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Twenty-year review of medical findings in a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout

Description: A summary is presented of results of medical examinations of inhabitants of the Marshall Islands during the 20-year period following the exposure of Rongelap people to radioactive fallout in 1954. The initial effect observed was $beta$ burns of the skin of some individuals. Few significant findings were observed during the subsequent 9-year period, although an increase in miscarriages and stillbirths among the exposed women was noted. In 1963 some thyroid abnormalities and growth retardation of some children were noted. (177 references). (CH)
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Conard, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The smallmouth buffalo fish, Ictiobus bubalus (Rafinesque), population of Watts Bar Reservoir, of the Tennessee River down stream from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was investigated in order to describe its age distribution, growth rates, dispersion, and importance as an accumulator of radionuclides. Measurements and scale samples were taken from commercially-caught fish and fish caught in the ORNL tagging operations. Scale impressions were anaiyzed for age and growth phenomena. Dispersion of smallmouth buffalo was investigated by conventional of ging methods and by autoradiographic analyses of scales. Stable and radiochemicsl composition of scales was examined by spectrographic analysis, flame spectrophotometer and radiometric surveys. Calcium was the most abundance element in fish scales with at lease twenty-three other elements present in varying quantities. Fish scaless and bone were found to contain radionuclides of ruthenium, cesium, zirconium, zinc, and cobalt. Radiometric surveys of scales revealed the Watts Bar Reservoir smallmouth buffalo population was a relatively minor accumulator of radionuclides with only 0.08 per cent showing the presence of artificially produced radionuclides. Approximately 6 per cent of the Clinch River fish and 77 per cent of the White Oak Creek fish had accumulations. Limited data on dispersion were determined from conventional tags. Much more dispersion and life history data were determined from autoradiographic analyses of scales. These dispersion data were applied only to individuals because the number was too small for generalizations for the population as a whole. All normal scales containing radionuclide accumulations were found to produce identical autoradiographic patterns of concentric circles which were associated with growth of the fish in contaminated areas. This phenomenon was combined with conventional capture-recapture methods of population estimates in a proposed technique of population studies. A laboratory experiment showed that scales could be tagged with cesium-134, but this radionuclide was found to accumulate in much larger concentrations ...
Date: January 20, 1964
Creator: Martin, R.E.; Auerbach, S.I. & Nelson, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The burns to the skin of anesthetized rats were determined for the thermal radiation pulses of a carbon arc on a hot-wet uniform when spaced 5 mm from the skin. The radiant exposures to cause burns resulting in eschar were tion pulses corresponding to 250, 1000, 2900, and 10,000 kiloton detonations, respectively. The threshold lesions were caused by volatile products not associated with ignition. The associated temperatures were recorded. (auth)
Date: May 12, 1959
Creator: de Lhery, G.P.; Derksen, W.L.; Garde, E.A.; Monahan, T.I. & Mixter, G. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Part 1. Description of Tritium Dose Model (DCART) for Routine Releases from LLNL

Description: DCART (Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium) is a spreadsheet model developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that calculates doses from inhalation of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT), inhalation and skin absorption of tritiated water (HTO), and ingestion of HTO and organically bound tritium (OBT) to adult, child (age 10), and infant (age 6 months to 1 year) from routine atmospheric releases of HT and HTO. DCART is a deterministic model that, when coupled to the risk assessment software Crystal Ball{reg_sign}, predicts doses with a 95% confidence interval. The equations used by DCART are described and all distributions on parameter values are presented. DCART has been tested against the results of other models and several sets of observations in the Tritium Working Groups of the International Atomic Energy Agency's programs, Biosphere Modeling and Assessment and Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety. The version of DCART described here has been modified to include parameter values and distributions specific to conditions at LLNL. In future work, DCART will be used to reconstruct dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual from annual routine releases of HTO and HT from all LLNL facilities and from the Sandia National Laboratory's Tritium Research Laboratory over the last fifty years.
Date: September 27, 2006
Creator: Peterson, S R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

Description: Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.
Date: July 24, 2003
Creator: Watson, A. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Estimates indicate that first degree burns on the bare skin will be sustained 30 miles from a 10 megaton nuclear blast. Results are reported from a theoretical and experimental investigation of the temperature response of pig skin exposed to thermal radiation. While the study deals with radiant energy heating of skin, it is concluded that results may be applied to other modes of energy input. Methods were developed for the comparison of theoretical predictions with experimental results. An attempt is made to simplify the basic equation of heat conduction. Results are presented together with an evaluation of the constants of skin, whenever possible. It was shown that the absorption pattern of radiation in skin may be determined directly by temperature measurements. 50 references. (C.H.)
Date: June 10, 1959
Creator: Davis, T.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Technical Report

