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Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Description: This report discusses President's authority to call for an item veto, or possibly expanded impoundment authority, consideration of impoundment reform, to provide him with greater control over federal spending.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: McMurtry, Virginia A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Financial Audit: American Battle Monuments Commission's Financial Statements for Fiscal Years 2000 and 1999

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "GAO reviewed the financial statement audit reports for the American Battle Monuments Commission for fiscal years 2000 and 1999. GAO found that (1) the consolidating financial statements for fiscal year 2000 and comparative consolidated totals for fiscal year 1999 are presented fairly in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles; (2) although internal controls should be improved, the Commission had effective internal control over financial reporting and compliance with laws and regulations as of September 30, 2000; and (3) there are no reportable instances of noncompliance with selected provisions of laws and regulations GAO tested. However, GAO noticed three deficiencies in internal controls over information technology systems."
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Financial Audit: Bureau of the Public Debt's Fiscal Years 2000 and 1999 Schedules of Federal Debt

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "GAO audited the Bureau of Public Debt's (BPD) Schedule of Federal Debt for the fiscal years 2000 and 1999. GAO found that (1) the Schedules of Federal Debt were presented fairly, in all material respects, in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles, (2) BPD had effective internal control over financial reporting and compliance with laws and regulations related to the Schedule of Federal Debt for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2000, and (3) there were no reportable noncompliance in fiscal year 2000 with a selected provision of a law GAO tested."
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Financial Audit: IRS' Fiscal Year 2000 Financial Statements

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Internal Revenue Service's (IRS) fiscal year 2000 financial statements, including the accompanying notes, present fairly, in all material respects, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, IRS' assets, liabilities, net position, net costs, changes in net position, budgetary resources, reconciliation of net costs to budgetary obligations, and custodial activity, for fiscal year 2000. However, misstatements may nevertheless occur in other financial information reported by the IRS as a result of internal control weaknesses. Because of material weaknesses in internal controls, IRS did not maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting or compliance with laws and regulations, and thus did not provide reasonable assurance that losses, misstatements, and noncompliance with laws material in relation to the financial statements would be prevented or detected in an ongoing manner and on a timely basis. GAO's tests of compliance with selected provisions of laws and regulations disclosed two instances of noncompliance with laws and regulations that are reportable under U.S. generally accepted government auditing standards or Office of Management and Budget guidance."
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Abstracts of Reports and Testimony: Fiscal Year 2000

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) is an independent, nonpartisan agency in the legislative branch. GAO provides Congress with the best information available to help members make informed oversight, policy, and funding decisions. GAO meets Congress' information needs by (1) evaluating how government programs and policies are working, (2) auditing agency operations to determine whether federal funds are being spent efficiently and effectively, (3) investigating allegations of illegal and improper activities, and (4) issuing legal decisions and opinions. Most GAO work is done at the request of committees or members, but some reports are self-initiated or done in response to congressional mandates included in public laws or committee reports. GAO's annual index is a two-volume set. The first volume--Abstracts of Reports and Testimony: Fiscal Year 2000--contains summaries of 878 publicly released reports and testimony listed alphabetically by division or staff office. Classified reports, correspondence, and legal publications are not included. The second volume--Indexes for Reports and Testimony: Fiscal Year 2000--contains several indexes to help you locate reports and testimony by issue category, subject matter, title, or GAO witness. The annual index is also available in electronic format on GAO's website (www.gao.gov)."
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Operating Environment and Functional Requirements for Intelligent Distributed Control in the Electric Power Grid

Description: The restructuring of the U.S. power industry will surely lead to a greater dependence on computers and communications to allow appropriate information sharing for management and control of the power grid. This report describes the operating environment for system operations that control the bulk power system as it exists today including the role NERC plays in this process. Some high-level functional requirements for new approaches to control of the grid are listed followed by a description of the next research steps that are needed to identify specific information management functions.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: Smathers, Douglas C. & Akhil, Abbas Ali
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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WHITE PAPER ON PROTON - NUCLEUS COLLISONS.

