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21st century energy solutions. Coal and Power Systems FY2001 program briefing

Description: The continued strength of American's economy depends on the availability of affordable energy, which has long been provided by the Nations rich supplies of fossil fuels. Forecasts indicate that fossil fuels will continue to meet much of the demand for economical electricity and transportation fuels for decades to come. It is projected that natural gas, oil, and coal will supply nearly 90% of US energy in 2020, with coal fueling around 50% of the electricity. It is essential to develop ways to achieve the objectives for a cleaner environment while using these low-cost, high-value fuels. A national commitment to improved technologies--for use in the US and abroad--is the solution. The Coal and Power Systems program is responding to this commitment by offering energy solutions to advance the clean, efficient, and affordable use of the Nations abundant fossil fuel resources. These solutions include: (1) Vision 21--A multi-product, pollution-free energy plant--producing electricity, fuels, and/or industry heat--could extract 80% or more of the energy value of coal and 85% or more of the energy value of natural gas; (2) Central Power Systems--Breakthrough turbines and revolutionary new gasification technologies that burn less coal and gas to obtain energy, while reducing emissions; (3) Distributed Generation--Fuel cell technology providing highly efficient, clean modular power; (4) Fuels--The coproduction of coal-derived transportation fuels and power from gasification-based technology; (5) Carbon Sequestration--Capturing greenhouse gases from the exhaust gases of combustion or other sources, or from the atmosphere itself, and storing them for centuries or recycling them into useful products; and (6) Advanced Research--Going beyond conventional thinking in the areas of computational science, biotechnology, and advanced materials.
Date: January 1, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The A dependence of open charm and bottom production

Description: We study inclusive heavy quark and exclusive heavy quark pair production in pp, pA and AA interactions. Intrinsic transverse momentum is introduced in pp interactions. Nuclear effects, limited to k{sub T} broadening and nuclear shadowing, are introduced in pA and AA interactions. The nuclear dependence is studied over a range of energies, both in fixed target and collider setups.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Vogt, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Accurate hydrogen depth profiling by reflection elastic recoil detection analysis

Description: A technique to convert reflection elastic recoil detection analysis spectra to depth profiles, the channel-depth conversion, was introduced by Verda, et al [1]. But the channel-depth conversion does not correct for energy spread, the unwanted broadening in the energy of the spectra, which can lead to errors in depth profiling. A work in progress introduces a technique that corrects for energy spread in elastic recoil detection analysis spectra, the energy spread correction [2]. Together, the energy spread correction and the channel-depth conversion comprise an accurate and convenient hydrogen depth profiling method.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Verda, R. D. (Raymond D.); Tesmer, Joseph R.; Nastasi, Michael Anthony, & Bower, R. W. (Robert W.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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N-acyl oxazolidin-2-selones promoted aldol reactions

Description: Selenocarbonyls that are housed in a chiral environment have been found to play a pivotal role aldol reactions. We have found that, in general,, the aldol reaction affords the non-Evans aldol syn products. However, the use of glycolate donors with glycoaldehydes, under proper conditions, gave rise to predominately the anti aldol.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Li, Zizhong; Wu, R. (Ruilian); Silks, L. A. (Louis A.), III & Michalczyk, R. (Ryszard)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Adaptive control of femtosecond pulse propagation in optical fibers

Description: We present an adaptive control loop that synthesizes fs-pulses that are self-correcting for higher order nonlinear effects when launched in a conventional single-mode fiber, nearly preserving the initial (t{approx}200 fs) pulse duration.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Omenetto, F. G. (Fiorenzo G.); Taylor, Antoinette J.,; Moores, M. D. (Mark D.) & Reitze, David H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ADPF spoke cavity cryomodule concept

