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9-11 Commission Hearing #1, April 1, 2003, Part 2

Description: Recording of the first public hearing held by the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States on April 1, 2003 at the Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House in New York City. This hearing specifically addresses the topics of borders, money, and transportation; law enforcement, domestic intelligence, and homeland security; and immediate response to the attacks. This section includes testimony from Steven Brill on the subject of law enforcement, domestic intelligence, and homeland security.
Date: April 1, 2004
Duration: 42 minutes 26 seconds
Creator: National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2004 DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Review Presentation COST AND PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENTS FOR A PEM FUEL CELL TURBOCOMPRESSOR

Description: The objective is to assist the Department of Energy in the development of a low cost, reliable and high performance air compressor/expander. Technical Objective 1: Perform a turbocompressor systems PEM fuel cell trade study to determine the enhanced turbocompressor approach. Technical Objective 2: Using the results from technical objective 1, an enhanced turbocompressor will be fabricated. The design may be modified to match the flow requirements of a selected fuel cell system developer. Technical Objective 3: Design a cost and performance enhanced compact motor and motor controller. Technical Objective 4: Turbocompressor/motor controller development.
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Gee, Mark K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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2004 Initial Assessments of Closure for the S-SX Tank Farm: Numerical Simulations

Description: In support of CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc.'s (CHG) preparation of a Field Investigative Report (FIR) for the closure of the Hanford Site Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area (WMA) tank farms, a set of numerical simulations of flow and solute transport was executed to investigate different potential contaminant source scenarios that may pose long-term risks to groundwater from the closure of the S-SX Tank Farm. This report documents the simulation of 7 cases (plus two verification) involving two-dimensional cross sections through the S Tank Farm (Tanks S-101, S102, and S-103) and the simulation of one case involving three-dimensional domain of the S Tank Farm. Using a unit release scenario at Tank S-103, three different types of leaks were simulated. These simulations assessed the effect of leaks during retrieval as well as residual wastes and ancillary equipment after closure. Two transported solutes were considered: uranium-238 (U-238) and technetium-99 (Tc 99). To evaluate the effect of sorption on contaminant transport, six different sorption coefficients were simulated for U 238. Overall, simulations results for the S Tank Farm showed that only a small fraction (< 0.4%) of the U-238 with sorption coefficients  0.6 mL/g migrated from the vadose zone in all of the cases. For the conservative solute, Tc-99, results showed that the simulations investigating leaks during retrieval demonstrated the highest peak concentrations and the earliest arrival times due to the high infiltration rate before water was added and surface barriers installed. Residual leaks were investigated with different release rate models, including uniform release, advection-dominated, diffusion-dominated, and saltcake (solubility-controlled) release models. Of the four models, peak concentrations were lowest and arrival times later for the uniform release model due to the lower release rate of the residual tank waste solids; similar high peak concentrations occurred for the advection-dominated and the salt …
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Waichler, Scott R. & White, Mark D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A 3D Frictional Segment-to-Segment Contact Method for Large Deformations and Quadratic Elements

Description: Node-on-segment contact is the most common form of contact used today but has many deficiencies ranging from potential locking to non-smooth behavior with large sliding. Furthermore, node-on-segment approaches are not at all applicable to higher order discretizations (e.g. quadratic elements). In a previous work, [3, 4] we developed a segment-to-segment contact approach for eight node hexahedral elements based on the mortar method that was applicable to large deformation mechanics. The approach proved extremely robust since it eliminated the over-constraint that caused 'locking' and provided smooth force variations in large sliding. Here, we extend this previous approach to treat frictional contact problems. In addition, the method is extended to 3D quadratic tetrahedrals and hexahedrals. The proposed approach is then applied to several challenging frictional contact problems that demonstrate its effectiveness.
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Puso, M; Laursen, T & Solberg, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Ab initio study of Al(III) adsorption on stepped {100} surfaces of KDP crystals

Description: Crystals of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, KDP) are grown in large scale for use as nonlinear material in laser components. Traces of trivalent metal impurities are often added to the supernatant to achieve habit control during crystal growth, selectively inhibiting the growth of the {l_brace}100{r_brace} face. Model systems representing AlPO{sub 4}-doped KDP {l_brace}100{r_brace} stepped surfaces are prepared and studied using ab initio quantum methods. Results of Hartree-Fock partial optimizations are presented, including estimated energies of ion pair binding to the steps. We find that the PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} ion takes a position not unlike that of a standard phosphate in the crystal lattice, while the aluminum atom is displaced far from a K{sup +} ion position to establish coordinations with the PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} ion and to bind with another lattice-bound phosphate. Our optimized structures suggest that it is the formation of a fourth coordination of Al(III) to a third phosphate ion from solution, or perhaps from a nearby position in the lattice, that disrupts further deposition, pinning the steps.
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Salter, E A; Wierzbicki, A & Land, T A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Acoustical Imaging and Mechanical Properties of Soft Rock and Marine Sediments: Final Technical Report

