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Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Lakeview Site, Lakeview, Oregon. Summary of Phase II, Title I

Description: Results are reported from an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Lakeview, Oregon site. Data ore included from the analyses of soil, water, and other samples; radiometric measurements to determine areas with radium-contaminated materials; evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations; investigation of site geology, hydrology, and meteorology; and evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 130,000 tons of tailings at the Lakeview site constitutes the main environmental impact, which is minimal. The two alternative actions presented are maintenance of the site now that the ARCO reclamation program has been completed (Option I); and addition of stabilization cover to a minimum depth of 2 ft, improved fencing, and removal of a few isolated spots of contamination (Option II). The cost estimates for these options are $40,000 and $290,000, respectively.
Date: December 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Filter testing and development for prolonged transuranic service and waste reduction

Description: The life of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters used in transuranic service is influenced greatly by the gaseous and particulate matter to which the filters are exposed. The most severe conditions encountered at Rocky Flats are at the ventilation systems serving the plutonium recovery operations in Bldg. 771. A project of filter testing and development for prolonged transuranic service and waste reduction was formally initiated at Rocky Flats on July 1, 1975. The project is directed toward improving filtration methods which will prolong the life of HEPA filter systems without sacrificing effectiveness. Another important aspect of the project is to reduce the volume of HEPA filter waste shipped from the plant for long-term storage. Progress to September 30, 1976, is reported.
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Geer, J. A.; Buttedahl, O. I.; Skaats, C. D.; Terada, K. & Woodard, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of the stack discharge active particle contamination problem

Description: Quantities of the order of ten million to 100 million radioactive particles per month were emitted from the stacks over a period of several months. High activity in the range 0.1 to 3..mu..c was probably confined to large carrier particles of corrosion debris from iron ductwork in the separations plant ventilation air system. This report discusses chemical, physical and radiochemical properties of the particles, and possible biological and health effects of exposure to them. (ACR)
Date: March 22, 1948
Creator: Parker, H M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Lakeview Site, Lakeview, Oregon. Phase II, Title I

Description: Results are reported from an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Lakeview, Oregon site. Results are included from the analyses of soil, water, and other samples; radiometric measurements to determine areas with radium-contaminated materials; evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations; investigation of site geology, hydrology, and meteorology; and evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 130,000 tons of tailings at the Lakeview site constitutes the main environmental impact, which is minimal. The two alternative actions presented are maintenance of the site now that the ARCO reclamation program has been completed (Option I); and addition of stabilization cover to a minimum depth of 2 ft, improved fencing, and removal of a few isolated spots of contamination (Option II). The cost estimates for these options are $40,000 and $290,000, respectively.
Date: December 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model to estimate radiation dose commitments to the world population from the atmospheric release of radionuclides (LWBR development program)

Description: The equations developed for use in the LWBR environmental statement to estimate the dose commitment over a given time interval to a given organ of the population in the entire region affected by the atmospheric releases of a radionuclide are presented and may be used for any assessment of dose commitments in these regions. These equations define the dose commitments to the world resulting from a released radionuclide and each of its daughters and the sum of these dose commitments provides the total dose commitment accrued from the release of a given radionuclide. If more than one radionuclide is released from a facility, then the sum of the dose commitments from each released nuclide and from each daughter of each released nuclide is the total dose commitment to the world from that facility. Furthermore, if more than one facility is considered as part of an industry, then the sum of the dose commitments from the individual facilities represents the total world dose commitment associated with that industry. The actual solutions to these equations are carried out by the AIRWAY computer program. The writing of this computer program entailed defining in detail the specific representations of the various parameters such as scavenging coefficients, resuspension factors, deposition velocities, dose commitment conversion factors, and food uptake factors, in addition to providing specific numerical values for these types of parameters. The program permits the examination of more than one released nuclide at a time and performs the necessary summing to obtain the total dose commitment to the world accrued from the specified releases.
Date: February 1, 1978
Creator: Rider, J.L. & Beal, S.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monte Carlo simulation of turbulent atmospheric transport and comparisons with experimental data. [/sup 41/Ar continuously emitted from BNL reactor to atmosphere]