Description: The role of proton-nucleus (p-A) collisions in the study of strong interactions has a long history. It has been an important testing ground for QCD. At RHIC p-A studies have been recognized since the beginning as important elements of the program. These include so-called baseline measurements in cold nuclear matter, essential (along with p-p studies) to a systematic study of QCD at high temperatures and densities in the search for the quark gluon plasma. Also accessible is a study of QCD in the small x (parton saturation) regime, complementary to physics accessible in high-energy e-p and e-A collisions. The role of p-A physics at RHIC was reviewed and brought into sharp focus at a workshop conducted in October 2000 at BNL; the agenda is shown in Appendix 1. This document summarizes the case for p-A at RHIC during the period covered by the next Nuclear Physics Long Range Plan. In subsequent sections we cover the Physics Issues, Experiment Run Plans and Schedule, Detector Upgrade Issues, and Machine Issues & Upgrades.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: ARONSON,S.H. & PENG,J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SEPARATION OF CO2 FROM FLUE GASES BY CARBON-MULTIWALL CARBON NANOTUBE MEMBRANES

Description: Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were found to be an effective separation media for removing CO{sub 2} from N{sub 2}. The separation mechanism favors the selective condensation of CO{sub 2} from the flowing gas stream. Significant uptakes of CO{sub 2} were measured at 30 C and 150 C over the pressure range 0.5 to 5 bar. No measurable uptake of nitrogen was found for this range of conditions. The mass uptake of CO{sub 2} by MWNT was found to increase with increasing temperature. A packed bed of MWNT completely removed CO{sub 2} from a flowing stream of CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, and exhibited rapid uptake kinetics for CO{sub 2}.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: Andrews, Rodney
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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OBEST: The Object-Based Event Scenario Tree Methodology

Description: Event tree analysis and Monte Carlo-based discrete event simulation have been used in risk assessment studies for many years. This report details how features of these two methods can be combined with concepts from object-oriented analysis to develop a new risk assessment methodology with some of the best features of each. The resultant Object-Based Event Scenarios Tree (OBEST) methodology enables an analyst to rapidly construct realistic models for scenarios for which an a priori discovery of event ordering is either cumbersome or impossible (especially those that exhibit inconsistent or variable event ordering, which are difficult to represent in an event tree analysis). Each scenario produced by OBEST is automatically associated with a likelihood estimate because probabilistic branching is integral to the object model definition. The OBEST method uses a recursive algorithm to solve the object model and identify all possible scenarios and their associated probabilities. Since scenario likelihoods are developed directly by the solution algorithm, they need not be computed by statistical inference based on Monte Carlo observations (as required by some discrete event simulation methods). Thus, OBEST is not only much more computationally efficient than these simulation methods, but it also discovers scenarios that have extremely low probabilities as a natural analytical result--scenarios that would likely be missed by a Monte Carlo-based method. This report documents the OBEST methodology, the demonstration software that implements it, and provides example OBEST models for several different application domains, including interactions among failing interdependent infrastructure systems, circuit analysis for fire risk evaluation in nuclear power plants, and aviation safety studies.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: Wyss, Gregory D. & Duran, Felicia A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Integrating Monitoring and Decision Modeling within a Cooperative Framework: Promoting Transboundary Water Management and Avoiding Regional Conflict

