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Development of Advanced Wear and Corrosion Resistant Systems Through Laser Surface Alloying and Materials Processing

Description: The stability of tungsten carbide particles in iron-rich and nickel-rich liquid during the laser surface alloying (LSA) process was investigated. Kinetic calculations indicate a rapid dissolution of tungsten carbide particles in iron-rich liquid, as compared with the dissolution rate in nickel-rich liquid. Optical microscopy indicated a heterogeneous microstructure around the tungsten particles that is in agreement with concentration gradients predicted by kinetic calculation. The work demonstrates the applicability of computational thermodynamics and kinetic models for the LSA process.
Date: April 1, 2002
Creator: A, Babu S S Martukanitz R P Parks K D David S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Microstructure, Phase Formation, and Stress of Reactively-Deposited Metal Hydride Thin Films

Description: This document summarizes research of reactively deposited metal hydride thin films and their properties. Reactive deposition processes are of interest, because desired stoichiometric phases are created in a one-step process. In general, this allows for better control of film stress compared with two-step processes that react hydrogen with pre-deposited metal films. Films grown by reactive methods potentially have improved mechanical integrity, performance and aging characteristics. The two reactive deposition techniques described in this report are reactive sputter deposition and reactive deposition involving electron-beam evaporation. Erbium hydride thin films are the main focus of this work. ErH{sub x} films are grown by ion beam sputtering erbium in the presence of hydrogen. Substrates include a Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {l_brace}0001{r_brace}, a Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {l_brace}1120{r_brace}, Si{l_brace}001{r_brace} having a native oxide, and polycrystalline molybdenum substrates. Scandium dideuteride films are also studied. ScD{sub x} is grown by evaporating scandium in the presence of molecular deuterium. Substrates used for scandium deuteride growth include single crystal sapphire and molybdenum-alumina cermet. Ultra-high vacuum methods are employed in all experiments to ensure the growth of high purity films, because both erbium and scandium have a strong affinity for oxygen. Film microstructure, phase, composition and stress are evaluated using a number of thin film and surface analytical techniques. In particular, we present evidence for a new erbium hydride phase, cubic erbium trihydride. This phase develops in films having a large in-plane compressive stress independent of substrate material. Erbium hydride thin films form with a strong <111> out-of-plane texture on all substrate materials. A moderate in-plane texture is also found; this crystallographic alignment forms as a result of the substrate/target geometry and not epitaxy. Multi-beam optical sensors (MOSS) are used for in-situ analysis of erbium hydride and scandium hydride film stress. These instruments probe the evolution of film stress during all …
Date: May 1, 2002
Creator: ADAMS, DAVID P.; ROMERO, JUAN A.; RODRIGUEZ, MARK A.; FLORO, JERROLD A. & KOTULA, PAUL G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Quantitative Analysis of Microstructure in Polysiloxanes Using High Resolution Si29 NMR Spectroscopy: Investigation of Lot Variability in the LVM97 and HVM97 PDMS/PDPS Copolymers

Description: The quantitative analysis of microstructure and sequence distribution in polysiloxane copolymers using high-resolution solution {sup 29}Si NMR is reported. Copolymers containing dimethylsiloxane (DMS) and diphenysiloxane (DPS) monomer units prepared with either high vinyl content (HVM) or low vinyl content (LVM) were analyzed. The average run length (R{sub exp}), the number average sequence length (l{sub A}, l{sub B}), along with the various linkage probabilities (p{sub AA}, p{sub AB}, p{sub BA}, and p{sub BB}) were determined for different production lots of the LVM97 and HVM97 samples to address the lot variability of microstructure in these materials.
Date: November 1, 2002
Creator: ALAM, TODD M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Acoustic Wave Equations for a Linear Viscous Fluid and An Ideal Fluid

Description: The mathematical description of acoustic wave propagation within a time- and space-varying, and moving, linear viscous fluid is formulated as a system of coupled linear equations. This system is rigorously developed from fundamental principles of continuum mechanics (conservation of mass, balance of linear and angular momentum, balance of entropy) and various constitutive relations (for stress, entropy production, and entropy conduction) by linearizing all expressions with respect to the small-amplitude acoustic wavefield variables. A significant simplification arises if the fluid medium is neither viscous nor heat conducting (i.e., an ideal fluid). In this case the mathematical system can be reduced to a set of five, coupled, first-order partial differential equations. Coefficients in the systems depend on various mechanical and thermodynamic properties of the ambient medium that supports acoustic wave propagation. These material properties cannot all be arbitrarily specified, but must satisfy another system of nonlinear expressions characterizing the dynamic behavior of the background medium. Dramatic simplifications in both systems occur if the ambient medium is simultaneously adiabatic and stationary.
Date: July 1, 2002
Creator: ALDRIDGE, DAVID F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Editing Tips for Technical Publications in the Joint Nuclear Weapons Publication System (JNWPS)

