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Retiree Health Benefits: Employer-Sponsored Benefits May Be Vulnerable to Further Erosion

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "In 1999, nearly 10 million retired people aged 55 or older relied on employer-sponsored health insurance as either their primary source of coverage or as a supplement to their Medicare coverage. Some of these persons are concerned about the continued availability of employer-sponsored coverage. Premium increases and forecasts for a potential economic slowdown could further erode employer-sponsored benefits. In the long term, these factors, coupled with the potential for Medicare reforms and the rising number of aging baby boomers, may produce even more uncertainty and cost pressures for employers. Consequently, as an increasing number of retirees lack employer-based coverage, those in poorer health may have difficulty finding affordable alternative health coverage."
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Three-Dimensional Analysis of Voids in AM60B Magnesium Tensile Bars Using Computed Tomography Imagery

Description: In an effort to increase automobile fuel efficiency as well as decrease the output of harmful greenhouse gases, the automotive industry has recently shown increased interest in cast light metals such as magnesium alloys in an effort to increase weight savings. Currently several magnesium alloys such as AZ91 and AM60B are being used in structural applications for automobiles. However, these magnesium alloys are not as well characterized as other commonly used structural metals such as aluminum. This dissertation presents a methodology to nondestructively quantify damage accumulation due to void behavior in three dimensions in die-cast magnesium AM60B tensile bars as a function of mechanical load. Computed tomography data was acquired after tensile bars were loaded up to and including failure, and analyzed to characterize void behavior as it relates to damage accumulation. Signal and image processing techniques were used along with a cluster labeling routine to nondestructively quantify damage parameters in three dimensions. Void analyses were performed including void volume distribution characterization, nearest neighbor distance calculations, shape parameters, and volumetric renderings of voids in the alloy. The processed CT data was used to generate input files for use in finite element simulations, both two- and three-dimensional. The void analyses revealed that the overwhelming source of failure in each tensile bar was a ring of porosity within each bar, possibly due to a solidification front inherent to the casting process. The measured damage parameters related to void nucleation, growth, and coalescence were shown to contribute significantly to total damage accumulation. Void volume distributions were characterized using a Weibull function, and the spatial distributions of voids were shown to be clustered. Two-dimensional finite element analyses of the tensile bars were used to fine-tune material damage models and a three-dimensional mesh of an extracted portion of one tensile bar including voids was generated …
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Waters, A M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVII : Effects of Ocean Covariates and Release Timing on First Ocean-Year Survival of Fall Chinook Salmon from Oregon and Washington Coastal Hatcheries.

Description: Effects of oceanographic conditions, as well as effects of release-timing and release-size, on first ocean-year survival of subyearling fall chinook salmon were investigated by analyzing CWT release and recovery data from Oregon and Washington coastal hatcheries. Age-class strength was estimated using a multinomial probability likelihood which estimated first-year survival as a proportional hazards regression against ocean and release covariates. Weight-at-release and release-month were found to significantly effect first year survival (p < 0.05) and ocean effects were therefore estimated after adjusting for weight-at-release. Negative survival trend was modeled for sea surface temperature (SST) during 11 months of the year over the study period (1970-1992). Statistically significant negative survival trends (p < 0.05) were found for SST during April, June, November and December. Strong pairwise correlations (r > 0.6) between SST in April/June, April/November and April/December suggest the significant relationships were due to one underlying process. At higher latitudes (45{sup o} and 48{sup o}N), summer upwelling (June-August) showed positive survival trend with survival and fall (September-November) downwelling showed positive trend with survival, indicating early fall transition improved survival. At 45{sup o} and 48{sup o}, during spring, alternating survival trends with upwelling were observed between March and May, with negative trend occurring in March and May, and positive trend with survival occurring in April. In January, two distinct scenarios of improved survival were linked to upwelling conditions, indicated by (1) a significant linear model effect (p < 0.05) showing improved survival with increasing upwelling, and (2) significant bowl-shaped curvature (p < 0.05) of survival with upwelling. The interpretation of the effects is that there was (1) significantly improved survival when downwelling conditions shifted to upwelling conditions in January (i.e., early spring transition occurred, p < 0.05), (2) improved survival during strong downwelling conditions (Bakun units < -250). Survival decreased during weak downwelling …
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Burgess, Caitlin & Skalski, John R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume VII : Evaluation of the Compliance Testing Framework for RPA Improvement as Stated in the 2000 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion.