Description: In a previous paper Peterson presented measurements on the /sup 41/Ar emitted continuously into the atmosphere from a reactor at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Here, calculated results obtained with the Monte Carlo atmospheric transport model of Watson and Barr are presented and compared with the experimental data. The measured quantities with which comparisons are made are: the position north of Brookhaven where the maximum /sup 41/Ar concentration occurred for specific values of x (east of Brookhaven) and t, time; the standard deviation, sigma/sub y/, of the /sup 41/Ar concentration about the position of maximum concentration for specific values of x and t; and a quantity that is proportional to the maximum /sup 41/Ar concentration for specific values of x and t. The calculated results are in moderately good agreement with the experimental data at most distances (less than or equal to 300 km) and most times for which data are available.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Alsmiller, F. S.; Alsmiller, Jr., R. G.; Bertini, H. W. & Begovich, C. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions

Description: A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ respectively. U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future /sup 222/Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that /sup 222/Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total /sup 222/Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total /sup 222/Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O. & Young, J.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computer code to assess accidental pollutant releases

Description: A computer code was developed to calculate the cumulative frequency distributions of relative concentrations of an air pollutant following an accidental release from a stack or from a building penetration such as a vent. The calculations of relative concentration are based on the Gaussian plume equations. The meteorological data used for the calculation are in the form of joint frequency distributions of wind and atmospheric stability.
Date: July 1, 1980
Creator: Pendergast, M.M. & Huang, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear-power-plant sites in 1978

Description: Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1978. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 200 person-rem to a low of 0.0004 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 14 person-rem. The total population dose for allsites was estimated at 660 person-rem for the 93 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 3 x 10/sup -6/ mrem to a high of 0.08 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.
Date: June 1, 1982
Creator: Peloquin, R.A.; Schwab, J.D. & Baker, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of uncertainty estimates associated with models for assessing the impact of breeder reactor radioactivity releases

Description: The purpose is to summarize estimates based on currently available data of the uncertainty associated with radiological assessment models. The models being examined herein are those recommended previously for use in breeder reactor assessments. Uncertainty estimates are presented for models of atmospheric and hydrologic transport, terrestrial and aquatic food-chain bioaccumulation, and internal and external dosimetry. Both long-term and short-term release conditions are discussed. The uncertainty estimates presented in this report indicate that, for many sites, generic models and representative parameter values may be used to calculate doses from annual average radionuclide releases when these calculated doses are on the order of one-tenth or less of a relevant dose limit. For short-term, accidental releases, especially those from breeder reactors located in sites dominated by complex terrain and/or coastal meteorology, the uncertainty in the dose calculations may be much larger than an order of magnitude. As a result, it may be necessary to incorporate site-specific information into the dose calculation under these circumstances to reduce this uncertainty. However, even using site-specific information, natural variability and the uncertainties in the dose conversion factor will likely result in an overall uncertainty of greater than an order of magnitude for predictions of dose or concentration in environmental media following shortterm releases.
Date: August 1, 1982
Creator: Miller, C. & Little, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of the radon concentrations in air caused by emissions from multiple sources in a uranium mining and milling region. A case study of the Ambrosia Lake region of New Mexico

Description: The Ambrosia Lake uranium mining and milling operations were selected to characterize the relative importance of these sources on ambient atmospheric radon concentrations. All uranium mines at Ambrosia Lake are underground. The comparisons of interest were both between the sources and between the sources and background concentrations. The results show that vents are by far the greatest source of the computed radon concentrations in the immediate area of the operations. The computed radon concentrations at receptor points were largely influenced by the closer sources, rather than by more distant stronger sources. The area where computed radon concentrations significantly exceed the background is confined to the general area around the vents and mills. A comparison between computed radon concentrations and monitoring data at selected points demonstrates order of magnitude agreement.
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: Droppo, J.G. & Glissmeyer, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Health, Safety, and Environment Division: Annual progress report 1987