Description: These editing tips contain helpful suggestions to assist writers who are writing, editing, and publishing technical publications in the JNWPS. The suggestions clarify some of the most common writing problems and requirements of two publications used in the JNWPS: ''DOE-DTRA TP 1-1, Joint Nuclear Weapons Publications System Operating Procedures, Specifications, and Standards, and United States Government Printing Office Style Manual''. Topics include requirements for abbreviations, formats for drafts, layouts of illustrations and tables, appropriate wording for interim changes, guidance for creating a list of effective pages, how to insert and delete pages and paragraphs, referencing other technical publications, use of revision bars, requirements for safety precautions, use of hyphens, and how to place warnings, cautions, and notes. Also included are a writer's checklist, samples of draft title pages, and a section of helpful tips for the writers who use the department's desktop publishing software program, Adobe{reg_sign} FrameMaker{reg_sign}.
Date: December 1, 2002
Creator: ALLEN, TARA S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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DESIGN, FABRICATION, INSTALLATION AND TESTING OF IN-VESSEL CONTROL COILS FOR DIII-D

Description: OAK A271 DESIGN, FABRICATION, INSTALLATION AND TESTING OF IN-VESSEL CONTROL COILS FOR DIII-D. Since 1995, DIII-D has performed correction of magnetic field imperfections using a set of six external picture frame coils located on the vessel mid-plane. Recently, these coils have also demonstrated significant benefits when used for feedback of the resistive wall mode, an instability that limits the plasma performance at high beta. Modeling has shown that substantial performance improvements can be achieved by installing new coils inside the vessel and expanding the poloidal coverage above and below the mid-plane. Two prototype internal coils were installed in 2001 and have been tested successfully. installation of a set of twelve internal coils and magnetic sensors in the DIII-D tokamak is to be completed in December 2002. The design requirement for the new coil system was to maximize the magnetic field at the plasma edge, operate with a frequency range of dc to 1000 Hz, and fit behind the existing graphite wall tiles. The coil design adopted and installed is a water-cooled hollow copper conductor insulated with polyamide and housed inside a stainless steel tube that forms a vacuum boundary. The coil is rigidly mounted to the inside of the vacuum vessel. The primary challenge in the design of these coils was in joining of both the copper conductor and the stainless tube without overheating the polyamide insulator.
Date: October 1, 2002
Creator: ANDERSON, PM; BAXI, CB; KELLMAN, AG; REIS, EE & ROBINSON, JI
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Rapid Ultrasensitive Chemical-Fingerprint Detection of Chemical and Biochemical Warfare Agents

Description: Vibrational spectra can serve as chemical fingerprints for positive identification of chemical and biological warfare molecules. The required speed and sensitivity might be achieved with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using nanotextured metal surfaces. Systematic and reproducible methods for preparing metallic surfaces that maximize sensitivity have not been previously developed. This work sought to develop methods for forming high-efficiency metallic nanostructures that can be integrated with either gas or liquid-phase chem-lab-on-a-chip separation columns to provide a highly sensitive, highly selective microanalytical system for detecting current and future chem/bio agents. In addition, improved protein microchromatographic systems have been made by the creation of acrylate-based porous polymer monoliths that can serve as protein preconcentrators to reduce the optical system sensitivity required to detect and identify a particular protein, such as a bacterial toxin.
Date: December 1, 2002
Creator: ASHBY, CAROL I.; SHEPODD, TIMOTHY J.; YELTON, WILLIAM G. & MURON, DAVID J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Parametric Study for Large Wind Turbine Blades: WindPACT Blade System Design Studies

Description: This report presents the results of a study of various wind turbine blade design parameters as a function of blade length in the range from 30 meters to 70 meters. The results have been summarized in dimensional and non-dimensional formats to aid in interpretation. The parametric review estimated peak power and annual energy capture for megawatt scale wind turbines with rotors of 62, 83, 104, 125, and 146 meters in diameter. The baseline ''thin'' distribution represents conventional airfoils used in large wind turbine blades. The ''thicker'' and ''thickest'' distributions utilize airfoils that have significantly increased thickness to improve structural performance and reduce weight. An aerodynamic scaling effort was undertaken in parallel with the structural analysis work to evaluate the effect of extreme thickness on aerodynamic characteristics. Increased airfoil section thickness appears to be a key tool in limiting blade weight and cost growth with scale. Thickened and truncated trailing edges in the inboard region provide strong, positive effects on blade structural performance. Larger blades may require higher tip speeds combined with reduced blade solidity to limit growth of design loads. A slender blade can be used to reduce extreme design loads when the rotor is parked, but requires a higher tip speed.
Date: August 1, 2002
Creator: ASHWILL, THOMAS D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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NUFACT02 MACHINE WORKING GROUP SUMMARY.

