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The Carnol process for CO{sub 2} mitigation from power plants and the transportation sector

Description: A CO{sub 2} mitigation process is developed which converts waste CO{sub 2}, primarily recovered from coal-fired power plant stack gases with natural gas, to produce methanol as a liquid fuel and coproduct carbon as a materials commodity. The Carnol process chemistry consists of methane decomposition to produce hydrogen which is catalytically reacted with the recovered waste CO{sub 2} to produce methanol. The carbon is either stored or sold as a materials commodity. A process design is modelled and mass and energy balances are presented as a function of reactor pressure and temperature conditions. The Carnol process is a viable alternative to sequestering CO{sub 2} in the ocean for purposes of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from coal burning power plants. Over 90% of the CO{sub 2} from the coal burning plant is used in the process which results in a net CO{sub 2} emission reduction of over 90% compared to that obtained for conventional methanol production by steam reforming of methane. Methanol as an alternative liquid fuel for automotive engines and for fuel cells achieves additional CO{sub 2} emission reduction benefits. The economics of the process is greatly enhanced when carbon can be sold as a materials commodity. Improvement in process design and economics should be achieved by developing a molten metal (tin) methane decomposition reactor and a liquid phase, slurry catalyst, methanol synthesis reactor directly using the solvent saturated with CO{sub 2} scrubbed from the power plant stack gases. The benefits of the process warrant its further development.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Steinberg, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the use of fly-ash based autoclaved cellular concrete blocks in coal mines for air duct work. Final report, January 25, 1993--December 31, 1994

Description: Coal mines are required to provide ventilation to occupied portions of underground mines. Concrete block is used in this process to construct air duct walls. However, normal concrete block is heavy and not easy to work with and eventually fails dramatically after being loaded due to mine ceiling convergence and/or floor heave. Autoclaved cellular concrete block made from (70{plus_minus}%) coal fly ash is lightweight and less rigid when loaded. It is lighter and easier to use than regular concrete block for underground mine applications. It has also been used in surface construction around the world for over 40 years. Ohio Edison along with eight other electric utility companies, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and North American Cellular Concrete constructed a mobile demonstration plant to produce autoclaved cellular concrete block from utility fly ash. To apply this research in Ohio, Ohio Edison also worked with the Ohio Coal Development Office and CONSOL Inc. to produce autoclaved cellular concrete block not only from coal ash but also from LIMB ash, SNRB ash, and PFBC ash from various clean coal technology projects sponsored by the Ohio Coal Development Office. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the potential for beneficial use of fly ash and clean coal technology by-products in the production of lightweight block.
Date: June 19, 1995
Creator: Horvath, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Brick manufacture with fly ash from Illinois coals. Technical report, March 1, 1995--May 31, 1995

Description: This investigation seeks to utilize fly ash in fired-clay products such as building and patio bricks, ceramic blocks, field and sewer tile, and flower pots. This goal is accomplished by 1) one or more plant-scale, 5000-brick tests of fly ash mixed with brick clays at the 20% or higher level; 2) a laboratory-scale study to measure the firing reactions of a range of compositions of clay and fly ash mixtures; 3) a preliminary study to evaluate the potential environmental and economic benefits of brick manufacture with fly ash. Bricks and feed materials will be tested for compliance with market specifications and for leachability of pollutants derived from fly ash. The laboratory study will combine ISGS databases, ICCI-supported characterization methods, and published information to improve predictions of the firing characteristics of Illinois fly ash and brick clay mixtures. Because identical methods are used to test clay firing and coal ash fusion, and because melting mechanisms are the same, improved coal ash fusion predictions are and additional expected result of this research. During this quarter we completed a manufacturing run at Colonial Brick Co. and began laboratory testing of samples from that run: clays, fly ash (from Illinois Power Company`s Wood River plant), and green and fired bricks, with and without fly ash. Bricks with 20% fly ash ``scummed`` during firing, and the fly ash failed to increase oxidation rate or water absorption, which were both expected. We obtained chemical and mineralogical analyses of the fireclays and shales at Colonial and Marseilles Brick Companies and began a series of selective dissolution analyses to more accurately determine the composition of the principal clay minerals in brick clays and the components in fly ash. We began related work of calculating normative mineralogical analyses for all clays and fly ashes that we sample.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Hughes, R.E.; Dreher, G.; Moore, D.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Fiocchi, T. & Swartz, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetics of fly ash beneficiation by carbon burnout. [Quarterly report], October 1, 1995--January 30, 1996