Description: The research during this project has concentrated on developing a correlation between rock deformation mechanisms and their acoustic velocity signature. This has included investigating: (1) the acoustic signature of drained and undrained unconsolidated sands, (2) the acoustic emission signature of deforming high porosity rocks (in comparison to their low porosity high strength counterparts), (3) the effects of deformation on anisotropic elastic and poroelastic moduli, and (4) the acoustic tomographic imaging of damage development in rocks. Each of these four areas involve triaxial experimental testing of weak porous rocks or unconsolidated sand and involves measuring acoustic properties. The research is directed at determining the seismic velocity signature of damaged rocks so that 3-D or 4-D seismic imaging can be utilized to image rock damage. These four areas of study are described in the report: (1) Triaxial compression experiments have been conducted on unconsolidated Oil Creek sand at high confining pressures. (2) Initial experiments on measuring the acoustic emission activity from deforming high porosity Danian chalk were accomplished and these indicate that the AE activity was of a very low amplitude. (3) A series of triaxial compression experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of induced stress on the anisotropy developed in dynamic elastic and poroelastic parameters in rocks. (4) Tomographic acoustic imaging was utilized to image the internal damage in a deforming porous limestone sample. Results indicate that the deformation damage in rocks induced during laboratory experimentation can be imaged tomographically in the laboratory. By extension the results also indicate that 4-D seismic imaging of a reservoir may become a powerful tool for imaging reservoir deformation (including imaging compaction and subsidence) and for imaging zones where drilling operation may encounter hazardous shallow water flows.
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Scott, Thurman E., Jr. & Abousleiman, Younane
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLOR ENERGY SYSTEMS

Description: This RD&amp;D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports solar light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of solar lighting and electric lighting. A benchmark prototype system has been developed to evaluate the HSL system. Sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. A secondary mirror consisting of eight planar-segmented mirrors directs the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) array to produce electricity. During this reporting period, the project team made advancements in the design of the second generation (Alpha) system. For the Alpha system, the eight individual 12 mm fibers have been replaced with a centralized bundle of 3 mm fibers. The TRNSYS Full-Spectrum Solar Energy System model has been updated and new components have been added. The TPV array and nonimaging device have been tested and progress has been made in the fiber transmission models. A test plan was developed for both the high-lumen tests and the study to determine the non-energy benefits of daylighting. The photobioreactor team also made major advancements in the testing of model scale and bench top lab-scale systems.
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Wood, Byard D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability and Integrity

Description: This document provides a mid-term update for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Energy Services, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. The objective of this one-year project is to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate advanced engine control technologies and hardware, specifically, closed-loop NO{sub x} emissions control on a two-stroke integral reciprocating engine/compressor used for pipeline gas transmission service. This work uses a Cooper-Bessemer GMVH-6 laboratory engine owned by Cooper Energy Services (CES) and installed in a test facility at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The gas transmission industry operates over 4,000 integral engine compressors, the majority being two-stroke, with a median age of 45 years and a median size of 2000 horsepower. These engines have historically exhibited poor performance and high emissions, due in part to poor engine control. The end results are misfires and partial burns that lead to increased fuel usage and exhaust emissions. Many of the slow-speed integral engines in the gas compression industry utilize control systems that are outdated, slow, and suffer from poor resolution. Research into more advanced control systems for integral compressor engines has increased tremendously in recent years. The recent advancements in control logic are being reviewed and analyzed in this program to understand the effectiveness of each. In addition, the application of a real-time NO{sub x} sensor feedback for closed-loop control is being investigated. To date, the strategies involving fuel/air equivalence ratio for a NO{sub x} prediction algorithm have been reviewed and analyzed. A hierarchy of control strategies will be outlined at the conclusion of this program. This hierarchy will range from the simplest and least expensive closed-loop control to an advanced system utilizing individual cylinder control. The ultimate control strategy is thought to be one that integrates …
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Bourn, Gary D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research Program Quarterly Report

