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An orbit fit program for localizing errors in RHIC

Description: Many errors in an accelerator are evidenced as transverse kicks to the beam which distort the beam trajectory. Therefore, the information of the errors are imprinted in the distorted orbits, which are different from what would be predicted by the optics model. In this note, we introduce an algorithm for fitting the orbit based on an on-line optics model. By comparing the measured and fitted orbits, we first present results validating the algorithm. We then apply the algorithm and localize the location of the elusive source of vertical diurnal variations observed in RHIC. The difference of two trajectories (linear accelerator) or closed orbits (storage ring) should match exactly a betatron oscillation, which is predictable by the optics model, in an ideal machine. However, in the presence of errors, the measured trajectory deviates from prediction since the model is imperfect. Comparison of measurement to model can be used to detect such errors. To do so the initial conditions (phase space parameters at any point) must be determined which can be done by comparing the difference orbit to prediction using only a few beam position monitors (BPMs). The fitted orbit can be propagated along the beam line based on the optics model. Measurement and model will agree up to the point of an error. The error source can be better localized by additionally fitting the difference orbit using downstream BPMs and back-propagating the solution. If one dominating error source exist in the machine, the fitted orbit will deviate from the difference orbit at the same point.
Date: November 1, 2011
Creator: Liu, C.; Minty, M. & Ptitsyn, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Ambient Radon Concentrations in Air in the Northern Mojave Desert from Continuous and Integrating Instruments

Description: As part of a program to characterize and baseline environmental parameters, ambient radon-222 (Rn) monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, NV, the closest community to Yucca Mountain. Passive integrating and continuous Rn monitoring instruments were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) station in Amargosa Valley. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated Rn measurements, verified the meteorological data collected by the continuous Rn monitoring instrument, and for provided instrumentation for evaluating the relationships between meteorological conditions and Rn concentrations. Hourly Rn concentrations in air measured by the continuous Rn monitoring instrument (AlphaGUARD®) were compared to the average hourly values for the integrating Rn measurements (E-PERM®) by dividing the total Rn measurements by the number of hours the instruments were deployed. The results of the comparison indicated that average hourly ambient Rn concentrations as measured by both methods ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 pico-curies per liter of air. Ambient Rn values for the AlphaGUARD exhibited diurnal variations. When Rn concentrations were compared with measurements of temperature (T), barometric pressure, and relative humidity, the correlation (inversely) was highest with T, albeit weakly.
Date: May 18, 2010
Creator: Shafer, David S.; McGraw, David; Karr, Lynn H.; McCurdy, Greg; Kluesner, Tammy L.; Gray, Karen J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the Repeatability of the Delta Q Duct Leakage Testing TechniqueIncluding Investigation of Robust Analysis Techniques and Estimates of Weather Induced Uncertainty

Description: The DeltaQ test is a method of estimating the air leakage from forced air duct systems. Developed primarily for residential and small commercial applications it uses the changes in blower door test results due to forced air system operation. Previous studies established the principles behind DeltaQ testing, but raised issues of precision of the test, particularly for leaky homes on windy days. Details of the measurement technique are available in an ASTM Standard (ASTM E1554-2007). In order to ease adoption of the test method, this study answers questions regarding the uncertainty due to changing weather during the test (particularly changes in wind speed) and the applicability to low leakage systems. The first question arises because the building envelope air flows and pressures used in the DeltaQ test are influenced by weather induced pressures. Variability in wind induced pressures rather than temperature difference induced pressures dominates this effect because the wind pressures change rapidly over the time period of a test. The second question needs to answered so that DeltaQ testing can be used in programs requiring or giving credit for tight ducts (e.g., California's Building Energy Code (CEC 2005)). DeltaQ modeling biases have been previously investigated in laboratory studies where there was no weather induced changes in envelope flows and pressures. Laboratory work by Andrews (2002) and Walker et al. (2004) found biases of about 0.5% of forced air system blower flow and individual test uncertainty of about 2% of forced air system blower flow. The laboratory tests were repeated by Walker and Dickerhoff (2006 and 2008) using a new ramping technique that continuously varied envelope pressures and air flows rather than taking data at pre-selected pressure stations (as used in ASTM E1554-2003 and other previous studies). The biases and individual test uncertainties for ramping were found to be very ...
Date: August 1, 2008
Creator: Dickerhoff, Darryl & Walker, Iain
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an Integrated Residential Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification System for Residences

Description: The Need and the Opportunity Codes such as ASHRAE 90.2 and IECC, and programs such as Energy Star and Builders Challenge, are causing new homes to be built to higher performance standards. As a result sensible cooling loads in new homes are going down, but indoor air quality prerogatives are causing ventilation rates and moisture loads to increase in humid climates. Conventional air conditioners are unable to provide the low sensible heat ratios that are needed to efficiently cool and dehumidify homes since dehumidification potential is strongly correlated with cooling system operating hours. The project team saw an opportunity to develop a system that is at least as effective as a conventional air conditioner plus dehumidifier, removes moisture without increasing the sensible load, reduces equipment cost by integrating components, and simplifies installation. Project Overview Prime contractor Davis Energy Group led a team in developing an Integrated Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification (I-HVCD) system under the DOE SBIR program. Phase I and II SBIR project activities ran from July 2003 through December 2007. Tasks included: (1) Mechanical Design and Prototyping; (2) Controls Development; (3) Laboratory and Field Testing; and (4) Commercialization Activities Technology Description. Key components of the prototype I-HVCD system include an evaporator coil assembly, return and outdoor air damper, and controls. These are used in conjunction with conventional components that include a variable speed air handler or furnace, and a two-stage condensing unit. I-HVCD controls enable the system to operate in three distinct cooling modes to respond to indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels. When sensible cooling loads are high, the system operates similar to a conventional system but varies supply airflow in response to indoor RH. In the second mode airflow is further reduced, and the reheat coil adds heat to the supply air. In the third ...
Date: June 18, 2008
Creator: Hoeschele, M.A. & Springer, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar mechanics thermal response capabilities.

