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Comparative assessment of energy-economy interactions

Description: This analysis is concerned with the impact of energy-policy measures on the level, growth, and structure of the US economy. In particular, the nature and magnitude of the causal relationship between variations in the prices of various energy forms and economic performance, as measured by real gross national product (GNP), is studied. The combined Brookhaven National Laboratory/Dale W. Jorgenson Associates (BNL/DHA) energy-economy model system is used to determine the economic effects of three energy-price futures combined with an invariant set of energy policies. The price alternatives are intended to characterize the uncertainty that exists in the policy-planning environment. In addition, the results are compared to those obtained from another DOE-sponsored analysis which used the Data Resources, Incorporated (DRI) quarterly macroeconomic model to assess the effects of these same three cases. Significant numerical differences in the results from these modeling systems are observed and are attributed to structural differences between the two methodologies. The methodological issues emerging from this comparison have important policy implications which are independent of the specific numerical conclusions. Since it is uncertain which, if either, of the models is correct, the use of one for policy analysis entails the risk that policy will be predicated on inaccurate information. This risk is analyzed within an explicit framework and clear decision rules for information selection and the choice between the modeling systems are formulated.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Goettle, R.J. IV; Hudson, E.A. & Lukachinski, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Geothermal Materials Development, Annual Report FY 1991

Description: Advances in the development of new materials, the commercial availabilities of which are essential for the attainment of Hydrothermal Category Level I and II Objectives, continue to be made in the Geothermal Materials Development Project. Many successes have already been accrued and the results used commercially. In FY 1991, utility company sponsored full cost'' recovery programs based upon materials technology developed in this project were initiated on topics such as condensing heat exchangers, high temperature composites for utility vaults used in district heating systems, and corrosion resistant coatings for use in oil-fired electric generating processes. In FY 1991 the DOE/GD-sponsored R D project was focused on reducing well drilling, fluid transport and energy conversion costs. Specific activities being performed included lightweight CO{sub 2}- resistant well cements, chemical systems for lost circulation control, thermally conductive and scale resistant protective linear systems, corrosion mitigation in process components at The Geysers, and elastomer-metal bonding systems needed for use in high temperature well drilling and safety related applications.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Kukacka, L. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Selected constituents in the smoke of domestic low tar cigarettes

Description: Thirty-two brands of domestic commercial low tar and nicotine cigarettes were analyzed for their production of tar, nicotine, nitrogen oxides (as nitric oxide), hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide under standard analytical smoking conditions. Results are compared with published data for certain brands.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Griest, W. H.; Quincy, R. B. & Guerin, M. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Technician support for operation and maintenance of large fusion experiments: the tandem mirror experiment upgrade (TMX-U) approach

Description: As experiments continue to grow in size and complexity, a few technicians will no longer be able to maintain and operate the complete experiment. Specialization is becoming the norm. Subsystems are becoming very large and complex, requiring a great deal of experience and training for technicians to become qualified maintenance/operation personnel. Formal in-house and off-site programs supplement on-the-job training to fulfill the qualification criteria. This paper presents the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) approach to manpower staffing, some problems encountered, possible improvements, and safety considerations for the successful operation of a large experimental facility.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Mattson, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Comprehensive energy-management program. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal absorber. Annual report, September 1, 1980-December 31, 1981

Description: Research work was done during the reporting period on the two-part research program: (A) to improve energy conservation through increased unit and system efficiencies, energy management, and system optimization, and (B) to develop a novel, low-cost hybrid photovoltaic/thermal absorber. Performance tests were conducted on all the boilers and chillers on campus. Several corrective measures were indicated and implemented. A detailed survey of energy use by functions and consumption/demand study has been in progress. A preliminary computer simulation model of the entire campus has been developed and made operational. It has been demonstrated both analytically and experimentally that the reradiation losses from the absorber can be reduced significantly by utilizing a light-pipe absorber. Two paraboloidal dishes, one of 6 ft diameter and the other of 20 ft diameter have been utilized. Collector efficiencies have been measured at coolant outlet temperatures up to 282/sup 0/C with a square light-pipe absorber and with 6 ft diameter concentrator. Laser ray testing was conducted on both the 6 ft and 20 ft diameter concentrators. Design of the total energy absorber has been completed.
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: Kumar, G. N.; Sellers, J. P. & Dybczak, Z. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Evaluation of an all-glass, evacuated, tubular, nonfocusing, nontracking solar collector array. First annual progress report, July 1, 1976--August 31, 1977