Description: The quarterly activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program are described in this quarterly report. As this program administers research, we have included all program activity herein within the past quarter as dated. More specific research progress reports are provided weekly at the request of the AGTSR COR and are being sent to NETL As for the administration of this program, items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Golan, Lawrence P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Aggregation of Distributed Generation Assets in New York State: Appendix

Description: This report appendix describes aspects of a project to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of aggregating distributed generating resources in New York State. This project demonstrates a system that allows distributed generation (DG) to participate in competitive markets in much the same way as large central-station power plants. This approach involves aggregating the distributed demand-side resources into a single transaction entity consistent with the requirements of the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO). This single entity then buys or sells capacity and energy (i.e., curtailment) in NYISO markets.
Date: April 1, 2004
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Alternative Fuel School Bus Information Resources

Description: This 4-page Clean Cities fact sheet provides a list of important resources for learning more about alternative fuels in school buses. It includes information regarding Alternative Fuel School Bus Manufacturers, Alternative Fuel HD Engine Manufacturers, Alternative Fuel School Bus Operators, and Key Web Resources for Alternative Fuels.
Date: April 1, 2004
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analysis of Devonian Black Shales in Kentucky for Potential Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Enhanced Natural Gas Production Quarterly Report: January-March 2004

Description: CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 percent (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of …
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Nuttall, Brandon C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analysis of U.S. School Bus Populations and Alternative Fuel Potential

Description: This Clean Cities final report provides information concerning different school bus types, school bus populations, school bus miles and fuel use, school bus emissions, alternative fuel school buses, and potential for alternative fuel school bus use through 2010. It is intended to provide general information concerning the size of the school bus market in the U.S., as well as to provide some quantification of the potential for alternative fuel use in school buses in the U.S., and what that might mean for petroleum displacement and emissions reductions.
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Laughlin, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Atlas de Recursos Eólicos del Estado de Oaxaca

Description: The Oaxaca Wind Resource Atlas, produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) wind resource group, is the result of an extensive mapping study for the Mexican State of Oaxaca. This atlas identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in Oaxaca. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications.
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D. & George, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Atmospheric Aerosol Source-Receptor Relationships: The Role of Coal-Fired Power Plants

Description: This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of September 2003 through February 2004. Significant progress was made this project period on the analysis of ambient data, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. Results highlighted in this report include chemical fractionation of the organic fraction to quantify the ratio of organic mass to organic carbon (OM/OC). The average OM/OC ratio for the 31 samples analyzed so far is 1.89, ranging between 1.62 and 2.53, which is consistent with expectations for an atmospherically processed regional aerosol. Analysis of the single particle data reveals that a on a particles in Pittsburgh consist of complex mixture of primary and secondary components. Approximately 79% of all particles measured with the instrument containing some form of carbon, with Carbonaceous Ammonium Nitrate (54.43%) being the dominant particle class. PMCAMx predictions were compared with data from more than 50 sites of the STN network located throughout the Eastern United States for the July 2001 period. OC and sulfate concentrations predicted by PMCAMx are within {+-}30% of the observed concentration at most of these sites. Spherical Aluminum Silicate particle concentrations (SAS) were used to estimate the contribution of primary coal emissions to fine particle levels at the central monitoring site. Primary emissions from coal combustion contribute on average 0.44 {+-} 0.3 {micro}g/m{sup 3} to PM{sub 2.5} at the site or 1.4 {+-} 1.3% of the total PM{sub 2.5} mass. Chemical mass balance analysis was performed to apportion the primary organic aerosol. About 70% of the primary OC emissions are from vehicular sources, with the gasoline contribution being on average three times greater than the diesel emissions in the summer.
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Robinson, Allen L.; Pandis, Spyros N. & Davidson, Cliff I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Autonomous microexplosives subsurface tracing system final report.

Description: The objective of the autonomous micro-explosive subsurface tracing system is to image the location and geometry of hydraulically induced fractures in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This system is based on the insertion of a swarm of autonomous micro-explosive packages during the fracturing process, with subsequent triggering of the energetic material to create an array of micro-seismic sources that can be detected and analyzed using existing seismic receiver arrays and analysis software. The project included investigations of energetic mixtures, triggering systems, package size and shape, and seismic output. Given the current absence of any technology capable of such high resolution mapping of subsurface structures, this technology has the potential for major impact on petroleum industry, which spends approximately $1 billion dollar per year on hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States alone.
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Engler, Bruce Phillip; Nogan, John; Melof, Brian Matthew; Uhl, James Eugene; Dulleck, George R., Jr.; Ingram, Brian V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Available Alternative Fuel School Bus Products--2004

