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Energy Smart Schools -- Applied Research, Field Testing, and Technology Integration Annual Report

Description: This multi-state collaborative project will coordinate federal, state, and private sector resources and high-priority school-related energy research under a comprehensive initiative that includes tasks that increase adoption of advanced energy efficiency high-performance technologies in both renovation of existing schools and building new ones; educate and inform school administrators, architects, engineers, and manufacturers nationwide as to the energy, economic, and environmental benefits of energy efficiency technologies; and improve the learning environment for the nation's students through use of better temperature controls, improvements in air quality, and increased daylighting in schools.
Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: Burke, Kate
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A prototype data archive for the PIER 'thermal distribution systems in commercial buildings' project

Description: A prototype archive for a selection of building energy data on thermal distribution systems in commercial buildings was developed and pilot tested. While the pilot demonstrated the successful development of the data archive prototype, several questions remain about the usefulness of such an archive. Specifically, questions on the audience, frequency of use, maintenance, and updating of the archive would need to be addressed before this prototype is taken to the next level.
Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: Diamond, Rick C.; Wray, Craig P.; Smith, Brian V.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Matson, Nance E. & Cox, Skylar A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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6th International Microbeam Workshop

Description: The extended abstracts which are submitted here present a summary of the proceedings of the 6th International Workshop/12th LH Gray Workshop: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response, held at St. Catherine's College, University of Oxford, UK on March, 29th-31st, 2003. In 1993 the 4th LH Gray Workshop entitled ''Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response'' was held at the Gray Cancer Institute in Northwood. This was organized by Prof BD Michael, Dr M. Folkard and Dr KM Prise and brought together 40 participants interested in developing and applying new microbeam technology to problems in radiation biology (1). The workshop was an undoubted success and has spawned a series of subsequent workshops every two years. In the past, these workshops have been highly successful in bringing together groups interested in developing and applying micro-irradiation techniques to the study of cell and tissue damage by ionizing radiations. Following the first microbeam workshop, there has been a rapid growth in the number of centres developing radiobiology microbeams, or planning to do so and there are currently 15-20 worldwide. Much of the recent research using microbeams has used them to study low-dose effects and ''non-targeted'' responses such bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses. The goal of the 6th workshop was to build on our knowledge of the development of microbeam approaches and the application to radiation biology in the future with the meeting stretching over a 3 day period. Over 80 participants reviewed the current state of radiobiology microbeam research worldwide and reported on new technological developments both in the fields of physics and biology.
Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: Prise, Dr Kevin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Utility green pricing programs: A statistical analysis of program effectiveness

Description: Development of renewable energy. Such programs have grown in number in recent years. The design features and effectiveness of these programs varies considerably, however, leading a variety of stakeholders to suggest specific marketing and program design features that might improve customer response and renewable energy sales. This report analyzes actual utility green pricing program data to provide further insight into which program features might help maximize both customer participation in green pricing programs and the amount of renewable energy purchased by customers in those programs. Statistical analysis is performed on both the residential and non-residential customer segments. Data comes from information gathered through a questionnaire completed for 66 utility green pricing programs in early 2003. The questionnaire specifically gathered data on residential and non-residential participation, amount of renewable energy sold, program length, the type of renewable supply used, program price/cost premiums, types of consumer research and program evaluation performed, different sign-up options available, program marketing efforts, and ancillary benefits offered to participants.
Date: February 1, 2004
Creator: Wiser, Ryan; Olson, Scott; Bird, Lori & Swezey, Blair
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Role of Dispersion in Radionuclide Transport - Data and Modeling Requirements: Revision No. 1