Description: The objective is to investigate the kinetics of beneficiation of fly ash by carbon burnout. The three year project that was proposed is a joint venture between Delmarva Power, a power generating company on the eastern shore of Maryland, and the University of Maryland Eastern Shore. The studies have focused on the beneficiation of fly ash by carbon burnout. The increasing use of coal fly ash as pozzolanic material in Portland cement concrete means that there is the highest economic potential in marketability of large volumes of fly ash. For the concrete industry to consider large scale use the fly ash must be of the highest quality. This means that the residual carbon content of the fly ash must have an acceptable loss on ignition (LOI) value, usually between 7--2% residual carbon. The economic gains to be had from low-carbon ash is a fact that is generally accepted by the electricity generating companies. However, since the cost of producing low-carbon in large quantities, based on present technology, far outweighs any financial gains, no electrical power company using coal as its fuel at present considers the effort worthwhile. The concrete industry would use fly ash in cement concrete mix if it can be assured of its LOI value. At present no utility company would give such assurance. Hence with several million tons of fly ash produced by a single power plant per year all that can be done is to dump the fly ash in landfills. The kinetics of fly ash beneficiation have been investigated in the zone II kinetic regime, using a Cahn TG 121 microbalance in the temperature 550--750{degrees}C. The P{sub 02} and total surface area dependence of the reaction kinetics were determined using a vacuum accessory attached to the microbalance and a surface area analyzer (ASAP 2010), respectively.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Dodoo, J.N.; Okoh, J.M. & Yilmaz, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Second year, second quarterly technical progress report, Quarter No. 6, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

Description: To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{sm_bullet}0.5H{sub 2}O), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{sm_bullet}2H{sub 2}O), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silica, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. This project is studying the characteristics of flue-gas scrubber sludges from several sources, which is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This purification will consist of minimal-reagent froth flotation, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: KAwatra, S.K. & Eisele, T.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of inorganic pellet binders from fly-ash. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

Description: Fly-ash is produced by all coal-fired utilities, and it must be removed from the plant exhaust gases, collected, and disposed of. While much work has been done in the past to utilize fly-ash rather than disposing of it, we nevertheless do not find widespread examples of successful industrial utilization. This is because past work has tended to find uses only for high-quality, easily-utilized fly-ashes, which account for less than 25% of the fly-ash that is produced. The main factor which makes fly-ashes unusable is a high unburned carbon content. In this project, physical separation technologies are being used to remove this carbon, and to convert these unusable fly-ashes into usable products. The main application being studied for the processed fly-ash is as a binder for inorganic materials, such as iron-ore pellets. Work in the first quarter concentrated on obtaining samples of all of the materials to be used (fly-ash, and magnetite ore), training of personnel on pelletization procedures, obtaining and setting up pelletization apparatus in the MTU laboratories, and running pelletization experiments with bentonite binder to establish a baseline for comparison with the fly-ash binders to be made.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Kawatra, S.K. & Eisele, T.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Laconia, New Hampshire Bottom, Ashi Paving Project. Volume 1: Environmental testing report

Description: Bottom ash is the principal waste stream fro m the combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW). It is comprised of grate ash (97%), the slag material discharged at the end of the grate system and grate sffting (3%), the material that melts or falls through the grate structure. This project was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of using municipal solid waste grate ash as an aggregate substitute in the construction of a pavement binder course for a portion of Rt. 3 in Laconia, New Hampshire. The research was conducted over a two year period during 1993 and 1994. This study is the culmination of an earlier two year characterization study between 1990 and 1992 that documented the physical and environmental characteristics of the bottom ash as it was produced at the Concord, N.H. waste-to-energy (WTE) facility and used in an asphaltic binder course. Together, these two studies provide a complete evaluation of the potential for using grate ash or bottom ash in asphalt binder course or as recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) in base courses in pavements.
Date: March 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced clean coal technology by-products. Quarterly report, September 1995--December 1995

Description: This fifth quarterly report describes work done during the fifth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh`s project on the {open_quotes}Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.{close_quotes} Participating with the university on this project is Mill Service, Inc. This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focussed upon completing laboratory evaluation of samples produced during Phase 1, preparing reports and presentations, and seeking environmental approvals and variances to permits that will allow the field work to proceed. The compressive strength of prepared concretes is described.
Date: March 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Disposal of fluidized-bed combustion ash in an underground mine to control acid mine drainage and subsidence