Description: The Accelerator Driven Test Facility (ADTF) is being developed as a reactor concepts test bed for transmutation of nuclear waste. A 13.3 mA continuous-wave (CW) proton beam will be accelerated to 600 MeV and impinged on a spallation target. The subsequent neutron shower is used to create a nuclear reaction within a subcritical assembly of waste material that reduces the waste half-life from the order of 10{sup 5} years to 10{sup 2} years. Additionally, significant energy is produced that can be used to generate electrical power. The ADTF proton accelerator consists of room-temperature (RT) structures that accelerate the beam to 6.7-MeV and superconducting (SC) elements that boost the beam's energy to 600-MeV. Traditional SC elliptical cavities experience structural difficulties at low energies due to their geometry. Therefore, stiff-structured SC spoke cavities have been adopted for the energy range between 6.7 and 109 MeV. Elliptical cavities are used at the higher energies. This paper describes a multi-spoke-cavity cryomodule concept for ADTF.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Kelley, J. P. (John Patrick); Roybal, P. L. (Phillip L.); La Fave, R. P. (Richard P.); Waynert, J. A. (Joseph A.); Schrage, D. L. (Dale L.); Schmierer, E. N. (Eric N.) et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ADVANCED DIRECT LIQUEFACTION CONCEPTS FOR PETC GENERIC UNITS

Description: The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 are reported for the period October 1, 2000 to December 31, 2000. This work involves the introduction into the basic two-stage liquefaction process several novel concepts, which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This project has been modified to include an investigation into the production of value added materials from coal using low-severity liquefaction based technologies.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Berkovich, Adam J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During the third reporting quarter, the electrostatic tensiometer for laboratory determination of flyash cohesivity was completed. Modifications were made to this method to improve repeatability. In addition, a new multi-cell laboratory flyash resistivity furnace was completed. Also during this quarter an agreement was reached for the initial field trial of the new additives at the City of Ames, Iowa Municipal Power Plant.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Baldrey, Kenneth E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM

Description: The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. As this program administers research, we have included all program activity herein within the past quarter dated. More specific research progress reports are provided weekly at the request of the AGTSR COR and are being sent to NETL. As for the administration of this program, items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Golan, Lawrence P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Advanced modeling and experimental validation of complex nuclear material waste forms of potential transportation concern.

Description: We present here computer modeling efforts to describe the time-dependent pressurization and gas-phase mole fractions inside sealed canisters containing actinide materials packaged with small (0.12 - 0.5 wt. %) amounts of water. The model is run using Chemkin software, and the chemical reaction mechanism includes gas generation due to radiolysis of adsorbed water, interfacial chemical reactions, and adsorption/desorption kinetics of water on PuO2 materials. The ultimate goal is to provide a verifiable computer model that can be used to predict problematic gas generation in storage forms and assure design criteria for short-term storage and transportation of less than well-characterized (with respect to gas generation) material classes. Our initial efforts are intended to assess pressurization and gas-phase mole fractions using well-defined 3013 container test cases. We have modeled gas generation on PuO2 with water loading up to 0.5 wt. %, at 300 and 525 K, for time frames of 3 years. Estimates of the initial H2 generation rates were determined using RadCalc and employed in the Chemkin model to assess time- and coverage-dependent system behavior. Results indicate that canister pressurization due to radiolysis is a relatively slow process, with pressure increases at 300 K of approximately 1.5 atm. for 5000 g of PuO2 packaged with 0.5 wt. % water. At higher temperatures (> 400 K), desorption of water into the gas phase largely dictates pressurization and the gas-phase mole fractions. These modeling efforts provide a predictive capability for potential gas generation behavior that when augmented and validated by surveillance information will provide a technical basis for safe storage and transportation.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Kelly, D. J. (Daniel J.) & Paffett, M. T. (Mark T.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Advanced Techniques for Real-Time Visualization of Data Intensive Missions

Description: Engineers at Sandia National Laboratories are combining entertainment industry software with traditional data collection techniques to create an interactive visualization tool. By replacing the usual flight simulator joystick with a telemetry data stream, experimental data is combined with existing three-dimensional (3D) engineering models. Users are immersed in their experiment, allowing interaction with and comprehension of complex data sets. Software tools are currently under development for post flight data visualization, and their usefulness and reusability have been demonstrated on numerous spaced-based programs within Sandia. However, data from remote sensors are subject to transmission errors that yield nonphysical behavior in real-time data visualization applications. We propose to investigate the applicability of real-time processing algorithms and estimation theories, such as Kalman filters, that have been successfully applied in other fields. Results will be integrated into existing postflight visualization tools for Proof-of-Concept validation and for potential integration of real-time applications.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Platzbecker, Mark R.; Ashcraft, Gary W.; Owen, Todd E. & Sturgis, Beverly R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