Description: The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environment protection. These activities are designed to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. Many disciplines are required to meet the responsibilities, including radiation protection, industrial hygiene, safety, occupational medicine, environmental science, epidemiology, and waste management. New and challenging health and safety problems arise occasionally from the diverse research and development work of the Laboratory. Research programs in HSE Division often stem from these applied needs. These programs continue but are also extended, as needed to study specific problems for the Department of Energy and to help develop better occupational health and safety practices.
Date: April 1, 1988
Creator: Rosenthal, M.A. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Real time quality control of meteorological data used in SRP's emergency response system

Description: The Savannah River Laboratory's WIND minicomputer system allows quick and accurate assessment of an accidental release at the Savannah River Plant using data from eight meteorological towers. The accuracy of the assessment is largely determined by the accuracy of the meteorological data; therefore quality control is important in an emergency response system. Real-time quality control of this data will be added to the WIND system to automatically identify inaccurate data. Currently, the system averages the measurements from the towers to minimize the influence of inaccurate data being used in calculations. The computer code used in the real-time quality control has been previously used to identify inaccurate measurements from the archived tower data.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Pendergast, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual environmental monitoring report, January--December 1977

Description: Environmental monitoring results continue to demonstrate that, except for penetrating radiation, environmental radiological impact due to SLAC operation is not distinguishable from natural environmantal sources. During 1977, the maximum neutron dose near the site boundary was 8.2 mrem. This represents about 8.2% of the annual dose from natural sources at this elevation, and 1.6% of the technical standard of 500 mrem per person annually.
Date: May 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactivity in gaseous waste discharged from the separations facilities during fourth quarter of 1979

Description: This document is issued quarterly for the purpose of summarizing the radioactive gaseous wastes that are discharged from the facilities of the Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell). Data on alpha and beta emissions during 1979 are presented where relevant to the gaseous effluent. Emission data are not included on gaseous wastes produced within the 200 areas by other Hanford contractors.
Date: February 22, 1980
Creator: Sliger, G. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy Facilities: the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Addendum 1

Description: The purpose of this addendum is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency on existing technology at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) for the control of radionuclide emissions to the atmosphere and on possible additional control technology that could further reduce these emissions. Emission of short-lived air activation products from the LAMPF in 1983 increased substantially over 1981 and 1982 to a total of 464 thousand curies, resulting in a maximum site boundary dose calculated by the US Department of Energy to be 48.4 millirem per year. Existing control technology consists of an air collection system and a stack which provides for some holdup and decay of the short-lived isotopes produced at the beam stop and in target areas. Modifications are presently being installed at the beam stop to improve experimental conditions, which will also reduce the formation of air activation products at the beam stop and provide some additional holdup time. Also under consideration is the installation of a new air tunnel and stack, at a different location, to further increase holdup time of air activation products produced at the beam stop. Alternate control technology suggested by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory includes a holdup tank system to reduce LAMPF stack emissions. The estimated costs and efficiencies in reducing radionuclide emissions are discussed. 5 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Moore, E.B. & Fullam, H.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design procedure for sizing a submerged-bed scrubber for airborne particulate removal

Description: Performance correlations to design and operate the submerged bed scrubber were developed for various applications. Structural design procedure outlined in this report focuses on off-gas scrubbing for HLW vitrification applications; however, the method is appropriate for other applications.
Date: April 1, 1987
Creator: Ruecker, C.M. & Scott, P.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Diffusion rates for elevated releases

Description: A search of the literature related to diffusion from elevated sources has determined that an adequate data base exists for use in developing parameterizations for estimating diffusion rates for material released from free standing stacks at nuclear power plants. A review of published data analyses indicates that a new parameterization of horizontal diffusion rates specifically for elevated releases is not likely to significantly change the magnitudes of horizontal diffusion coefficients on the average. However, the uncertainties associated with horizontal diffusion coefficient estimates under any given set of atmospheric conditions could be reduced by a new parameterization. Similarly, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates would be unlikely to significantly alter the magnitudes of diffusion coefficients for unstable atmospheric conditons. However, for neutral and stable atmospheric conditions, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates might increase vertical diffusion coefficients significantly. The increase would move ground-level time-integrated concentration maxima closer to the plant and would increase the maxima. 55 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.
Date: November 1, 1983
Creator: Ramsdell, J.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MESOI Version 2. 0: an interactive mesoscale Lagrangian puff dispersion model with deposition and decay