Description: During Phase I (first 18 months) the project is segregated into four areas of reporting: (A) Grout Formulation, (B) Grout Characterization, (C) Water Quality Monitoring, (D) Subsidence Control & Contaminant Transport. The first component involves formulating a grout mixture with appropriate flowability to be used in filling complex mine voids. The Grout Characterization component will determine the flow characteristics of the formulated grout. The Water Quality component involves background monitoring of water quality and precipitation at the Phase III (Longridge) mine site. The last component involves evaluating the strength requirements and the migration of contaminants through the candidate grouts. This report separately discusses progress on all components of the program in order of project subtask.
Date: December 31, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, June 1--August 31, 1996

Description: Integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ``as-generated`` slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for ``as-generated`` slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 17000F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase 1, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot-scale, and Phase 2, which involves commercial evaluation of these aggregates in a number of applications. Accomplishments are described.
Date: December 31, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scrap tire recycling

Description: As the automobile tire technology has grown and met the need for safer and more durable tires, stronger reinforcement and more chemically resistant rubber compounds have made recycling tires more difficult. In an effort to resolve this problem, techniques and equipment were developed to grind tires into small pieces, and new markets were sought to utilize the crumb rubber product streams from ground tires. Industrial combustion processes were modified to accept scrap tires as fuel. These efforts have been beneficial, steadily increasing the percentage of scrap tires recycled to about 10% in 1985, and reaching 72% in 1995. By the end of 1997, fully 100% of tires generated in the U.S. are expected to be recycled.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Lula, J.W. & Bohnert, G.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conversion of coal wastes into waste-cleaning materials. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

Description: Besides working on the conversion of fly ash to zeolites, we have been studying the possibility of converting fly ash to mesoporous molecular sieves. It was reported in previous reports that fly ash can participate in the formation of mesoporous materials. However, fly ash has not been converted to mesoporous materials directly. In the last report, we showed that by fusing the fly ash with sodium hydroxide, the yield of zeolites increased significantly. The fusion process increases the amount of silicates and aluminates that are dissolved in the precursor solutions. Therefore, in the last three months, we have been studying the conversion of fly ash into mesoporous materials using the fusion process. As expected, we succeeded in converting fly ash into mesoporous molecular sieves. Due to their uniform molecular pore sizes and large surface areas, the mesoporous materials are very useful materials for a wide range of applications such as molecular sieves, adsorbents, and catalysts. Therefore converting fly ash into mesoporous materials not only eliminates the disposal problem but also turns an otherwise waste material into a useful one. The successful conversion of fly ash into mesoporous molecular sieves broadens the possible application of fly ash.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Shih, Wei-Heng
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, comprehensive executive summary. Final report, September 30, 1993--March 31, 1996

Description: R&D activities have demonstrated Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) to be a robust, one-step process process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. The feed size and composition compatible with CEP have been increased in a short period of time, and additional R&D should lead to the ability to accept a drum (and larger?) size feed of completely uncharacterized waste. Experiments have validated the CPU (Catalytic Processing Unit). Two commercial facilities have been commissioned and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. Expansion of CEP to transuranic and high level wastes should be the next step in the development and deployment of CEP for recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from DOE decontamination and decommissioning activities.
Date: June 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Base program on energy related research. Quarterly report, November 1, 1996--January 31, 1997

Description: The Base Research Program at Western Research Institute (WRI) is planned to develop technologies to a level that will attract industrial sponsors for continued development under the Jointly Sponsored Research (JSR) Program. The goals of the Base Research Program are in support of those of the JSR Program, which are designed to: increase the production of US and western energy resources, particularly low-sulfur coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; enhance the competitiveness of US and western energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; reduce the nation`s dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the US and regional economies; and minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. Summaries are presented for 11 subtasks related to these four main goals.
Date: June 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, September 1--November 30, 1997

Description: In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of as-generated slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, the authors found that it would be extremely difficult for as-generated slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1,400 and 1,700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase 1, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and Phase 2, which involves commercial evaluation of these aggregates in a number of applications. This document summarizes the Phase 2 accomplishments to date along with the major accomplishments from Phase 1.
Date: December 31, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrothermal reaction of fly ash. Final report