Description: As part of Task 1 in the Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger--Holditch Reservoir Technologies (H-RT) has partnered with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy (formerly Range Resources) and Belden and Blake Corporation, to develop methodologies for the identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners have provided data for over 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We are currently in the final stages of developing and testing our new Access/Excel based software and processing this well data to generate a list of potential candidate wells that can be used in Phase 2 to validate these methodologies. Preparation of the Final Technical report has begun.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: II, C.M. Boyer; N.R. Fairchild, Jr. & P.G., R.J. MacDonald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Advanced titanium processing

Description: The Albany Research Center of the U.S. Department of Energy has been investigating a means to form useful wrought products by direct and continuous casting of titanium bars using cold-wall induction melting rather than current batch practices such as vacuum arc remelting. Continuous ingots produced by cold-wall induction melting, utilizing a bottomless water-cooled copper crucible, without slag (CaF2) additions had minor defects in the surface such as ''hot tears''. Slag additions as low as 0.5 weight percent were used to improve the surface finish. Therefore, a slag melted experimental Ti-6Al-4V alloy ingot was compared to a commercial Ti-6Al-4V alloy ingot in the areas of physical, chemical, mechanical, and corrosion attributes to address the question, ''Are any detrimental effects caused by slag addition''?
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Hartman, Alan D.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Schrems, Karol K.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Argetsinger, Edward R.; Hansen, Jeffrey S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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AlGaN Materials Engineering for Integrated Multi-Function Systems

Description: This LDRD is aimed to place Sandia at the forefront of GaN-based technologies. Two important themes of this LDRD are: (1) The demonstration of novel GaN-based devices which have not yet been much explored and yet are coherent with Sandia's and DOE's mission objectives. UV optoelectronic and piezoelectric devices are just two examples. (2) To demonstrate front-end monolithic integration of GaN with Si-based microelectronics. Key issues pertinent to the successful completion of this LDRD have been identified to be (1) The growth and defect control of AlGaN and GaN, and (2) strain relief during/after the heteroepitaxy of GaN on Si and the separation/transfer of GaN layers to different wafer templates.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: HAN, JUNG; MITCHELL, CHRISTINE C.; WALDRIP, KAREN NMN; GUILINGER, TERRY R.; KELLY, MICHAEL J.; FLEMING, JAMES G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Algorithm refinement for stochastic partial differential equations.

Description: A hybrid particle/continuum algorithm is formulated for Fickian diffusion in the fluctuating hydrodynamic limit. The particles are taken as independent random walkers; the fluctuating diffusion equation is solved by finite differences with deterministic and white-noise fluxes. At the interface between the particle and continuum computations the coupling is by flux matching, giving exact mass conservation. This methodology is an extension of Adaptive Mesh and Algorithm Refinement to stochastic partial differential equations. A variety of numerical experiments were performed for both steady and time-dependent scenarios. In all cases the mean and variance of density are captured correctly by the stochastic hybrid algorithm. For a non-stochastic version (i.e., using only deterministic continuum fluxes) the mean density is correct, but the variance is reduced except within the particle region, far from the interface. Extensions of the methodology to fluid mechanics applications are discussed.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Alexander, F. J. (Francis J.); Garcia, Alejandro L., & Tartakovsky, D. M. (Daniel M.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ANALOG FRONT-END ELECTRONICS FOR BEAM POSITION MEASUREMENT ON THE BEAM HALO MEASUREMENT

Description: Enhancements have been made to the log-ratio analog front-end electronics based on the Analog Devices 8307 logarithmic amplifier as used on the LEDA accelerator. The dynamic range of greater than 85 dB, has been extended to nearly the full capability of the AD8307 from the previous design of approximately 65 dB through the addition of a 350 MHz band-pass filter, careful use of ground and power plane placement, signal routing, and power supply bypassing. Additionally, selection of high-isolation RF switches (55dB) has been an integral part of a new calibration technique, which is fully described in another paper submitted to this conference. Provision has also been made for insertion of a first-stage low-noise amplifier for using the circuit under low-signal conditions.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Shurter, R. B. (Robert B.); Cote, T. J. (Thomas J.) & Gilpatrick, J. D. (John Douglas)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analysis of cook-off using logic models