Description: At {nu}Fact'02, the muon-based neutrino factory was confronted with existing and planned neutrino facilities. When it was first discussed in 1999 in Lyon [1], it raised great enthusiasm, especially because it was thought to be the only machine capable of measuring CP violation in the leptonic sector. Since that time the pendulum has partially swung back. Two successive detailed studies [2, 3] have shown that a neutrino Factory and the needed R&D were both expensive. In terms of present experiments, neutrino oscillations have been confirmed at SuperK and SNO and results are soon expected from KamLAND. K2K, MniBOONE, MINOS and CNGS are going ahead and new perspectives have been opened by off-axis pion-based neutrino beams and the approval of the high intensity Japanese Hadron Facility. Crests and troughs of a wave are common in long term projects. They are even healthy because they force us to scrutinize the first ideas and sometimes to invent new ones to reach a realistic and affordable design. This analysis has been applied to target systems (section 2), RF capture and cooling of the muons (section 4) and accelerators (section 5). The new concept of pure electron neutrino or anti-neutrino beams produced by, {beta}-decay is discussed in section 3.
Date: July 1, 2002
Creator: AUTIN,B. FERNOW,R. C. MACHIDA,S. HARRIS,D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Trace Elements and Common Ions in Southeastern Idaho Snow: Regional Air Pollutant Tracers for Source Area Emissions

Description: Snow samples were collected in southeastern Idaho over two winters to assess trace elements and common ions concentrations in air pollutant fallout across the region. The objectives were to: 1) develop sampling and analysis techniques that would produce accurate measurements of a broad suite of elements and ions in snow, 2) identify the major elements in regional fallout and their spatial and temporal trends, 3) determine if there are unique combinations of elements that are characteristic to the major source areas in the region (source profiles), and 4) use pattern recognition and multivariate statistical techniques (principal component analysis and classical least squares regression) to investigate source apportionment of the fallout to the major source areas. In the winter of 2000-2001, 250 snow samples were collected across the region over a 4-month period and analyzed in triplicate using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC). Thirty-nine (39) trace elements and 9 common ions were positively identified in most samples. The data were analyzed using pattern recognition tools in the software, Pirouette® (Infometrix, Inc.). These results showed a large crustal component (Al, Zn, Mn, Ba, and rare earth elements), an overwhelming contribution from phosphate processing facilities located outside Pocatello in the southern portion of the ESRP, some changes in concentrations over time, and no obvious source area profiles (unique chemical signatures) other than at Pocatello. Concentrations near a major U.S. Department of Energy industrial complex on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) were lower than those observed at major downwind communities. In the winter of 2001-2002, we tried a new sampling design (and collected 135 additional samples) in an attempt to estimate pure emission profiles from the major source areas in the region and used classical least squares regression (CLS) to source apportion these profiles at four downwind …
Date: September 1, 2002
Creator: Abbott, Michael Lehman; Einerson, Jeffrey James; Schuster, Paul & Susong, David D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Effects of Light Scalar Mesons in eta -> 3pi decay

Description: We study the role of a possible nonet of light scalar mesons in the still interesting [eta] -> 3[p]i decay process, with the primary motivation of learning more about the scalars themselves. The framework is a conventional non-linear chiral Lagrangian of pseudoscalars and vectors extended to include the scalars. The parameters involving the scalars were previously obtained to fit the s-wave [pi][pi] and [pi] K scatterings in the region up to about 1 GeV as well as the strong decay [eta]' --> [eta][pi][pi]. At first, one might expect a large enhancement from diagrams including a light [sigma] (560). However there is an amusing cancellation mechanism which prevents this from occurring. In the simplest model there is an enhancement of about 13 per cent in the [eta] -> 3[pi] decay rate due to the scalars. In a more complicated model which includes derivative type symmetry breakers, the cancellation is modified and the scalars contribute about 30 percent of the total decay rate (although the total is not significantly changed). The vectors do not contribute much. Our model produces a reasonable estimate for the related a{sub 0}(980) - f{sub 0}(980) mixing strength, which has been a topic of current debate. Promising directions for future work along the present line are suggested.
Date: October 1, 2002
Creator: Abdel-Rehim, Abdou; Black, Deirdre; Fariborz, Amir H. & Schechter, Joseph
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Impact of Trace Additives on the Apparent Solubility of Hydrogen in Heavy Oil and Related Feedstocks at Low and High Temperatures: Final Report