Description: Surface and groundwater resources do not recognize political boundaries. Where nature and boundary cross, tension over shared water resources can erupt. Such tension is exacerbated in regions where demand approaches or exceeds sustainable supplies of water. Establishing equitable management strategies can help prevent and resolve conflict over shared water resources. This paper describes a methodology for addressing transboundary water issues predicated on the integration of monitoring and modeling within a framework of cooperation. Cooperative monitoring begins with agreement by international scientists and/or policy makers on transboundary monitoring goals and strategies; it leads to the process of obtaining and sharing agreed-upon information among parties with the purpose of providing verifiable and secure data. Cooperative modeling is the process by which the parties jointly interpret the data, forecast future events and trends, and quantify cause and effect relationships. Together, cooperative monitoring and modeling allow for the development and assessment of alternative management and remediation strategies that could form the basis of regional watershed agreements or treaties. An example of how this multifaceted approach might be used to manage a shared water resource is presented for the Kura River basin in the Caucasus.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: Tidwell, Vincent C.; Salerno, Reynolds M.; Passell, Howard D.; Larson, Kelli L.; Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna; Wolf, Aaron T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analysis of Decisions in Multilateral Engagements

Description: This report provides insight into strike incentives, preemption, and willingness to strike first in interaction and escalation.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: Canavan, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Dynamic Multi-Rigid-Body Systems with Concurrent Distributed Contacts: Theory and Examples

Description: Consider a system of rigid bodies with multiple concurrent contacts. The multi-rigid-body contact problem is to predict the accelerations of the bodies and the normal friction loads acting at the contacts. This paper presents theoretical results for the multi-rigid-body contact problem under the assumptions that one or more contacts occur over locally planar, finite regions and that friction forces are consistent with the maximum work inequality. Existence and uniqueness results are presented for this problem under mild assumptions on the system inputs. In addition, the performance of two different time-stepping methods for integrating the dynamics are compared on two simple multi-body systems.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: TRINKLE, JEFFREY C.; TZITZOURIS, J.A. & PANG, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Annual Report RCRA Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspections for CAU 112: Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, for the Period October 1999-October 2000

Description: This annual Neutron Soil Moisture Monitoring report provides an analysis and summary for site inspections, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture monitoring data obtained at the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) unit, located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, during the October 1999-October 2000 period. Inspections of the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches RCRA unit are conducted to determine and document the physical condition of the covers, facilities, and any unusual conditions that could impact the proper operation of the waste unit closure. Physical inspections of the closure were completed quarterly and indicated that the site is in good condition with no significant findings noted. An annual subsidence survey of the elevation markers was conducted in August 2000. There has been no subsidence at any of the markers since monitoring began seven years ago. The objective of the neutron logging program is to monitor the soil moisture conditions along 30 neutron access tubes and detect changes that maybe indicative of moisture movement at a point located directly beneath each trench. Precipitation for the period October 1999 through October 2000 was 10.44 centimeters (cm) (4.11 inches [in.]) (U.S. National Weather Service, 2000). The prior year annual rainfall (January 1999 through December 1999) was 10.13cm (3.99 in.). The highest 30-day cumulative rainfall occurred on March 8, 2000, with a total of 6.63 cm (2.61 in.). The heaviest daily precipitation occurred on February 23,2000, with a total of 1.70 cm (0.67 in.) falling in that 24-hour period. The recorded average annual rainfall for this site, from 1972 to January 1999, is 15.06 cm (5.93 in.). All monitored access tubes are within the compliance criteria of less than 5 percent residual volumetric moisture content at the compliance point directly beneath each respective trench. …
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: Emer, D. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Federal Technology Alert: Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Federal Facilities--Second Edition

Description: This Federal Technology Alert, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Federal Energy Management Programs, provides the detailed information and procedures that a Federal energy manager needs to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. This report updates an earlier report on ground-source heat pumps that was published in September 1995. In the current report, general benefits of this technology to the Federal sector are described, as are ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits. In addition, information on current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are provided.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: Hadley, Donald L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Uranium Hydride Nucleation Kinetics: Effects of Oxide Thickness and Vacuum Outgassing

