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open access

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Education

Description: This report discusses artificial intelligence in education, including current applications, benefits and drawbacks, and policy considerations.
Date: August 1, 2018
Creator: Joyce, J. Lu. & Harris, Laurie A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Cambodian Election

Description: This report discusses the Cambodian National Assembly election, which was held on July 29, 2018 and U.S. policy responses. Critics viewed the election, in which the Cambodian People's Party (CPP) likely won all 125 parliamentary seats, as neither free nor fair and the victory as "hollow" given that the CPP banned the largest opposition party in 2017.
Date: August 1, 2018
Creator: Lum, Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides an overview of Arctic-related issues for Congress such as: Arctic sovereignty claims; commercial shipping through the Arctic; Arctic oil, gas, and mineral exploration; endangered Arctic species; and increased military operations in the Arctic that could cause the region in coming years to become an arena of international cooperation or competition.
Date: August 1, 2018
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities--Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on China's naval modernization effort and its implications for U.S. Navy capabilities. The question of how the United States should respond to China's military modernization effort, including its naval modernization effort, is a key issue in U.S. defense planning and budgeting. Many U.S. military programs for countering improving Chinese military forces (particularly its naval forces) fall within the U.S. Navy's budget.
Date: August 1, 2018
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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China's Actions in South and East China Seas: Implications for U.S. Interests--Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress regarding China's actions in the South China Sea (SCS) and East China Sea (ECS), with a focus on implications for U.S. strategic and policy interests. Other CRS reports focus on other aspects of maritime territorial disputes involving China.
Date: August 1, 2018
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Defense Primer: Military Pay Raise

Description: This report discusses military pay raises and the annual statutory basic pay raise based on changes in the Employment Cost Index. It includes descriptions of information related to the topic along with a table of historical increases in basic pay.
Date: August 1, 2018
Creator: Kapp, Lawrence
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Iran's Ballistic Missile and Space Launch Programs

Description: This report provides an overview of the sociopolitical and economic situation in Iran, and discusses Iran's ballistic missile and space launch programs.
Date: August 1, 2018
Creator: Hildreth, Steven A. & Jabbari, Cyrus A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Mexico's Immigration Control Efforts

Description: This report discusses the surge in unauthorized migration from Central America into Mexico and the U.S that began in 2014. Topics covered include Mexico's southern border plan, human rights concerns, and U.S. policy and developments under the Trump Administration.
Date: August 1, 2018
Creator: Seelke, Clare Ribando
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Aegis ballistic missile defense (BMD) program, which is carried out by the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and the Navy, and gives Navy Aegis cruisers and destroyers a capability for conducting BMD operations. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify Department of Defense (DOD) acquisition strategies and proposed funding levels for the Aegis BMD program. Congress's decisions on the Aegis BMD program could significantly affect U.S. BMD capabilities and funding requirements, and the BMD-related industrial base.
Date: August 1, 2018
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and potential issues for Congress on the Navy's irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) operations. The Navy's IW and CT activities pose a number of potential oversight issues for Congress, including how much emphasis to place on IW and CT activities in Navy budgets, particularly in a context of constraints on Navy budgets and Navy desires to devote resources to developing "high end" combat capabilities for countering improved conventional military capabilities of countries such as China and Russia. Congress's decisions regarding Navy IW and CT operations can affect Navy operations and funding requirements, and the implementation of the nation's overall IW and CT strategies.
Date: August 1, 2018
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Navy John Lewis (TAO-205) Class Oiler Shipbuilding Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the John Lewis (TAO205) class oiler shipbuilding program, a program to build a new class of 20 fleet oilers for the Navy. The TAO-205 program was previously known as the TAO(X) program. The Navy's proposed FY2019 budget requests the procurement of the third and fourth ships in the program.
Date: August 1, 2018
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Navy LPD-17 Flight II (LX[R]) Amphibious Ship Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the LPD-17 Flight II amphibious ship program, previously known as the LX(R) program. The Navy had planned to procure the first LPD-17 Flight II ship in FY2020. Congress, as part of its action on the Navy's proposed FY2018 budget, accelerated the procurement of the first LPD17 Flight II ship to FY2018. The Navy's FY2019 budget submission programs the procurement of the second LPD17 Flight II ship for FY2020. Decisions Congress makes on the LPD-17 FLIGHT II program will affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
Date: August 1, 2018
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Post-9/11 GI Bill: A Primer