Description: A systematic investigation was conducted to provide an accurate determination of hydrogen solubility in liquid media in temperatures in the range of 25-250 C and pressures in the range of 0.5-8 MPa. Results were obtained by an indirect gas solubility measurement method. The method was intended for use with high-resolution camera. The hydrogen solubility measurements were indirect and were based on pressure changes at constant temperature and measured volumes. Since the volume of the view cell was fixed the volume available for the vapor phase could be determined by measuring the location of the liquid-vapor interface. The interface was located to within the height of one pixel using high-resolution camera, which added {+-} 0.4 ml to the uncertainty of the vapor volume. Liquid-liquid interface locations were measured with equal precision. The accuracy of the method was illustrated through hydrogen solubility measurements in hexadecane and tetralin, which were in close agreement with the values available in the literature. Hydrogen solubilities in Athabasca bitumen vacuum bottoms (ABVB) were reported over a broad range of temperatures (80-250 C) and pressures (0.5-8 MPa).
Date: September 1, 2002
Creator: Abedi, Jalal
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy and Capacitance-Voltage Measurements of Cu(In,Ga)Se2: Preprint

Description: This conference paper describes the electronic properties of ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS)/Mo/SLG polycrystalline thin-film solar cells with compositions ranging from Cu-rich to In-rich were investigated by deep level transient spectroscopy and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. This compositional change represents the evolution of the film during growth by the three-stage process. Four thin-film CIGS samples with different Cu content were obtained. The Cu/(In+Ga) ratio ranges from 1.24 (Cu-rich)to 0.88 (In-rich), whereas the Ga/(In+Ga) ratio ranges from 0.19 (Cu-rich)to 0.28 (In-rich).The Cu-rich sample exhibits a shallow majority-carrier trap with an activation energy of 0.12 eV and another deeper trap with an activation energy of 0.28 eV, whereas the In-rich sample has a shallow minority-carrier trap with an activation energy of 0.12 eV. The two samples show evidence of a deeper trap at higher temperature. C-V measurements showed that the average carrier concentration (N values) around the junction of the cell changed as the film transitions from Cu-rich to In-rich. DLTS shows that acceptor-like traps are dominant in samples where CIGS grains did not go through the Cu-rich to In(Ga)-rich transition. While donor-like traps are dominant in the In(Ga)-rich samples.
Date: May 1, 2002
Creator: AbuShama, J.; Johnston, S.; Ahrenkiel, R. & Noufi, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Compression effects on pressure loss in flexible HVAC ducts

Description: A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of compression on pressure drop in flexible, spiral wire helix core ducts used in residential and light commercial applications. Ducts of 6 inches, 8 inches and 10 inches (150, 200 and 250 mm) nominal diameters were tested under different compression configurations following ASHRAE Standard 120-1999--Methods of Testing to Determine Flow Resistance of HVAC Air Ducts and Fittings. The results showed that the available published references tend to underestimate the effects of compression. The study demonstrated that moderate compression in flexible ducts, typical of that often seen in field installations, could increase the pressure drop by a factor of four, while further compression could increase the pressure drop by factors close to ten. The results proved that the pressure drop correction factor for compressed ducts cannot be independent of the duct size, as suggested by ASHRAE Fundamentals, and therefore a new relationship was developed for better quantification of the pressure drop in flexible ducts. This study also suggests potential improvements to ASHRAE Standard 120-1999 and provides new data for duct design.
Date: July 1, 2002
Creator: Abushakra, Bass; Walker, Iain S. & Sherman, Max H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Study of Pressure Losses in Residential Air Distribution Systems

Description: An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the pressure drop characteristics of residential duct system components that are either not available or not thoroughly (sometimes incorrectly) described in existing duct design literature. The tests were designed to imitate cases normally found in typical residential and light commercial installations. The study included three different sizes of flexible ducts, under different compression configurations, splitter boxes, supply boots, and a fresh air intake hood. The experimental tests conformed to ASHRAE Standard 120P--''Methods of Testing to Determine Flow Resistance of HVAC Air Ducts and Fittings''. The flexible duct study covered compressibility and bending effects on the total pressure drop, and the results showed that the available published references tend to underestimate the effects of compression in flexible ducts that can increase pressure drops by up to a factor of nine. The supply boots were tested under different configurations including a setup where a flexible duct elbow connection was considered as an integral part of the supply boot. The supply boots results showed that diffusers can increase the pressure drop by up to a factor of two in exit fittings, and the installation configuration can increase the pressure drop by up to a factor of five. The results showed that it is crucial for designers and contractors to be aware of the compressibility effects of the flexible duct, and the installation of supply boots and diffusers.
Date: July 1, 2002
Creator: Abushakra, Bass; Walker, Iain S. & Sherman, Max H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Performance Evaluation Tests of Insulated Pressure Vessels for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage

Description: Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can be fueled with liquid hydrogen or ambient-temperature compressed hydrogen. This flexibility results in multiple advantages with respect to compressed hydrogen tanks or low-pressure liquid hydrogen tanks. Our work is directed at verifying that commercially available aluminum-lined, fiber-wrapped pressure vessels can be safely used to store liquid hydrogen. A series of tests have been conducted, and the results indicate that no significant vessel damage has resulted from cryogenic operation. Future activities include a demonstration project in which the insulated pressure vessels will be installed and tested on two vehicles. A draft standard will also be generated for certification of insulated pressure vessels.
Date: March 1, 2002
Creator: Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J & Espinoza-Loza, F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol

Description: This report addresses legal issues after the United States signed the Kyoto Protocol to the UnitedNations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The protocol is not yet in effect internationally and cannot be legally binding on the U.S. unless and until the Senate gives its advice and consent.
Date: October 1, 2002
Creator: Ackerman, David M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Solubility of Crystalline Nonelectrolyte Solutes in Organic Solvents: Mathematical Correlation of Benzil Solubilities with the Abraham General Solvation Model

Description: Article on the solubility of crystalline nonelectrolyte solutes in organic solvents and the mathematical correlation of benzil solubilities with the Abraham general solvation model.
Date: April 1, 2002
Creator: Acree, William E. (William Eugene) & Abraham, M. H. (Michael H.)
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences
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Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (Spss) Treatability of Simulated Mixed-Waste Mercury Contaminated Sludge.

Description: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently seeking to validate technologies that can directly treat radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes without removing the mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needs additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 30 wt% dry sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (<10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes.
Date: October 1, 2002
Creator: Adama, J. W.; Bowerman, B. S. & Kalb, P. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover

Description: This report is an update of NREL's ongoing process design and economic analyses of processes related to developing ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks as an alternative to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. DOE funds both fundamental and applied research in this area and needs a method for predicting cost benefits of many research proposals. To that end, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has modeled many potential process designs and estimated the economics of each process during the last 20 years. This report is an update of the ongoing process design and economic analyses at NREL. We envision updating this process design report at regular intervals; the purpose being to ensure that the process design incorporates all new data from NREL research, DOE funded research and other sources, and that the equipment costs are reasonable and consistent with good engineering practice for plants of this type. For the non-research areas this means using equipment and process approaches as they are currently used in industrial applications. For the last report, published in 1999, NREL performed a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process utilizing co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis with simultaneous saccharification (enzymatic) and co-fermentation. The process design included the core technologies being researched by the DOE: prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production. In addition, all ancillary areas--feed handling, product recovery and purification, wastewater treatment (WWT), lignin combustor and boiler-turbogenerator, and utilities--were included. NREL engaged Delta-T Corporation (Delta-T) to assist in the process design evaluation, the process equipment costing, and overall plant integration. The process design and costing for the lignin combustor and boiler turbogenerator was reviewed by Reaction Engineering Inc. (REI) and Merrick & Company reviewed the …
Date: June 1, 2002
Creator: Aden, A.; Ruth, M.; Ibsen, K.; Jechura, J.; Neeves, K.; Sheehan, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Underground Corrosion of Activated Metals in an Arid Vadose Zone Environment

Description: The subsurface radioactive disposal site located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains neutron-activated metals from nonfuel nuclear-reactor- core components. A long-term corrosion test is being conducted to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements in an arid vadose zone environment. The tests use nonradioactive metal coupons representing the prominent neutron-activated material buried at the disposal location, namely, Type 304L stainless steel, Type 315L stainless steel, nickel-chromium alloy (UNS NO7718), beryllium, aluminum 6061-T6, and a zirconium alloy, (UNS R60804). In addition, carbon steel (the material presently used in the cask disposal liners and other disposal containers) and a duplex stainless steel (UNS S32550) (the proposed material for the high- integrity disposal containers) are also included in the test program. This paper briefly describes the test program and presents the early corrosion rate results after 1 year and 3 years of underground exposure.
Date: April 1, 2002
Creator: Adler Flitton, Mariana Kay; Mizia, Ronald Eugene & Bishop, Carolyn Wagoner
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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