information in PECOS and recommended CMS increase its oversight of its contractors’ provider and supplier enrollment activities. CMS acknowledged these concerns and indicated that the agency is working to address these issues."
Date: April 10, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medicaid: Prototype Formula Would Provide Automatic, Targeted Assistance to States during Economic Downturns

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In response to the recession of 2007, Congress passed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act). Recovery Act funds provided states with fiscal relief and helped to maintain state Medicaid programs through a temporary increase to the federal share of Medicaid funding-the Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (FMAP)-from October 2008 through December 2010. In March 2011, GAO reported that states' ability to fund Medicaid was hampered due to increased Medicaid enrollment and declines in states' revenues that typically occur during a national downturn. The Recovery Act mandated that GAO provide recommendations for modifying the increased FMAP formula to make it more responsive to state Medicaid program needs during future economic downturns. In this report, GAO presents a prototype formula for a temporary increased FMAP and evaluates its effects on the allocation of assistance to states. To evaluate the three components of the prototype formula--starting assistance, targeting assistance, and ending assistance-- GAO uses the 2007 recession."
Date: November 10, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drug Shortages: Threat to Public Health Persists, Despite Actions to Help Maintain Product Availability

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The number of drug shortages remains high. Although reports of new drug shortages declined in 2012, the total number of shortages active during a given year—including both new shortages reported and ongoing shortages that began in a prior year—has increased since 2007. Many shortages are of generic sterile injectable drugs. Provider association representatives reported that drug shortages may force providers to ration care or face difficulties finding alternative drugs."
Date: February 10, 2014
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Health Care Fraud and Abuse Control Program: Improvements Needed in Controls over Reporting Deposits and Expenditures

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "To help combat fraud and abuse in health care programs, including Medicare and Medicaid, Congress enacted the Health Care Fraud and Abuse Control (HCFAC) program as part of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA). HIPAA requires that the Departments of Health and Human Services (HHS) and Justice (DOJ) issue a joint annual report to Congress on amounts deposited to and appropriated from the Federal Hospital Insurance (HI) Trust Fund for the HCFAC program. In April 2005, GAO reported on the results of its review of HCFAC program activities for fiscal years 2002 and 2003 and made recommendations to HHS and DOJ. The objectives of this requested review were to assess the extent to which HHS and DOJ (1) took actions to address the recommendations made in the 2005 report and (2) designed effective controls over reporting HCFAC deposits and expenditures for fiscal years 2008 and 2009. GAO reviewed HHS and DOJ documentation; selected nongeneralizable samples; and interviewed agency officials."
Date: May 10, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Health Care: Adequacy of Pharmacy, Laboratory, and Radiology Workforce Supply Difficult to Determine

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Concerns have been growing about the supply of health care workers and the future needs of an aging population. Shortages of nurses and nurse aides, the two largest categories of health care workers, are of particular concern. Although the number of pharmacists has grown during the past decade, the increasing demand for pharmacy services is outpacing the growth in supply, according to the Department of Health and Human Services. Provider and professional associations have reported high vacancy rates and a decline in new entrants to the laboratory and radiologic fields. However, employment and earnings data for laboratory and radiologic technologists and technicians do not indicate a balance of supply and demand for these workers. Demographic changes, technological advances, and management decisions on how staff and technology are used will affect the future demand for health care workers."
Date: October 10, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medicare Outpatient Therapy: Implementation of the 2012 Manual Medical Review Process

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented two types of manual medical reviews (MMR)--reviews of preapproval requests and reviews of claims submitted without preapproval--for all outpatient therapy services that were above a $3,700 per-beneficiary threshold provided during the last 3 months of 2012. However, CMS did not issue complete guidance on how to process preapproval requests before the implementation of the MMR process in October 2012, and the Medicare Administrative Contractors (MAC) that conducted the MMRs were unable to fully automate systems for tracking preapproval requests in the time allotted. CMS required the MACs to manually review preapproval requests within 10 business days of receipt of all supporting documentation to determine whether the services were medically necessary, and to automatically approve any requests they were unable to review within that time frame. CMS officials told GAO that the purpose of the preapproval process was to protect beneficiaries from being liable for payment for nonaffirmed services by giving the provider and beneficiary guidance as to whether Medicare would pay for the requested services. If a provider delivered services without submitting a preapproval request, the MACs were required to manually review submitted claims above the $3,700 threshold prior to payment within 60 days of receiving the needed documentation. The MACs faced particular challenges with implementing reviews of preapproval requests because CMS continued to issue new guidance on how to manage preapproval requests after the MMR process started. For example, CMS did not inform the MACs how to process incomplete requests or count the 10-day preapproval request review time frame until November 7, 2012, and the MACs initially handled requests differently. In addition, all three MACs GAO interviewed told GAO that MMRs of preapproval requests were especially ...
Date: July 10, 2013
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Institutes of Health: Employment and Other Impacts Reported by NIH Recovery Act Grantees

