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Grid-connected integrated community energy system. Phase II, Stage 1, final report. Conceptual design: pyrolysis and waste management systems

Description: The University of Minnesota is studying and planning a grid-connected integrated community energy system to include disposal of wastes from health centers and utilizing the heat generated. Following initial definition of the 7-county metropolitan region for which the solid waste management system is to be planned, information is then necessary about the nature of the waste generated within this region. Estimates of the quantities generated, generation rates, and properties of the waste to be collected and disposed of are required in order to determine the appropriate size and capacity of the system. These estimates are designated and subsequently referred to as ''system input''. Institutional information is also necessary in designing the planned system, to be compatible with existing institutional operations and procedures, or to offer a minimum amount of problems to the participating institution in the region. Initial considerations of health care institutions generating solid waste within the defined region are made on a comprehensive basis without any attempt to select out or include feasible candidate institutions, or institutional categories. As the study progresses, various criteria are used in selecting potential candidate institutional categories and institutions within the 7-county region as offering the most feasible solid waste system input to be successfully developed into a centralized program; however, it is hoped that such a system if developed could be maintained for the entire 7-county region, and remain comprehensive to the entire health care industry. (MCW)
Date: March 8, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grid-connected integrated community energy system. Phase II, Stage 1, final report. Conceptual design, demand and fuel projections and cost analysis

Description: The Phase I Report, Grid ICES, presented the broad alternatives and implications for development of an energy system satisfying thermal demand with the co-generation of electric power, all predicated on the use of solid fuels. Participants of the system are the University of Minnesota, operator and primary thermal user, and Northern States Power Company, primary electrical user; with St. Mary's Hospital, Fairview Hospital, and Augsburg College as Add-on Customers for the thermal service (Option I). Included for consideration are the Options of (II) solid waste disposal by the Pyrolysis Method, with heat recovery, and (III) conversion of a portion of the thermal system from steam to hot water distribution to increase co-generation capability and as a demonstration system for future expansion. This report presents the conceptual design of the energy system and each Option, with the economic implications identified so that selection of the final system can be made. Draft outline of the Environmental Assessment for the project is submitted as a separate report.
Date: March 8, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration of energy conservation for multi-deck board dryers. Phase I. Final report

Description: A study was made to determine the feasibility of recover and reuse of low level heat from the exhausts of multi-deck dryers used to dry boards in the building materials industry. There are approximately 1000 dryers of this type in the USA, with no heat recovery equipment. These dryers are used in the manufacture of: roof insulation board, ceiling tile and panel stock, wood fiber sheathing, gypsum board, and veneer plywood. Pilot scale tests and analyses show that heat recovery designs utilizing several types of heat exchange equipment are feasible. These include the following: indirect contact air-to-air heat exchangers for preheating combustion air for the dryer furnaces; direct contact air-to-water heat exchangers using water sprays to heat process water; and indirect contact air-to-liquid heat exchangers to heat recirculating liquid in a plant building heating system. The systems recommended for design and installation at the Rockdale plant include all three of the types of heat exchangers. The preliminary estimate for the installed cost for these systems at the Rockdale plant is $565,000 (1979 dllars). Annual heat recovery of 186,000 million Btu is projected with a value of $545,000 using gas costs of $3.00 per million Btu. Payback based on a discounted cash flow analysis using ten year depreciation is about two years.
Date: February 8, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternatives for sodium-potassium alloy treatment

Description: Sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) is currently treated at the Y-12 Plant by open burning. Due to uncertainties with future permits for this process alternative treatment methods were investigated, revealing that two treatment processes are feasible. One process reacts the NaK with water in a highly concentrated molten caustic solution (sodium and potassium hydroxide). The final waste is a caustic that may be used elsewhere in the plant. This process has two safety concerns: Hot corrosive materials used throughout the process present handling difficulties and the process must be carefully controlled (temperature and water content) to avoid explosive NaK reactions. To avoid these problems a second process was developed that dissolves NaK in a mixture of propylene glycol and water at room temperature. While this process is safer, it generates more waste than the caustic process. The waste may possibly be used as a carbon food source in biological waste treatment operations at the Y-12 Plant. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate both processes, and they showed that both processes are feasible alternatives for NaK treatment. Process flow sheets with mass balances were generated for both processes and compared. While the caustic process generates less waste, the propylene glycol process is safer in several ways (temperature, material handling, and reaction control). The authors recommend that the propylene glycol alternative be pursued further as an alternative for NaK treatment. To optimize this process for a larger scale several experiments should be conducted. The amount of NaK dissolved in propylene glycol and subsequent waste generated should be optimized. The offgas processes should be optimized. The viability of using this waste as a carbon food source at one of the Y-12 Plant treatment facilities should be investigated. If the state accepts this process as an alternative, design and construction of a pilot-scale treatment system should begin.
Date: April 8, 1993
Creator: Takacs, T. J. & Johnson, M. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of reactor effluent water as steam plant boiler feed

Description: The radiological aspects of a proposal to recover some of the heat now wasted in cooling water from the Hanford reactors by using the hot water as boiler feed for the steam plants in the 100 Areas are evaluated. The radioactive material in the hot effluent water will contaminate the boiler feed water system, cause additional radiation exposure of personnel, and increase the cost of maintenance and radiation protection, but very little radioactive material will be carried over into the steam system. At present steam loads, this proposal is economically attractive; other proposals being considered may nullify any savings from this one. 21 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs.
Date: December 8, 1953
Creator: Clukey, H.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department