Description: A spaced, evacuated tubular radiation receiver employing a highly selective absorber surface and light enhancement features has been subject to extensive test and analysis. Air was used as the heat transfer fluid. The design, installation, test and analysis of the air cooled collector was conducted. The thermal performance of the air cooled collector was found to be better than predicted when rated on an all day operating basis. The high performance characteristic is enhanced by the features of ease of installation and freedom from maintenance and operational problems. High quality air or liquid may be provided (the latter by heat exchange) for a variety of load applications.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Moan, K L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Computer simulation of coal preparation plants. Part 2. User's manual. Final report

Description: This report describes a comprehensive computer program that allows the user to simulate the performance of realistic coal preparation plants. The program is very flexible in the sense that it can accommodate any particular plant configuration that may be of interest. This allows the user to compare the performance of different plant configurations and to determine the impact of various modes of operation with the same configuration. In addition, the program can be used to assess the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and a given mode of operation. Use of the simulator requires that the user specify the appearance of the plant configuration, the plant operating conditions, and a description of the coal feed. The simulator will then determine the flowrates within the plant, and a description of each flowrate (i.e., the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, and Btu content). The simulation program has been written in modular form using the Fortran language. It can be implemented on a great many different types of computers, ranging from large scientific mainframes to IBM-type personal computers with a fixed disk. Some customization may be required, however, to ensure compatibility with the features of Fortran available on a particular computer. Part I of this report contains a general description of the methods used to carry out the simulation. Each of the major types of units is described separately, in addition to a description of the overall system analysis. Part II is intended as a user's manual. It contains a listing of the mainframe version of the program, instructions for its use (on both a mainframe and a microcomputer), and output for a representative sample problem.
Date: December 1, 1985
Creator: Gottfried, B. S. & Tierney, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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An Evaluation of liquid metal leak detection methods for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

Description: This report documents an independent review and evaluation of sodium leak detection methods described in the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Only information in publicly available documents was used in making the assessments.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Morris, C. J. & Doctor, S. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Management of radioactive waste gases from the nuclear fuel cycle. Volume I. Comparison of alternatives

Description: Alternatives were compared for collection and fixation of radioactive waste gases released during normal operation of the nuclear fuel cycle, and for transportation and storage/disposal of the resulting waste forms. The study used a numerical rating scheme to evaluate and compare the alternatives for krypton-85, iodine-129, and carbon-14; whereas a subjective evaluation, based on published reports and engineering judgement, was made for transportation and storage/disposal options. Based on these evaluations, certain alternatives are recommended for an integrated scheme for waste management of each of the subject waste gases. Phase II of this project, which is concerned with the development of performance criteria for the waste forms associated with the subject gases, will be completed by the end of 1980. This work will be documented as Volume II of this report.
Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: Evans, A. G.; Prout, W. E.; Buckner, J. T. & Buckner, M. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Evaluation of models for developing biological input for the design and location of water-intake structures

Description: An approach for assessing multiple stimulus/response relations between fish and water intake structures is presented in this report. The approach stresses stimulus/response relations influencing fish and shellfish distribution and is made up of two methods. The first places emphasis on spatial and temperal distributions of populations; information is presented in the form of a non-predictive model, which allows for organizing information and documenting review processes. The second approach encompasses functional relationships between environmental and biological stimuli and responses of organisms. By using the two methods together, functional relationships can be evaluated to define the distribution of a fish or shellfish species. This information can then be used to resolve questions relating to impingement and entrainment.
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: Simmons, M. A. & McKenzie, D. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Basic aspects of radiation action on microorganisms. Final report for the period ending October 31, 1977. [Radioresistance of micrococcus luteus]