Description: The reactions which occur when fly ash is treated under hydrothermal conditions were investigated. This was done for the following primary reasons. The first of these is to determine the nature of the phases that form to assess the stabilities of these phases in the ambient environment and, finally, to assess whether these phases are capable of sequestering hazardous species. The second reason for undertaking this study was whether, depending on the composition of the ash and the presence of selected additives, it would be possible under hydrothermal conditions to form compounds which have cementitious properties. Formation of four classes of compounds, which bracket likely fly ash compositional ranges, were selected for study. The classes are calcium silicate hydrates, calcium selenates, and calcium aluminosulfates, and silicate-based glasses. Specific compounds synthesized were determined and their stability regions assessed. As part of stability assessment, the extent to which selected hazardous species are sequestered was determined. Finally, the cementing properties of these compounds were established. The results obtained in this program have demonstrated that mild hydrothermal conditions can be employed to improve the reactivity of fly ash. Such improvements in reactivity can result in the formation of monolithic forms which may exhibit suitable mechanical properties for selected applications as building materials. If the ashes involved are considered hazardous, the mechanical properties exhibited indicated the forms could be handled in a manner which facilitates their disposal.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Brown, P. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of Residual Solids from Pulp and Paper Mills for Enhancing Strength and Durability of Ready-Mixed Concrete

Description: This research was conducted to establish mixture proportioning and production technologies for ready-mixed concrete containing pulp and paper mill residual solids and to study technical, economical, and performance benefits of using the residual solids in the concrete. Fibrous residuals generated from pulp and paper mills were used, and concrete mixture proportions and productions technologies were first optimized under controlled laboratory conditions. Based on the mixture proportions established in the laboratory, prototype field concrete mixtures were manufactured at a ready-mixed concrete plant. Afterward, a field construction demonstration was held to demonstrate the production and placement of structural-grade cold-weather-resistant concrete containing residual solids.
Date: September 18, 2003
Creator: Naik, Tarun R.; Chun, Yoon-moon & Kraus, Rudolph N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

Description: The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems, including foamed and sodium silicate slurries. During this project quarter, a comparison study of the three cement systems examined the effect that cement drillout has on the three cement systems. Testing to determine the effect of pressure cycling on the shear bond properties of the cement systems was also conducted. This report discusses testing that will be performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries, as well as the results of Field Tests 1 and 2.
Date: October 31, 2002
Creator: Sabins, Fred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regeneration of FGD waste liquors: Production of ammonium and potassium sulfate mixed fertilizer. Quarterly technical report, October 1993--December 1993

Description: In the 2nd quarterly report, we discussed the lime/limestone process which precipitates N-S containing compounds by adding lime/limestone in a narrow pH range, and which can be an alternative to the K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} process. In this report, we focused on investigations of the lime/limestone process. First, we established an overall flow diagram for the lime/limestone process. Based on the diagram, we performed preliminary experimental investigations to outline practical process conditions. Out major investigations concerned about effects of pH on precipitation of the N-S compounds and precipitation characteristics of N-S compounds in a continuous crystallization system. We also performed an experimental investigation to study crystallization characteristic of the ammonium sulfate in the hydrolysis liquor. In studying effects of pH, we performed batch precipitation of the N-S compounds in a broad range of pH and investigated the effects of pH on the amount of required lime, the amount of the precipitate, and the fraction of N-S compounds precipitated. The result revealed the optimum range for precipitation of N-S compounds to be pH = 7.6--8.6. In studying continuous crystallization characteristics of the N-S compounds, a bench scale 4-liter continuous crystallization system was built to compare a typical Mixed-Suspension-Mixed-Product-Removal (MSMPR) crystallizer and Double-Draw-Off (DDO) crystallizer. In a preliminary test, the DDO was shown to be superior by increasing the average size of the precipitated crystals of N-S compounds from 97 {mu}m to 142 {mu}m and thus enhancing the filterability. In order to obtain information for a practical design of the lime/limestone process, we also set up a material balance for a 300 MWe power plant facility. A preliminary calculation showed that a process on the scale could produce approximately 56 tons ammonium sulfate fertilizer per day.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Randolph, A.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrothermal oxidation of organic wastes using reclaimed ammonium nitrate