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) included $8.2 billion in funding for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to be used to support additional scientific research-including extramural grants at universities and other research institutions. In 2009, the Acting Director of NIH testified that each extramural grant awarded with Recovery Act funding had the potential of supporting employment--full- or part-time scientific jobs--in addition to other impacts, such as contributing to advances in improving public health. GAO was asked to examine the use of Recovery Act funds by NIH grantees. Specifically, GAO addresses the information available from NIH and its grantees about the extent to which NIH Recovery Act funding (1) supported jobs, and (2) had other impacts. To obtain information on job impacts, GAO reviewed a database containing information NIH Recovery Act grantees reported to the national data collection system and interviewed NIH officials. To obtain more specific jobs information about individual grants, GAO administered a Web-based data collection instrument to 50 selected principal investigators who direct research at grantee institutions--10 principal investigators at each of five selected grantee institutions. The selected principal investigators had generally received awards of $500,000 or more. To obtain information on other Recovery Act impacts, GAO used information from the data collection instrument and interviewed NIH officials."
Date: November 10, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drug Shortages: Public Health Threat Continues, Despite Efforts to Help Ensure Product Availability

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The number of drug shortages remains high. Although reports of new drug shortages declined in 2012, the total number of shortages active during a given year—including both new shortages reported and ongoing shortages that began in a prior year—has increased since 2007. Many shortages are of generic sterile injectable drugs. Provider association representatives reported that drug shortages may force providers to ration care or rely on less effective drugs."
Date: February 10, 2014
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Children's Mental Health: Concerns Remain about Appropriate Services for Children in Medicaid and Foster Care

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "An annual average of 6.2 percent of noninstitutionalized children in Medicaid nationwide and 4.8 percent of privately insured children took one or more psychotropic medications, according to GAO's analysis of 2007-2009 data from the Department of Health and Human Services' (HHS) Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). MEPS data also showed that children in Medicaid took antipsychotic medications (a type of psychotropic medication that can help some children but has a risk of serious side effects) at a relatively low rate--1.3 percent of children--but that the rate for children in Medicaid was over twice the rate for privately insured children, which was 0.5 percent. In addition, MEPS data showed that most children whose emotions or behavior, as reported by their parent or guardian, indicated a potential need for a mental health service did not receive any services within the same year. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) and many states have initiatives under way to help ensure that children receive appropriate mental health treatments. However, CMS's ability to monitor children's receipt of mental health services is limited because CMS does not collect information from states on whether children in Medicaid have received services for which they were referred. GAO recommended in 2011 that CMS identify options for collecting such data from state Medicaid programs. Findings in this report underscore the continued importance of CMS's monitoring of children's receipt of mental health services."
Date: December 10, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

VA Health Care: Ineffective Controls over Medical Center Billings and Collections Limit Revenue from Third-Party Insurance Companies

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "GAO previously reported that continuing problems in billing and collection processes at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) impaired VA's ability to maximize revenue from private (third-party) insurance companies. VA has undertaken several initiatives to address these weaknesses. GAO was asked to perform a follow-up audit to (1) evaluate VA billing controls, (2) assess VA-wide controls for collections, (3) determine the effectiveness of VA-wide oversight, and (4) provide information on the status of key VA improvement initiatives. GAO performed case study analyses of the third-party billing function, statistically tested controls over collections, and reviewed current oversight policies and procedures. GAO also reviewed and summarized VA information on the status of key management initiatives to enhance third-party revenue."
Date: June 10, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute: Review of the Audit of the Financial Statements for 2011 and 2010

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "PCORI received an unqualified audit opinion on its 2011 and 2010 financial statements. In its audit of PCORI’s financial statements, the IPA found that the financial statements were presented fairly, in all material respects, and there was no reportable noncompliance with selected provisions of laws and regulations the IPA tested as part of its audit. However, the IPA identified a deficiency in PCORI’s internal control over financial reporting related to PCORI reporting on its receipt of appropriated funds. The IPA determined the deficiency to be significant enough to constitute a material weakness. We found no instances in which the IPA did not comply, in all material respects, with U.S. generally accepted auditing standards and generally accepted government auditing standards in the conduct of the financial statement audit. In e-mailed comments from PCORI’s Director of Finance, PCORI stated that the identified deficiency in financial reporting related to appropriations received resulted from uncertainty over differences between the federal government’s and PCORI’s fiscal years and cited action taken to adjust its records to correct the deficiency."
Date: May 10, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Poverty Determination in U.S. Insular Areas