Description: Many factors such as impurities in the oxide and metal, microstructure, gas impurities, and oxide thickness may influence the rate and location of the nucleation of hydride on uranium. This work has concentrated on isolating one of these variables, the oxide thickness, and measuring the effect of the oxide thickness on uranium hydride nucleation. Uranium samples, all from the same lot, were prepared with different oxide thicknesses. The oxide thickness was measured using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. Oxidized uranium samples were then exposed to ultra-high purity hydrogen gas under constant volume conditions. Decreases in pressure indicated hydrogen uptake by the sample. The time for hydride nucleation--as well as the maximum hydriding rate--was then calculated from the measured decreases in pressure. The time to nucleate a hydride was found to increase whereas the maximum hydriding rate was found to decrease with increasing oxide thickness. The density of hydride pits also decreased with increasing oxide thickness. The observed results support the argument that the nucleation of hydride is controlled somewhat by diffusion of hydrogen through the oxide layer. Vacuum outgassing of samples, thereby removing the oxide impurities and keeping the oxide thickness constant, dramatically decreased the nucleation time and increased the maximum hydriding rate. Again, this is consistent with hydrogen diffusion through the oxide controlling the nucleation of hydride. Impurities in the oxide layer can decrease the diffusivity of hydrogen and therefore delay the nucleation of uranium hydride.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: Teter, David F.; Hanrahan, Robert J. & Wetteland, Christopher J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Final Report and Documentation for the Optical Backplane/Interconnect for High Speed Communication LDRD

Description: Current copper backplane technology has reached the technical limits of clock speed and width for systems requiring multiple boards. Currently, bus technology such as VME and PCI (types of buses) will face severe limitations are the bus speed approaches 100 MHz. At this speed, the physical length limit of an unterminated bus is barely three inches. Terminating the bus enables much higher clock rates but at drastically higher power cost. Sandia has developed high bandwidth parallel optical interconnects that can provide over 40 Gbps throughput between circuit boards in a system. Based on Sandia's unique VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) technology, these devices are compatible with CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) chips and have single channel bandwidth in excess of 20 GHz. In this project, we are researching the use of this interconnect scheme as the physical layer of a greater ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) based backplane. There are several advantages to this technology including small board space, lower power and non-contact communication. This technology is also easily expandable to meet future bandwidth requirements in excess of 160 Gbps sometimes referred to as UTOPIA 6. ATM over optical backplane will enable automatic switching of wide high-speed circuits between boards in a system. In the first year we developed integrated VCSELs and receivers, identified fiber ribbon based interconnect scheme and a high level architecture. In the second year, we implemented the physical layer in the form of a PCI computer peripheral card. A description of future work including super computer networking deployment and protocol processing is included.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: ROBERTSON, PERRY J.; CHEN, HELEN Y.; BRANDT, JAMES M.; SULLIVAN, CHARLES T.; PIERSON, LYNDON G.; WITZKE, EDWARD L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Characteristics and Technologies for Long- vs. Short-Term Energy Storage: A Study by the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program

Description: This report describes the results of a study on stationary energy storage technologies for a range of applications that were categorized according to storage duration (discharge time): long or short. The study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy through the Energy Storage Systems Program. A wide variety of storage technologies were analyzed according to performance capabilities, cost projects, and readiness to serve these many applications, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are presented.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: SCHOENUNG, SUSAN M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Computer Simulation of Bubble Growth in Metals Due to He

Description: Atomistic simulations of the growth of helium bubbles in metals are performed. The metal is represented by embedded atom method potentials for palladium. The helium bubbles are treated via an expanding repulsive spherical potential within the metal lattice. The simulations predict bubble pressures that decrease monotonically with increasing helium to metal ratios. The swelling of the material associated with the bubble growth is also computed. It is found that the rate of swelling increases with increasing helium to metal ratio consistent with experimental observations on the swelling of metal tritides. Finally, the detailed defect structure due to the bubble growth was investigated. Dislocation networks are observed to form that connect the bubbles. Unlike early model assumptions, prismatic loops between the bubbles are not retained. These predictions are compared to available experimental evidence.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: FOILES, STEPHEN M. & HOYT, JEFFREY J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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