Description: This document is the collaborative effort of the members of an ad hoc subcommittee of the Underground Test Area Project Technical Working Group. This subcommittee was to answer questions and concerns raised by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, regarding Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Units (CAUs) 101 and 102. The document attempts to synthesize the combined comments made by each member of this subcommittee into insights made in the role of dispersion in radionuclide transport data and modeling. Dispersion is one of many processes that control the concentration of radionuclides in groundwater beneath the Nevada Test Site where CAUs 101 and 102 are located. In order to understand the role of dispersion in radionuclide transport, there is a critical need for CAU- or site-specific data related to transport parameters which is currently lacking, particularly in the case of Western a nd Central Pahute Mesa. The purpose of this technical basis document is to: (1) define dispersion and its role in contaminant transport, (2) present a synopsis of field-scale dispersion measurements, (3) provide a literature review of theories to explain field-scale dispersion, (4) suggest approaches to account for dispersion in CAU-scale radionuclide modeling, and (5) to determine if additional dispersion measurements should be made at this time.
Date: February 1, 2004
Creator: Venture, Stoller-Navarro Joint
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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TDNA Monthly Office Manager's Report: Febraury/March 2004

Description: Monthly report written by the Texas Daily Newspaper Association's (TDNA's) office manager, Darla Thompson, to Phil Berkebile providing a summary of revenues and account balances, programs, meetings, and other activities in the office during the previous month.
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Thompson, Darla
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections
open access

A review of market monitoring activities at U.S. independent system operators

Description: Policymakers have increasingly recognized the structural impediments to effective competition in electricity markets, which has resulted in a renewed emphasis on the need for careful market design and market monitoring in wholesale and retail electricity markets. In this study, we review the market monitoring activities of four Independent System Operators in the United States, focusing on such topics as the organization of an independent market monitoring unit (MMU), the role and value of external market monitors, performance metrics and indices to aid in market analysis, issues associated with access to confidential market data, and market mitigation and investigation authority. There is consensus across the four ISOs that market monitoring must be organizationally independent from market participants and that ISOs should have authority to apply some degree of corrective actions on the market, though scope and implementation differ across the ISOs. Likewise, current practices regarding access to confidential market data by state energy regulators varies somewhat by ISO. Drawing on our interviews and research, we present five examples that illustrate the impact and potential contribution of ISO market monitoring activities to enhance functioning of wholesale electricity markets. We also discuss several key policy and implementation issues that Western state policymakers and regulators should consider as market monitoring activities evolve in the West.
Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Goldman, Charles & Bartholomew, Emily
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

Description: Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding in the swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to the naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of the injected solution bypasses the target pore space containing oil. The objective of this work is to investigate whether combining these two technologies could broaden the applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium--polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 9.2 to 12.9.
Date: May 1, 2004
Creator: Pitts, Malcolm; Qui, Jie; Wilson, Dan & Dowling, Phil
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration by Mechanochemical Carbonation of Mineral Silicates

Description: The University of Utah and the University of Idaho investigated the carbonation of silicate minerals by mechanochemical processing. This method uses intense grinding, and has the potential of being much less expensive than other methods of mineral sequestration. Tests were conducted in three types of grinding devices. In these tests, natural and synthetic silicate compounds were ground for varying times in the presence of gaseous CO{sub 2}. A significant change takes place in the lizardite variety of serpentine after 15 to 20 minutes of intense grinding in the presence of gaseous CO{sub 2}. The X-ray diffraction spectrum of lizardite thus treated was much different than that of the untreated mineral. This spectrum could not be identified as that of any natural or synthetic material. Laboratory analyses showed that small amounts of carbon are fixed by grinding lizardite, forsterite, and wollastonite (all naturally-occurring minerals), and synthetic magnesium silicate, in the presence of gaseous CO{sub 2}. It was thus concluded that further investigation was warranted, and a follow-up proposal was submitted to the Department of Energy under solicitation number.
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Nelson, Michael G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