Description: This report provides a detailed description of the Post-9/11 GI Bill. The first section describes participant eligibility criteria. The second section indicates a participant's entitlement to benefits and the period during which the benefits must be used. The third section describes the eligible programs of education. The subsequent section explains the eligible benefit payments. The final sections illustrate key links to other programs administered by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and current data on obligations and participation
Date: August 1, 2018
Creator: Dortch, Cassandria
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Protecting Consumers and Businesses from Fraudulent Robocalls

Description: This report discusses efforts by Congress and the Federal Communications Commision (FCC) to combat robocall scams and prevent them from reaching consumers. It includes an overview of what robocallls are, their legitimate uses, regulation, and complaint procedures for consumers.
Date: August 1, 2018
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

U.S.-EU Trade and Economic Issues

Description: This report discusses U.S.-EU trade and economic relations, which currently face heightened tension, particularly due to the Trump Administration's trade policy, which is focusing on unilateral tariff measures under U.S. trade law and taking a critical view of the U.S. role in international economic cooperation. Given U.S.-EU historical joint leadership on global trade and economic issues, these developments could have implications for the rules-based international trading system, a foundation of the global economic order that has contributed to global economic growth and stability in the post-World War II era.
Date: August 1, 2018
Creator: Akhtar, Shayerah Ilias
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Water Infrastructure Financing: History of EPA Appropriations

Description: The first section of this report includes a table that summarizes the history of appropriations for both wastewater and drinking water infrastructure programs. The next section discusses several historical developments in water infrastructure funding. The last section contains a detailed chronology of congressional activity regarding wastewater and drinking water infrastructure funding for each fiscal year since the 1987 CWA amendments.
Date: August 1, 2018
Creator: Ramseur, Jonathan L. & Tiemann, Mary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Broadband Loan and Grant Programs in the USDA's Rural Utilities Service

Description: This report discusses the broadband loan and grant program for rural areas administered through the USDA, its past authorizations, and upcoming legislation related to it as a part of the Farm Bill.
Date: August 1, 2017
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The G-20 and International Economic Cooperation: Background and Implications for Congress

Description: This report analyzes why countries coordinate economic policies and the historical origins of the G-20; how the G-20 operates; major highlights from previous G-20 summits, plus an overview of the agenda for the next G-20 summit; and debates about the effectiveness of the G-20 as a forum for economic cooperation and coordination.
Date: August 1, 2017
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Presidential Permits for Border Crossing Energy Facilities

Description: This report discusses Presidential Permits for oil and other energy sources crossing the U.S. border (which are a type of executive order) including the source of the executive branch authority to issue the orders, the standards set forth in the orders, and the projects approved pursuant to the orders. The report also discusses proposed changes to the Presidential Permitting framework in the Promoting Cross-Border Energy Infrastructure Act (H.R. 2883), which passed in the House on July 19, 2017.
Date: August 1, 2017
Creator: Vann, Adam & Parfomak, Paul W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Reform of U.S. International Taxation: Alternatives

Description: This report describes and assesses the principal prescriptions that have been offered for broad reform of the international system.3 It begins with an overview of current law and possible revisions. It then sets the framework for considering economic efficiency as well as tax shelter activities. Finally, it reviews alternative approaches to revision in light of those issues.
Date: August 1, 2017
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS): An Overview

Description: This report provides a basic description of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and some of the most widely discussed issues involving its implementation, types of biofuels used, and viability for the future.
Date: August 1, 2017
Creator: Bracmort, Kelsi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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