Description: Ammonium nitrate is being studied as an alternative for ammonium perchlorate as an oxidizing agent in Department of Defense 1.1 and 1.3 rocket propellants. Use of ammonium nitrate would eliminate the HCl produced by ammonium perchlorate upon thermal decomposition. To stabilize the ammonium nitrate, which suffers from phase instability, potassium dinitramide (KDN) is added. This increased use of ammonium nitrate will ultimately create a need for environmentally responsible processes to reuse ammonium nitrate extracted from demilitarized rocket motors. Ammonium Nitrate was investigated as an oxidizing agent for methanol, acetic acid and phenol. High removal of organic, ammonia and nitrate was achieved at stoichiometric concentrations. The oxidation of ammonia by nitrate was much faster than the oxidation of either methanol or acetic acid. Phenol, however, was in strong competition with ammonia for the oxidizer (nitrate). Nitrogen products included N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2{sup {minus}}} as well as toxic NO and trace amounts of NO{sub 2}. Carbon products were CO{sub 2}, HCO{sub 3{sup {minus}}}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, and CO.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Proesmans, P.I.; Luan, L. & Buelow, S.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fossil fuel and hydrocarbon conversion using hydrogen-rich plasmas. Topical report February 1994--February 1995

Description: Experiments were made on use of H and CH plasmas for converting waste materials and heavy oils to H-rich transportation fuels. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted with an industrial microwave generator and a commercial microwave oven. A continuously circulating reactor was constructed for conducting experiments on flowing oils. Experiments on decomposition of scrap tires showed that microwave plasmas can be used to decompose scrap tires into potentially useful liquid products. In a batch experiment using a commercial microwave oven, about 20% of the tire was converted to liquid products in about 9 minutes. Methane was decomposed in a microwave plasma to yield a liquid products composed of various compound types; GC/MS analyses identified unsaturated compounds including benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, methyl and ethyl naphthalene, small amounts of larger aromatic rings, and olefinic compounds. Experiments on a crude oil in a continuously flowing reactor showed that distillate materials are produced using H and CH plasmas. Also, the recycle oils had an overall carbon aromaticity lower than that of starting feed material, indicating that some hydrogenation and methanation had taken place in the recycle oils.
Date: February 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fundamental Study of Low-Nox Combustion Fly Ash Utilization

Description: This study is principally concerned with characterizing the organic part of coal combustion fly ashes. High carbon fly ashes are becoming more common as by-products of low-NOx combustion technology, and there is need to learn more about this fraction of the fly ash. The project team consists of two universities, Brown and Princeton, and an electrical utility, New England Power. A sample suite of over forty fly ashes has been gathered from utilities across the United States, and includes ashes from a coals ranging in rank from bituminous to lignite. The characterizations of these ashes include standard tests (LOI, Foam Index), as well as more detailed characterizations of their surface areas, porosity, extractability and adsorption behavior. The ultimate goal is, by better characterizing the material, to enable broadening the range of applications for coal fly ash re-use beyond the current main market as a pozzolanic agent for concretes. The potential for high carbon-content fly ashes to substitute for activated carbons is receiving particular attention. The work performed to date has already revealed how very different the surfaces of different ashes produced by the same utility can be, with respect to polarity of the residual carbon. This can help explain the large variations in acceptability of these ashes as concrete additives.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Suuberg, E. M.; Kuloats, I.; Smith, K.; Sabanegh, N.; Hurt, R. H.; Lilly, W. D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Brick manufacture with fly ash from Illinois coals. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

Description: This investigation seeks to utilize fly ash in fired-clay products such as building and patio bricks, ceramic blocks, field and sewer tile, and flower pots. This goal is accomplished by (1) one or more plant-scale, 5000-brick tests with fly ash mixed with brick clays at the 20% or higher level; (2) a laboratory-scale study to measure the firing reactions of a range of compositions of clay and fly ash mixtures; (3) a preliminary study to evaluate the potential environmental and economic benefits of brick manufacture with fly ash. Bricks and feed materials will be tested for compliance with market specifications and for leachability of pollutants derived from fly ash. The laboratory study will combine ISGS databases, ICCI-supported characterization methods, and published information to improve predictions of the firing characteristics of Illinois fly ash and brick clay mixtures. Because identical methods are used to test clay firing and coal ash fusion, and because melting mechanisms are the same, improved coal ash fusion predictions are an additional expected result of this research. If successful, this project should convert a disposal problem (fly ash) into valuable products-bricks. During this quarter we set up the manufacturing run at Colonial Brick Co., finalized arrangements for a larger brick manufacturing run at Marseilles Brick Co. in YR2, revised our laboratory procedures for selective dissolution analysis, obtained information to select three standard fly ashes, and continued our characterization of brick clays that could be mixed with fly ash for fired-clay products. Due to delays in other areas, we began construction of the optimization program for year 2. We discovered recently that fly ash dust will be an unanticipated problem at the brick plant.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Hughes, R.E.; Dreher, G.; Frost, J.; Moore, D.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Fiocchi, T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department