An overview of alternative fossil fuel price and carbon regulation scenarios

Description: The benefits of the Department of Energy's research and development (R&D) efforts have historically been estimated under business-as-usual market and policy conditions. In recognition of the insurance value of R&D, however, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) have been exploring options for evaluating the benefits of their R&D programs under an array of alternative futures. More specifically, an FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group (the Working Group) has proposed to EERE and FE staff the application of an initial set of three scenarios for use in the Working Group's upcoming analyses: (1) a Reference Case Scenario, (2) a High Fuel Price Scenario, which includes heightened natural gas and oil prices, and (3) a Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario. The immediate goal is to use these scenarios to conduct a pilot analysis of the benefits of EERE and FE R&D efforts. In this report, the two alternative scenarios being considered by EERE and FE staff--carbon cap-and-trade and high fuel prices--are compared to other scenarios used by energy analysts and utility planners. The report also briefly evaluates the past accuracy of fossil fuel price forecasts. We find that the natural gas prices through 2025 proposed in the FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group's High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable based on current natural gas prices and other externally generated gas price forecasts and scenarios. If anything, an even more extreme gas price scenario might be considered. The price escalation from 2025 to 2050 within the proposed High Fuel Price Scenario is harder to evaluate, primarily because few existing forecasts or scenarios extend beyond 2025, but, at first blush, it also appears reasonable. Similarly, we find that the oil prices originally proposed by the Working Group in the High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable, if …
Date: October 1, 2004
Creator: Wiser, Ryan & Bolinger, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Non Invasive estimation of aluminum concentration in Hall-Heroult reduction cells

Description: The present best practice for the preparation of primary aluminum is by electrolysis of alumina in the traditional Hall-Heroult reduction cell. The process conditions in the electrolyte of this cell required for the reduction to proceed are sufficiently harsh to have precluded the implementation of in situ sensing of the electrolyte composition, specifically the concentration of the ionized alumina. This report reveals the theoretical basis for a non-invasive method for estimation of the ionized alumina concentration which does not require the use of any sensor in direct contact with the cell electrolyte. The proposed method can in principle be applied with equal efficacy to the so-called drained cathode cell designs and to cells having any anode composition, because only knowledge of the electrolyte conduction behavior is required a priori. For an operating cell, the proposed method requires only readily available electrical measurements and the facilities to process the acquired signals. The proposed method rests on the ability to identify certain characteristics of the transients in the reduction cell terminal voltages caused by the quasiperiodic introduction of alumina. It will be shown that these voltage transients manifest measurable properties, in a statistical sense, that should permit estimation of the ionized alumina concentration with a delay of one alumina feed cycle. The next logical step following the present work, consistent with the Aluminum Technology Roadmap [1], is to experimentally verify the predictions made here; no doubt practical refinements to the proposed approach will evolve during the course of experimentation. Successful verification of the proposed estimation method will permit the design of reduction cell control algorithms based directly on the mass balance of alumina in the electrolyte. This report assumes that the reader understands certain basic concepts important to the operation of electrolytic cells, and the Hall-Heroult cell in particular. References [2,3] provide …
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Bell, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 543: Liquid Disposal Units Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with ROTC 1 and 2

Description: This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S Department of Defense (DoD). Corrective Action Unit 543 is located in Area 6 and Area 15 of the NTS, which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Seven corrective action sites (CASs) comprise CAU 543 and are listed below: (1) 06-07-01, Decon Pad; (2) 15-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank; (3) 15-04-01, Septic Tank; (4) 15-05-01, Leachfield; (5) 15-08-01, Liquid Manure Tank; (6) 15-23-01, Underground Radioactive Material Area; and (7) 15-23-03, Contaminated Sump, Piping. Corrective Action Site 06-07-01, Decon Pad, is located in Area 6 and consists of the Area 6 Decontamination Facility and its components that are associated with decontamination of equipment, vehicles, and materials related to nuclear testing. The six CASs in Area 15 are located at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm and are related to waste disposal activities at the EPA Farm. The EPA Farm was a fully-functional dairy associated with animal experiments conducted at the on-site laboratory. The corrective action investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, video-mole surveys, and sampling of media, where appropriate. Data will also be obtained to support waste management decisions. The CASs within CAU 543 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present at concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The seven CASs in CAU 543 primarily consist of sanitary and process waste collection, storage, …
Date: May 1, 2004
Creator: Strand, David A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Fundamentals of Reservoir Surface Energy as Related to Surface Properties, Wettability, Capillary Action, and Oil Recovery From Fractured Reservoirs by Spontaneous Imbibition Quarterly Report

Description: The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the nonwetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed-wet rocks. Imbibition measurements will include …
Date: May 1, 2004
Creator: Morrow, Norman R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance

Description: In this first year of funding, progress has been made towards the stated project goal of generating useful sulfate extractants. A new series of bispyrrole-pyridine sulfate anion receptors was discovered and found to show very high sulfate-to-nitrate selectivity, a key prerequisite to generating a useful extractant. Progress was made towards developing the synthetic methodology needed to solubilize this system and other known receptors prepared by project collaborator, Prof. Kristin Bowman-James.
Date: December 1, 2004
Creator: Sessler, Jonathan L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

Description: Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. Characterizations of dry PFS synthesized from SO{sub 2} show the PFS possesses amorphous structure, which is desired for it to be a good coagulant in water and wastewater treatment. A series of lab-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of PFS synthesized from waste sulfur dioxide, ferrous sulfate and sodium chlorate. The performance assessments were based on the comparison of PFS and other conventional and new coagulants for the removal of turbidity and arsenic under different laboratory coagulant conditions. Pilot plant studies were conducted at Des Moines Water Works in Iowa and at the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic (I&D) Water Treatment Plant in Port Wentworth, Georgia. PFS performances were compared with those of conventional coagulants. The tests in both water treatment plants have shown that PFS is, in general, comparable or better than other coagulants in removal of turbidity and organic substances. The corrosion behavior of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) prepared from SO{sub 2} and ferric chloride (FC) were compared. Results showed that …
Date: November 1, 2004
Creator: Brown, Robert C.; Fan, Maohong & Cooper, Adrienne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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TAPE CALENDERING MANUFACTURING PROCESS FOR MULTILAYER THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

Description: This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC during the Phases I and II under Contract DE-AC26-00NT40705 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Tape Calendering Manufacturing Process For Multilayer Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells''. The main objective of this project was to develop the manufacturing process based on tape calendering for multilayer solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) using the unitized cell design concept and to demonstrate cell performance under specified operating conditions. Summarized in this report is the development and improvements to multilayer SOFC cells and the unitized cell design. Improvements to the multilayer SOFC cell were made in electrochemical performance, in both the anode and cathode, with cells demonstrating power densities of nearly 0.9 W/cm{sup 2} for 650 C operation and other cell configurations showing greater than 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 75% fuel utilization and 800 C. The unitized cell design was matured through design, analysis and development testing to a point that cell operation at greater than 70% fuel utilization was demonstrated at 800 C. The manufacturing process for both the multilayer cell and unitized cell design were assessed and refined, process maps were developed, forming approaches explored, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques examined.
Date: October 1, 2004
Creator: Minh, Nguyen & Montgomery, Kurt
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Comparison of Residual Saturation and Capillary Pressure Model for Granular Materials with UNSODA Data

Description: The capillary pressure model correlates drainage and imbibition data from the UNSODA database, provided that the data incorporate the entry head, a minimum displacement required for drainage to begin. According to the model, the imbibition pressure equals the drainage pressures at a critical minimum saturation of 0.301; below this critical saturation, no additional reversible drainage should occur. Some of the UNSODA data sets had a minimum saturation approximately half this value. The difference is attributed to the presence of fissures, which would lower the residual wetting and critical minimum saturations by reducing the fraction of the void volume controlled by capillary pores. If the UNSODA saturations are adjusted for this discrepancy, a probability distribution of minimum saturations for each data set peaks near the predicted critical minimum saturation. Maximum saturations for each data set have a peak near the predicted residual nonwetting saturation of 0.884.
Date: November 1, 2004
Creator: LAURINAT, JAMESE.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Assessment of Impacts from Updating North Dakota’s Residential Energy Code to Comply with the 2000 International Energy Conservation Code

Description: The current North Dakota state energy code is the Council of American Building Officials (CABO) 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) (CABO 1993). Local jurisdictions can choose to adopt this code. CABO has been transformed into the International Code Council (ICC) and the MEC has been renamed the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). The most recent edition of the code is the 2003 IECC (ICC 2003). North Dakota's Department of Community Services requested that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) compare the 1993 MEC with the 2000 IECC to estimate impacts from updating North Dakota's residential energy code to comply with the new code. Under DOE's direction, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) completed an assessment of the impacts from this potential code upgrade, including impacts on construction and energy consumption costs.
Date: May 1, 2004
Creator: Lucas, Robert G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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