Description: MESOI Version 2.0 is an interactive Lagrangian puff model for estimating the transport, diffusion, deposition and decay of effluents released to the atmosphere. The model is capable of treating simultaneous releases from as many as four release points, which may be elevated or at ground-level. The puffs are advected by a horizontal wind field that is defined in three dimensions. The wind field may be adjusted for expected topographic effects. The concentration distribution within the puffs is initially assumed to be Gaussian in the horizontal and vertical. However, the vertical concentration distribution is modified by assuming reflection at the ground and the top of the atmospheric mixing layer. Material is deposited on the surface using a source depletion, dry deposition model and a washout coefficient model. The model also treats the decay of a primary effluent species and the ingrowth and decay of a single daughter species using a first order decay process. This report is divided into two parts. The first part discusses the theoretical and mathematical bases upon which MESOI Version 2.0 is based. The second part contains the MESOI computer code. The programs were written in the ANSI standard FORTRAN 77 and were developed on a VAX 11/780 computer. 43 references, 14 figures, 13 tables.
Date: November 1, 1983
Creator: Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F. & Glantz, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of models applicable to accident aerosols

Description: Estimations of potential airborne-particle releases are essential in safety assessments of nuclear-fuel facilities. This report is a review of aerosol behavior models that have potential applications for predicting aerosol characteristics in compartments containing accident-generated aerosol sources. Such characterization of the accident-generated aerosols is a necessary step toward estimating their eventual release in any accident scenario. Existing aerosol models can predict the size distribution, concentration, and composition of aerosols as they are acted on by ventilation, diffusion, gravity, coagulation, and other phenomena. Models developed in the fields of fluid mechanics, indoor air pollution, and nuclear-reactor accidents are reviewed with this nuclear fuel facility application in mind. The various capabilities of modeling aerosol behavior are tabulated and discussed, and recommendations are made for applying the models to problems of differing complexity.
Date: July 1, 1983
Creator: Glissmeyer, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Background information on sources of low-level radionuclide emissions to air

Description: This report provides a general description and reported emissions for eight low-level radioactive source categories, including facilties that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Agreement States, and non-Department of Energy (DOE) federal facilities. The eight categories of low-level radioactive source facilities covered by this report are: research and test reactors, accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry, source manufacturers, medical facilities, laboratories, naval shipyards, and low-level commercial waste disposal sites. Under each category five elements are addressed: a general description, a facility and process description, the emission control systems, a site description, and the radionuclides released to air (from routine operations).
Date: September 1, 1983
Creator: Corbit, C.D.; Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Stout, L.A. & Corley, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the Split-H approach to modeling non-buoyant releases from vent stacks

Description: Position C.2.b of Regulatory Guide 1.111 describes an approach to modeling the diffusion of effluents from roof top vents and short stacks using an elevated plume model under some conditions and using a ground-level source building wake model under other conditions. The approach is sometimes called a Split-H model. This report presents the results of an evaluation of the technical basis for and utility of the concept behind the Split-H model, outlines the devlopment of an upgraded model with those estimated using the Regulatory Guide Split-H model and a ground-level building wake model, and discusses alternatives to the Regulatory Guide position that the NRC may wish to consider. Concentration comparisons are made using model results for meteorological data from 18 nuclear power plant sites.
Date: April 1, 1983
Creator: Ramsdell, J.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring: major update. Volume 3. Radiation

Description: This is the third volume of a four-volume (seven-part) series, the culmination of a comprehensive survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to radiation monitoring. The results of the survey are given as descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Information is also given regarding the pollutants to be monitored, their characteristics and forms, their sources and pathways, their effects on the ecosystem, and the means of controlling them through process and regulatory controls. The discussion is presented under sections entitled radiation sources; instrumentation: by type of radiation or instrument type; and, instrumentation for specific radionuclides. (JGB)
Date: September 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department