Description: This 4-page Clean Cities fact sheet provides a list of the currently available (and soon to be available) model year 2004 alternative fuel school bus and school bus engine products. It includes information from Blue Bird Corporation, Collins Bus Corporation, Corbeil Bus, Ford Motor Company, General Motors Corporation, Thomas Built Buses, Inc., Clean Air Partners, Cummins Westport, and Deere & Company.
Date: April 1, 2004
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Biodiesel is Working Hard in Kentucky

Description: This 4-page Clean Cities fact sheet describes the use of biodiesel fuel in 6 school districts throughout Kentucky. It contains usage information for each school district, as well as contact information for local Clean Cities Coordinators and Biodiesel suppliers.
Date: April 1, 2004
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Blue Heron Paper Company: Oregon Mill Uses Model-Based Energy Assessment to Identify Energy and Cost Savings Opportunities (Revision)

Description: Blue Heron Paper Company conducted a model-based energy assessment (MEA) to determine how to reduce effluent flow and heat load, minimize fresh water, and reduce process energy use at the company's Oregon City, Oregon, paper mill. Assessment staff recommended 15 projects, 7 of which the company considered. These projects would save an estimated 608,161 million British thermal units per year in natural gas and 990 kilowatt hours per year in electricity. Corresponding annual cost savings would be about $2.9 million per year. Furthermore, by reducing fuel requirements for the plant steam system, Blue Heron would also reduce stack gas emissions.
Date: April 1, 2004
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Blue sensors : technology and cooperative monitoring in UN peacekeeping.

Description: For over a half-century, the soldiers and civilians deployed to conflict areas in UN peacekeeping operations have monitored ceasefires and peace agreements of many types with varying degrees of effectiveness. Though there has been a significant evolution of peacekeeping, especially in the 1990s, with many new monitoring functions, the UN has yet to incorporate monitoring technologies into its operations in a systematic fashion. Rather, the level of technology depends largely on the contributing nations and the individual field commanders. In most missions, sensor technology has not been used at all. So the UN has not been able to fully benefit from the sensor technology revolution that has seen effectiveness greatly amplified and costs plummet. This paper argues that monitoring technologies need not replace the human factor, which is essential for confidence building in conflict areas, but they can make peacekeepers more effective, more knowledgeable and safer. Airborne, ground and underground sensors can allow peacekeepers to do better monitoring over larger areas, in rugged terrain, at night (when most infractions occur) and in adverse weather conditions. Technology also allows new ways to share gathered information with the parties to create confidence and, hence, better pre-conditions for peace. In the future sensors should become 'tools of the trade' to help the UN keep the peace in war-torn areas.
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Dorn, A. Walter Dr. (Canadian Forces College, Toronto, Ontario)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Breakdown of Hot-Spot model in determining convective amplification in large homogeneous systems

Description: Convective amplification in large homogeneous systems is studied, both analytically and numerically, in the case of a linear diffraction-free stochastic amplifier. Overall amplification does not result from successive amplifications in small scale high intensity hot-spots, but from a single amplification in a delocalized mode of the driver field spreading over the whole interaction length. For this model, the hot-spot approach is found to systematically underestimate the gain factor by more than 50%.
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Mounaix, P & Divol, L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Brightness Rural Electrification Program: Renewable Energy in China

Description: Fact sheet describes China's New Brightness Rural Electrification Program to provide electricity for 23 million people in remote areas of China using renewable energy such as wind energy and solar power (photovoltaics). Targets, results, and progress are described. Regions targeted are Inner Mongolia, Tibet, and Gansu.
Date: April 1, 2004
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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BSC Final Report: Lessons Learned from Building America Participation, February 1995--December 2003

Description: Over the past 5 years under the Building America program, the Building Science Consortium has worked with more than 25 builders in 121 developments, in 18 states, and in all six climate zones. This work has resulted in more than 7,000 ENERGY STAR(TM)homes built as of August 2002.
Date: April 1, 2004
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Build up of electron cloud with different bunch pattern in the presence of solenoidal field

Description: We have augmented the code POSINST to include solenoid fields, and used it to simulate the build up of electron cloud due to electron multipacting in the PEP-II positron ring. We find that the distribution of electrons is strongly affected by the resonances associated with the cyclotron period and bunch spacing. In addition, we discover a threshold beyond which the electron density grows exponentially until it reaches the space charge limit. The threshold does not depend on the bunch spacing but does depend on the positron bunch population.
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Cai, Y.; Furman, M. A. & Pivi, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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