Description: Using the pre-2000 reach survival probabilities reported in the 2000 FCRPS Biological Opinion (BO) for three selected stocks: yearling and sub-yearling chinook and steelhead, power curves were constructed for each of the two statistical hypothesis tests suggested in the BO. These power calculation results were interpreted in terms of the ability of the statistical tests to correctly identify the true states of recovery (i.e., fail or succeed in fulfilling RPA expectations). The proposed one-sided tests have a moderate to low probability of correctly assessing the true status of the recovery by the years 2005 and 2008. The relatively poor odds of making the correct decision with the BO proposed Tests 1 and 2 suggest alternative decision rules need to be investigated and developed for assessing RPA compliance. Therefore, we propose to immediately examine alternative decision rules that might maximize the likelihood of correct decisions while minimizing the prospect of incorrect decisions. The Bayesian analysis will incorporate scientific/biological knowledge/expertise.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Skalski, John R. & Ngouenet, Roger F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Simulation of Tailrace Hydrodynamics Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Models

Description: This report investigates the feasibility of using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools to investigate hydrodynamic flow fields surrounding the tailrace zone below large hydraulic structures. Previous and ongoing studies using CFD tools to simulate gradually varied flow with multiple constituents and forebay/intake hydrodynamics have shown that CFD tools can provide valuable information for hydraulic and biological evaluation of fish passage near hydraulic structures. These studies however are incapable of simulating the rapidly varying flow fields that involving breakup of the free-surface, such as those through and below high flow outfalls and spillways. Although the use of CFD tools for these types of flow are still an active area of research, initial applications discussed in this report show that these tools are capable of simulating the primary features of these highly transient flow fields.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Cook, Christopher B. & Richmond, Marshall C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Evaluation of the Fish Passage Effectiveness of the Bonneville I Prototype Surface Collector using Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Fish Tracking

Description: This report describes tests conducted at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River in the spring of 2000 using three-dimensional acoustic telemetry and computational fluid dynamics hydraulic modeling to observe the response of outmigrating juvenile steelhead and yearling chinook to a prototype surface collector installed at the Powerhouse. The study described in this report was one of several conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to prepare a decision document on which of two bypass methods: surface flow bypass or extended-length submersible bar screens to use to help smolts pass around Bonneville dams without going through the turbines.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Faber, Derrek M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Moursund, Robert; Carlson, Thomas J.; Adams, Noah & Rhondorf, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Physical Characterization and Steam Chemical Reactivity of Carbon Fiber Composites

Description: This report documents experiments and analyses that have been done at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to measure the steam chemical reactivity of two types of carbon fiber composites, NS31 and NB31, proposed for use at the divertor strike points in an ITER-like tokamak. These materials are 3D CFCs constituted by a NOVOLTEX preform and densified by pyrocarbon infiltration and heat treatment. NS31 differs from NB31 in that the final infiltration was done with liquid silicon to reduce the porosity and enhance the thermal conductivity of the CFC. Our approach in this work was twofold: (1) physical characterization measurements of the specimens and (2) measurements of the chemical reactivity of specimens exposed to steam.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Anderl, Robert Andrew; Pawelko, Robert James & Smolik, Galen Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Midwest Transmission Workshop I Summary

Description: OAK-B135 The meeting was opened with a review of the purposes of the workshop: (1) Present and discuss key studies and assessments of transmission upgrades, additions and related issues for the upper Midwest, including work that addresses the full range of views on these topics; (2) Understand the various transmission issues in the upper Midwest and discuss options for addressing the issues; and (3) Identify the decision makers and entities that need to play an active role if transmission issues are to be resolved, and agree on next steps for engaging these individuals and organizations through education, outreach, and information dissemination.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Bryan, Kevin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Application of Chemically Accelerated Biotreatment to Reduce Risk in Oil-Impacted Soils Semi-Annual Report: November 2000-April 2001

Description: The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Paterek, J. R.; Bogan, W. W.; Lahner, L. M.; Trbovic, V. & Korach, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Research on electric utility regulatory and policy matters relating to state and federal jurisdiction. Final report for period September 1, 1994 - February 28, 2001

Description: The projects funded by the above referenced grant, are based on the October 1992 proposal to the FERC, which outlined the need for closer dialogue between Federal and State energy officials. The project is designed to assist State commissioners in responding to outreach initiatives that were already forthcoming from the FERC and to further develop and refine proposals that were still outstanding.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Spahn, Andrew & Dwyer, Alix
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Assessment of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program. Final Report

Description: An assessment of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) program with guidance for future program strategy. The overall objective of this study is to prepare an independent assessment of the scientific quality of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences program at the Department of Energy. The Fusion Science Assessment Committee (FuSAC) has been appointed to conduct this study.
Date: May 1, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Deep Borehole Instrumentation Along San Francisco Bay Bridges - 2001