Description: Developing a predictive model for cook-off is a difficult task. Recent experiments with PBX 9501 have shown that under certain heating and confinement conditions it is possible to generate large regions of almost uniform temperature in an explosive. Such regions react violently in a coherent fashion and may have the potential to produce unusually symmetric detonation waves in certain geometries. These results were unexpected before the experiments and have generated considerable additional activity both experimentally and in model building. At this time, there is no unambiguous explanation for the observed behavior, and therefore, there is a considerable number of fledgling models in existence. These models suggest varying and possibly contradictory mechanisms to explain the thermal profiles and wave behavior data. In this paper, we present an approach to model development for cook-off of PBX 9501 based on logic models called process trees. Process trees are well-suited to the task of describing causal sequences and delineating alternative descriptions of observed phenomenology. Therefore, they provide a valuable basis for constructing physical models and integrating them.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Luck, L. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ANALYSIS OF THE SECOND ZEUS CRITICAL EXPERIMENT

Description: The Zeus experiments have been designed to test the adequacy of {sup 235}U cross sections in the intermediate energy range. The first Zeus experiment achieved initial criticality on April 26, 1999 with 10 HEU platters and 79 platters of graphite. The second experiment reached a critical condition on October 24, 2000, with 9 HEU platters and 54 platters of graphite. The first experiment, which has been described and analyzed previously, had a C/{sup 235}U ratio of approximately 52:1. The corresponding ratio for the second experiment was approximately 40:1. This summary describes the analysis of the second Zeus critical experiment.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: MOSTELLER, R. & JAEGERS, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analysis of the slot heating of the Coupled Cavity Linac cavity.

Description: CCL cavities are figures of revolution about the beam axis. An automated tuning program sets up the geometry for a symmetric accelerating cavity and runs SUPERFISH repetitively, varying the geometry to tune each cavity to the desired frequency for the electromagnetic fields. SUPERFISH solves Maxwell's equations in 2-D. A large portion of the RF power (60-80%) applied to accelerate protons is a waste heat deposited on the inside of the copper cavity. This waste heat is removed most efficiently with water circulating through cooling passages. The waste heat needs to be removed in order to minimize thermal deformations and with it control the resonance of the cavities. A slot between the main cavity and coupled cavity receives additional heating that is not captured in the 2-D analysis. This heating causes deformation of the region and with it frequency shift. This paper covers the estimation of the slot heating and three-dimensional thermal and structural analysis of the CCL cavity.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Konecni, S. (Snezana) & Bultman, N. K. (Nathan K.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ANFO cylinder tests

Description: Cylinder test data is reported for commercially available prilled ANFO (ammonium-nitrate/fuel-oil) at 0.93 ,g/cc density and ambient temperature. The tests were four-inch inner diameter, with wall-thickness and length scaled from the standard one-inch test (0.4 inch and 48 inch, respectively). The wall expansion was measured with a rotating mirror streak camera and the velocity was measured by fine-wire pin switches, in the standard manner. The wall expansion trajectory is much smoother than for conventional explosives, which show a pronounced jump-off with subs uent ring-up. This observation is consistent with a broadened detohation shock in the granular bed. ?he data is analyzed for equation-of-state information and JWL parameters are given.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Davis, L. L. (Lloyd L.) & Hill, L. G. (Larry G.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Anisotropic Damage Analysis of HY100 Steel Under Quasistatic Loading Conditions

Description: The effect of MnS inclusion orientation on damage evolution and fracture toughness in HYlOO steel is investigated in the context of anisotropic damage modeling at the continuum level. Experimental notched-bar data sets are analyzed and modeled using finite element calculations with constitutive behavior that assumes isotropic elastoplastic behavior in conjunction with anisotropic damage.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Laboratory, Los Alamos National
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Annex G:transformation of images, extensions

Description: This Recommendation/International Standard uses a transformation of tile components. In this Annex and all of its sub clauses, the flow charts and tables are normative only in the sense that they are defining an output that alternative implementations shall duplicate.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Brislawn, C. M. (Christopher M.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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