Description: The nonlinear physics of electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) in plasmas. Time-varying wave magnetic field exceeding the background magnetic field produces highly nonlinear whistler mode since the wave dispersion depends on the total magnetic field. There exists no theory for such whistler modes. The present experimental work is the first one to explore this regime of nonlinear whistlers. A field-reversed configuration has been found which has the same vortex topology as an MHD spheromak, termed a whistler spheromak. Whistler mirrors have compressed and twisted field lines propagating in the whistler mode. Their helicity properties have been studied. Whistler spheromaks and mirrors have different propagation and damping characteristics. Wave collisions have been studied. Head-on collisions of two whistler spheromaks form a stationary field-reversed configuration (FRC) without helicity. When whistler spheromaks are excited the toroidal current flows mainly in the toroidal null line. It is only carried by electrons since ion currents and displacement currents are negligible. A change in the poloidal (axial) magnetic field induces a toroidal electric field which drives the current. Magnetic energy is dissipated and converted into electron kinetic energy. This process is called magnetic reconnection in 2D geometries, which are simplifications for theoretical convenience but rarely occur in nature. A crucial aspect of reconnection is its rate, determined by the electron collisionality. Regular Coulomb collisions can rarely account for the observed reconnection rates. In the present experiments we have also observed fast reconnection and explained it by electron transit time damping in the finite-size null layer. Electrons move faster than a whistler spheromak, hence transit through the toroidal null line where they are freely accelerated. The transit time is essentially the collision time but no particle collisions are required. Strong electron heating and visible light emissions are only observed in whistler spheromaks and FRCs but not in mirrors or ...
Date: September 8, 2009
Creator: Stenzel, Reiner & Urrutia, J. Manuel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Irradiation of the carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene (I) with 1-methylcytosine hydrochloride IIa (molar ratio 1:10) at 3500 {angstrom} in methanol-acetone produces the 6-(1-methylcytos-5-yl)-benzo[a]pyrene (III). The structure of the product shows the hydrocarbon bound through the most active 6-carbon atom to the nucleophilic 5-position of the base. In the second part, the possibility of observing carcinogenic effects on the mouse skin from non-carcinogenic hydrocarbons under the action of UV light is investigated. Both experiments provide evidence that the 4,5-double bond (K region) of I presumably does not play a role in triggering the cancer process.
Date: January 1, 1971
Creator: Cavalieri, E. & Calvin, Melvin.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Resistive wall heating due to image current on the beam chamber for a superconducting undulator.

Description: The image-current heating on the resistive beam chamber of a superconducting undulator (SCU) was calculated based on the normal and anomalous skin effects. Using the bulk resistivity of copper for the beam chamber, the heat loads were calculated for the residual resistivity ratios (RRRs) of unity at room temperature to 100 K at a cryogenic temperature as the reference. Then, using the resistivity of the specific aluminum alloy 6053-T5, which will be used for the SCU beam chamber, the heat loads were calculated. An electron beam stored in a storage ring induces an image current on the inner conducting wall, mainly within a skin depth, of the beam chamber. The image current, with opposite charge to the electron beam, travels along the chamber wall in the same direction as the electron beam. The average current in the storage ring consists of a number of bunches. When the pattern of the bunched beam is repeated according to the rf frequency, the beam current may be expressed in terms of a Fourier series. The time structure of the image current is assumed to be the same as that of the beam current. For a given resistivity of the chamber inner wall, the application ofthe normal or anomalous skin effect will depend on the harmonic numbers of the Fourier series of the beam current and the temperature of the chamber. For a round beam chamber with a ratius r, much larger than the beam size, one can assume that the image current density as well as the density square, may be uniform around the perimeter 2{pi}r. For the SCU beam chamber, which has a relatively narrow vertical gap compared to the width, the effective perimeter was estimated since the heat load should be proportional to the inverse of the perimeter.
Date: March 27, 2012
Creator: Kim, S. H. (Accelerator Systems Division (APS))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plutonium--lymph relationship

Description: No Description Available.
Date: July 1, 1974
Creator: Schallberger, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Under conditions resulting from surface and underground detonations of atomic bombs, tests were conducted on Chemical Corps impregnated and unimpregnated protective clothing, Individual Protective Mask M9A1 with M11 Canister, Tank Collective Protector E26 and E22, and Protective Ointment M5. Both impregnated and unimpregnated clothing were capable of preventing contact between the skin and radioactive dusts. Unimpregnated clothing demonstrated better contanmination-decontamination characteristics, but the secondary radiation from all clothing was negligible. The protective cover was effective in preventing contamination of clothing. The M9A1 mask with M11 canister furnished complete protection against inhalation of radioactive dust. The flltering efficiencies of the E26 tank collective protectors were found to be very high, and no deficiencies were found in the unit. The filtering efficiencies of the E22 tank collective protectors were also high. Panels coated with M5 ointment were found to be much more highly contaminated than bare panels. (auth)
Date: July 1, 1952
Creator: Hendrickson, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: No Description Available.
Date: April 30, 1953
Creator: Pearse, H.E. & Kingsley, H.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department