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Owing to high levels of poverty, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Guam, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) rely heavily on need-based federal programs to provide basic services. Two federal agencies publish measures used by some federal programs to determine poverty status and allocate need-based assistance: the Census Bureau (Census) publishes poverty thresholds--dollar-value benchmarks for determining poverty status--and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) provides poverty guidelines, which are derived from the poverty thresholds. The approaches used to determine these poverty measures affect, respectively, poverty population statistics and income eligibility of individuals and families for certain need-based federal assistance. The poverty thresholds apply nationwide and in the insular areas, with no geographic variation, while separate poverty guidelines for Alaska and Hawaii, but not for the insular areas, have been provided since 1970. We (1) examined how the Census poverty thresholds and HHS poverty guidelines are determined for the insular areas. In addition, we (2) considered the possibility of providing poverty thresholds and guidelines specific to the insular areas and identified the implications of extending to the insular areas the approach originally used to determine the Alaska and Hawaii guidelines."
Date: November 10, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

VA Long-Term Care: Oversight of Nursing Home Program Impeded by Data Gaps

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) operates a $2.3 billion nursing home program that provides or pays for veterans' care in three settings: VA nursing homes, community nursing homes, and state veterans' nursing homes. The Veterans Millennium Health Care and Benefits Act (Millennium Act) of 1999 and VA policy require that VA provide nursing home care to veterans with a certain eligibility. Congress has expressed a need for additional data to conduct oversight of VA's nursing home program. Specifically, for all VA nursing home settings in fiscal year 2003, GAO was asked to report on (1) VA spending to provide or pay for nursing home care, (2) VA workload provided or paid for, (3) the percentage of nursing home care that is long and short stay, and (4) the percentage of veterans receiving care required by the Millennium Act or VA policy."
Date: November 10, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Food and Drug Administration: Status of Actions to Address Property Control Weaknesses

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO followed up on the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) efforts to implement GAO's recommendations addressing FDA's property control weaknesses."
Date: August 10, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medicare Part D: CMS Has Implemented Processes to Oversee Plan Finder Pricing Accuracy and Improve Website Usability

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), the agency within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) that administers Medicare, uses data checks and quality measures to oversee the accuracy of Part D plan pricing information on the Plan Finder interactive website. Part D sponsors may have multiple contracts with CMS to provide drug coverage, with each contract covering one or more distinct Part D plans, and CMS is responsible for overseeing plan sponsors' compliance with their Part D contracts. CMS requires Part D plan sponsors to submit drug pricing information for their plans, which Plan Finder uses to estimate beneficiaries' cost-sharing amounts and expected annual drug costs. To ensure the accuracy of this information,"
Date: January 10, 2014
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biological Laboratories: Design and Implementation Considerations for Safety Reporting Systems

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "As the number of biological labs increases, so too do the safety risks for lab workers. Data on these risks--collected through a safety reporting system (SRS) from reports of hazards, incidents, and accidents--can support safety efforts. However, no such system exists for all biological labs, and a limited system--managed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)--applies to only a subset of these labs. While a national SRS has been proposed, design and implementation are complex. In this context, GAO was asked to identify lessons from (1) the literature and (2) case studies; and to apply those lessons to (3) assess CDC and APHIS's theft, loss, or release (TLR) system for select agents, such as anthrax, and (4) suggest design and implementation considerations for a labwide SRS. To do its work, GAO analyzed SRS literature; conducted case studies of SRSs in aviation, commercial nuclear, and health care industries; and interviewed agency officials and biosafety specialists."
Date: September 10, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medicare: Little Progress Made in Targeting Outpatient Therapy Payments to Beneficiaries' Needs

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "For years, Congress has wrestled with rising Medicare costs and improper payments for outpatient therapy services--physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology. In 1997 Congress established per-person spending limits, or "therapy caps," for nonhospital outpatient therapy but, responding to concerns that some beneficiaries need extensive services, has since placed temporary moratoriums on the caps. The current moratorium is set to expire at the end of 2005. The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 required GAO to report on whether available information justifies waiving the caps for particular conditions or diseases. As agreed with the committees of jurisdiction, GAO also assessed the status of the Department of Health and Human Services' (HHS) efforts to develop a needs-based payment policy and whether circumstances leading to the caps have changed."
Date: November 10, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department