Description: This is a progress report on the Bay Bridges downhole network. Between 2 and 8 instruments have been spaced along the Dumbarton, San Mateo, Bay, and San Rafael bridges in San Francisco Bay, California. The instruments will provide multiple use data that is important to geotechnical, structural engineering, and seismological studies. The holes are between 100 and 1000 ft deep and were drilled by Caltrans. There are twenty-one sensor packages at fifteen sites. The downhole instrument package contains a three component HS-1 seismometer and three orthogonal Wilcox 731 accelerometers, and is capable of recording a micro g from local M = 1.0 earthquakes to 0.5 g strong ground motion form large Bay Area earthquakes. This report list earthquakes and stations where recordings were obtained during the period February 29, 2000 to November 11, 2000. Also, preliminary results on noise analysis for up and down hole recordings at Yerba Buena Island is presented.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Hutchings, L.; Kasameyer, P.; Long, L.; McEvilly, T.; Clymer, R.; Urhhammer, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Technology Transfer to U.S. Independent Oil and Natural Gas Producers

Description: The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's Board made a strategic decision to relocate the Headquarters (HQ) office from Washington, DC to Houston, Texas. Driving force behind relocation was to better connect with independent producers, but cost savings could also be realized. Relocation was accomplished in late December 2000, with the HQ office being fully operational by January 2001. Early indications are that the HQ relocation is, in fact, enabling better networking with senior executives of independents in the Houston oil community. New Board leadership, elected in March 2001, will continue to effectively guide PTTC.
Date: May 1, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Genetic and Phenotype [Phenotypic] Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the interior Columbia River Basin : FY-99 Report : Populations of the Pend Oreille, Kettle, and Sanpoil River Basins of Colville National Forest.

Description: The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project is to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-99 was year two of a five-year project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-99 we worked in collaboration with the Colville National Forest and Kalispel Indian Tribe to catalog populations in the northeastern corner of Washington State.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Trotter, Patrick C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Conbined noble gas and stable isotope constraints on nitrogen gas sources within sedimentary basins. Final report for period 15 March 1996 - 14 March 1999 extended to 14 March 2000

Description: Nitrogen is one of the major non-hydrocarbon gases found in natural gas reservoirs. The objective of this work was to combine the information available from both noble gas and stable isotope systematics to understand the origin of nitrogen and related gas sources, transport behavior, and mass balance within natural gas reservoirs and sedimentary basin systems. The goals achieved are summarized under the following headings: Noble gas and stable isotopes in nitrogen-rich natural gases; Noble gases in groundwater; and Characterization of magmatic and crustal noble gas input into basin systems. Lists of publications and presentations are included.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Ballentine, C.J.; Halliday, Alexander N. & Lollar, B. Sherwood
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

Description: The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D&D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D&D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness of separating out radioactive contamination, the copper cable was coated with a surrogate contaminant. The demonstration took place at the Bonneville County Technology Center in …
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Hubbard, Chelsea
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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DATA MINING AT THE NEBRASKA OIL & GAS COMMISSION

Description: The purpose of this study of the hearing records is to identify factors that are likely to impact the performance of a waterflood in the Nebraska panhandle. The records consisted of 140 cases. Most of the hearings were held prior to 1980. Many of the records were incomplete, and data believed to be key to estimating waterflood performance such as Dykstra-Parson permeability distribution or relative permeability were absent. New techniques were applied to analyze the sparse, incomplete dataset. When information is available, but not clearly understood, new computational intelligence tools can decipher correlations in the dataset. Fuzzy ranking and neural networks were the tools used to estimate secondary recovery from the Cliff Farms Unit. The hearing records include 30 descriptive entries that could influence the success or failure of a waterflood. Success or failure is defined by the ratio of secondary to primary oil recovery (S/P). Primary recovery is defined as cumulative oil produced at the time of the hearing and secondary recovery is defined as the oil produced since the hearing date. Fuzzy ranking was used to prioritize the relevance of 6 parameters on the outcome of the proposed waterflood. The 6 parameters were universally available in 44 of the case hearings. These 44 cases serve as the database used to correlate the following 6 inputs with the respective S/P. (1) Cumulative Water oil ratio, bbl/bbl; (2) Cumulative Gas oil ratio, mcf/bbl; (3) Unit area, acres; (4) Average Porosity, %; (5) Average Permeability, md; (6) Initial bottom hole pressure, psi. A 6-3-1 architecture describes the neural network used to develop a correlation between the 6 input parameters and their respective S/P. The network trained to a 85% correlation coefficient. The predicted Cliff Farms Unit S/P is 0.315 or secondary recovery is expected to be 102,700 bbl.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Weber, James R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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