Description: Progress is reported on studies on the basic aspects of radiation effects on microorganisms. Results are included from studies on the effects of uv pretreatment on the survival of ..gamma..-irradiated micrococcus luteus and uv-induced radioresistance to bacteriophage.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Pollard, E.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Bibliography on augmentation of convective heat and mass transfer-II

Description: Heat transfer augmentation has developed into a major specialty area in heat transfer research and development. This report presents and updated bibliography of world literature on augmentation. The literature is classified into passive augmentation techniques, which require no external power, and active techniques, which do require external power. The fifteen techniques are grouped in terms of their applications to the various modes of heat transfer. Mass transfer is included for completeness. Key words are included with each citation for technique/mode identification. The total number of publications cited is 3045, including 135 surveys of various techniques and 86 papers on performance evaluation of passive techniques. Patents are not included, as they are the subject of a separate bibliographic report.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Bergles, A.E.; Nirmalan, V.; Junkhan, G.H. & Webb, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Procedure for developing biological input for the design, location, or modification of water-intake structures

Description: To minimize adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems resulting from the operation of water intake structures, design engineers must have relevant information on the behavior, physiology and ecology of local fish and shellfish. Identification of stimulus/response relationships and the environmental factors that influence them is the first step in incorporating biological information in the design, location or modification of water intake structures. A procedure is presented in this document for providing biological input to engineers who are designing, locating or modifying a water intake structure. The authors discuss sources of stimuli at water intakes, historical approaches in assessing potential/actual impact and review biological information needed for intake design.
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: Neitzel, D. A. & McKenzie, D. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration-Plant Program. Pretreatment unit options (Deliverable No. 41)

Description: Three approaches to pretreatment for the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant project in the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) Pilot Plant have been examined. Analyses of these approaches, selection of the best alternative among the three, and detailed design and evaluation of cost and schedule impacts were made. The best approach available to pretreatment demonstration is an integrated pretreater - an ash agglomerating gasifier (AAG) that uses the existing AAG system, a new pretreater pressure vessel, and needed ancillary equipment. Based on pilot plant results, IGT dos not recommend pretreatment for the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant or testing pretreatment in the IGT Pilot Plant, but merely suggests the above approach to pilot plant testing of pretreatment as the most viable. Based on pilot plant tests, IGT does not feel that pretreatment is necessary for operation of the ash agglomerating gasifier with Western Kentucky No. 9 coal. IGT has developed a feeding technique that enables raw coal to be fed directly to the gasifier without plugging of the feed nozzle lines which has been demonstrated in several tests. Should pretreatment prove necessary because of unforeseen circumstances, IGT has studied the available alternatives and has selected the best alternative for detailed consideration. If pretreatment is required, it can be implemented efficiently in accordance with plans developed.
Date: December 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Results of the radiological survey at 17 John Street, Lodi, New Jersey

Description: Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally {sup 232}Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 17 John Street, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ088), was conducted during 1988. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: December 1, 1989
Creator: Foley, R.D. & Floyd, L.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Staff rosters for 1979: environmental programs

Description: The roster of the scientific and professional staffs of the Environmental Programs of the Department of Energy and Environment has been compiled as of December 1979. Staff members have been listed according to their organizational units, i.e., the Atmospheric Sciences Division, the Environmental Chemistry Division, the Oceanographic Sciences Division, and the Land and Freshwater Environmental Sciences Group. Educational background, research interests, professional activities, summary of experience at BNL, and selected publications have been included for each member listed.
Date: December 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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LLL total flow geothermal program: summary of two-phase nozzle tests for scale control and materials performance

Description: A series of nozzle and wearblade tests to evaluate scale control and materials performance under total flow nozzle inlet conditions and simulated turbine blade environments was completed using Magmamax No. 1 well fluid. Brine acidification was effective in preventing scale in nozzles and on wearblade flow surfaces. Acid consumption measurements indicate that acid cost will be less than 2 mills/100 lb. brine. Measured erosion rates were low and the results indicate that available materials will allow successful turbine operation for many years. Stress corrosion cracking was not observed in specimens of the leading candidate turbine material (Ti-6A1-4V) after up to 60-hours operation at stresses similar to those expected in an operating turbine system.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Tardiff, G.E. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Catalytic steam gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol

Description: Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) tested the catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol synthesis gas. The process uses steam, indirect heat, and a catalyst to produce synthesis gas in one step in fluidized bed gasifier. Both laboratory and process development scale (nominal 1 ton/day) gasifiers were used to test two different catalyst systems: (1) supported nickel catalysts and (2) alkali carbonates doped on the bagasse. This paper presents the results of laboratory and process development unit gasification tests and includes an economic evaluation of the process. 20 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Baker, E.G. & Brown, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Transverse spin observables in chromodynamics

Description: Quantum Chromodynamics confronts a harsh series of tests in the attempt to formulate a comprehensive approach to the calculation of transverse spin observables. The basic obstacles to understanding transverse spin can be illustrated by considering the transverse structure function g{sub T}(x, Q{sup 2}) = g{sub 1}(x, Q{sup 2}) + g{sub 2}(x, Q{sup 2}), extracted from deep-inelastic scattering using a polarized lepton and a polarized proton. The inadequacy of the transverse-spin basis for quarks and gluons found there suggests a new approach to the problems of single-spin observables in large-transverse-momentum processes. This approach, presented earlier for single spin production asymmetries, is discussed here. It is shown that the mechanism can also lead to baryon polarization effects at large P{sub T}. 14 refs.
Date: December 1, 1989
Creator: Sivers, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Prevention of biofouling on heat transfer surfaces of ocean thermal energy converters. Progress report, May 1, 1975--November 30, 1975

Description: The objectives of the program were to develop chemical processes utilizing a combination of certain fluorochemicals and tribulyltin based toxicants for treating the surfaces of metals which may be used to fabricate OTEC heat exchangers, and to demonstrate the effectiveness of these surface treatments as antibiofoulants. Aluminium alloy No. 3003-H14 and titanium were testd, neither of which proved satisfactory. (WDM)
Date: December 1, 1975
Creator: Ostrozynski, R.L. & Jones, P.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Biological Effects of Blast. Technical Progress Report

Description: The current state of knowledge relevant to biological blast effects was summarized in a selective manner. Initially, five problems of concern to those who would relate the environmental variations produced by nuclear weapons with biological response and hazard assessment were pointed out. Primary, secondary, tertiary, and miscellaneous blast effects were defined and selected interspecies experimental data of a physical and pathophysiological nature useful in estimating human response were presented. Tentative biological criteria defining safe levels of exposure were set forth as were survival curves for different conditions of exposure in Hiroshima. These were discussed along with the comparative variations in range of the free-field effects as they vary with explosive yield. The fundamental requirement for surviving seconds, minutes, and hours to abet survival for days, weeks, months, and years was emphasized along with the necessity for planning protective measures against all hazardous weapons effects as one attractive alternative for minimizing casualties and maximizing survival in the event of a nuclear war. (auth)
Date: December 1, 1961
Creator: White, C. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Habitat Evaluation and Monitoring in the Columbia River Basin, Final Report.

Description: The law established the Northwest Power Planning Council to prepare and adopt a regional conservation and electric power plan, and a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife. The objectives are the development of regional plans and programs related to energy conservation, renewable resources, other resources, and protecting mitigating, and enhancing fish and wildlife resources and to protect, mitigate, and enhance the fish and wildlife, including related spawning grounds and habitat, of the Columbia River and its tributaries. 4 refs.
Date: December 1, 1986
Creator: Everson, Larry B.; Campbell, Charles J.; Craven, Richard E. & Welsh, Thomas L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Effects of energy constraints on transportation systems. [Twenty-six papers]

Description: Twenty-six papers are presented on a variety of topics including: energy and transportaton facts and figures; long-range planning under energy constraints; technology assessment of alternative fuels; energy efficiency of intercity passenger and freight movement; energy efficiency of intracity passenger movement; federal role; electrification of railroads; energy impact of the electric car in an urban enviroment; research needs and projects in progress--federal viewpoint; research needs in transportation energy conservation--data needs; and energy intensity of various transportation modes--an overview. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers for inclusion in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Mittal, R. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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