Description: In many applications, the thermal response of structures exposed to solar heat loads is of interest. Solar mechanics governing equations were developed and integrated with the Calore thermal response code via user subroutines to provide this computational simulation capability. Solar heat loads are estimated based on the latitude and day of the year. Vector algebra is used to determine the solar loading on each face of a finite element model based on its orientation relative to the sun as the earth rotates. Atmospheric attenuation is accounted for as the optical path length varies from sunrise to sunset. Both direct and diffuse components of solar flux are calculated. In addition, shadowing of structures by other structures can be accounted for. User subroutines were also developed to provide convective and radiative boundary conditions for the diurnal variations in air temperature and effective sky temperature. These temperature boundary conditions are based on available local weather data and depend on latitude and day of the year, consistent with the solar mechanics formulation. These user subroutines, coupled with the Calore three-dimensional thermal response code, provide a complete package for addressing complex thermal problems involving solar heating. The governing equations are documented in sufficient detail to facilitate implementation into other heat transfer codes. Suggestions for improvements to the approach are offered.
Date: July 1, 2009
Creator: Dobranich, Dean D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scoping Study for Demand Respose DFT II Project in Morgantown, WV

Description: This scoping study describes the underlying data resources and an analysis tool for a demand response assessment specifically tailored toward the needs of the Modern Grid Initiatives Demonstration Field Test in Phase II in Morgantown, WV. To develop demand response strategies as part of more general distribution automation, automated islanding and feeder reconfiguration schemes, an assessment of the demand response resource potential is required. This report provides the data for the resource assessment for residential customers and describes a tool that allows the analyst to estimate demand response in kW for each hour of the day, by end-use, season, day type (weekday versus weekend) with specific saturation rates of residential appliances valid for the Morgantown, WV area.
Date: June 6, 2008
Creator: Lu, Shuai & Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, January-- December 1972

Description: Results are reported from: measurements of nocturnal wind flow over St. Louis; measurement of wind velocity and pressure at Chicago Midway Airport; micrometeorological measurements and determination of the average diurnal surface budgets and evaporation rate of the Great Lakes; and applications of wind turbulence statistics to predict pollution dispersions over water. (CH)
Date: January 1, 1972
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guide for calculating collection efficiency for the shallow solar pond (applicable for any horizontal flat plate solar collector)

Description: The collection efficiemcy of a solar collector system was calculated by a method of Hottel and Whillier and Liu and Jordan. The method calculates the hourly rate of energy collecti on and the long term on monthly average collection efficiency based upon monthly average daily solar insolation data and daytime temperatures obtained from Weather Bureau data. The method provides the most realistic values of collection efficiency that can be obtained for a given collector system in a given location. Not only is the monthly variation taken into account but also the statistical effect of bad weather. The Solar'' computer program was written to calculate average hourly values of collected heat ficiency. (MCW) Energy flow charts for the U. S., showing the origin and disposition of energy for the years 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1985, and l990, are presented along with a discussion of their development and the implications of the data they represent. An appendix describes the construction of one chart in detail, serving as an example of the method. (auth)
Date: February 1, 1974
Creator: Dickinson, W. C. & Neifert, R. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 5 for Lovington Square Shopping Center, Lovington, NM

Description: For the months of September and October, 1981, operational performance data are presented for a photovoltaic power system at a New Mexico shopping center. The electrical energy yield, incident solar energy, and efficiency of the solar cell array are given, including daily and monthly energy yield and insolation and efficiency, and energy yield as a function of power level, voltage, cell temperature, and hour of the day. Data are presented for two power conditioning units, including power conditioner input, output, and efficiency. The total photovoltaic system efficiency and capacity factor are given as well as daily availability data. Meteorological data include monthly insolation data, heating and cooling degree days, average monthly ambient temperature, monthly average wind speed and distribution of wind directions. Also included are plots of cell temperature, ambient temperature, wind speed, and insolation versus the hour of the day. Also included is a brief narrative description of the system operation and data. (LEW)
Date: December 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network

Description: Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)
Date: June 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

March 1982 environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network

Description: Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)
Date: March 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data report for the Southwest Residential Experiment Station, November 1981

Description: The Southwest Residential Experiment Station (SW RES) is operated in Las Cruces, New Mexico. Physical performance data obtained from the photovoltaic energy systems under test at the SW RES for the month of November 1981, are tabulated.
Date: December 18, 1981
Creator: Lieberman, M.; Hai, O.Y.; Hocking, G. & Whitaker, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Argonne National Laboratory operations during ASCOT 1991

Description: The Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) field study took place during 1991 in conjunction with a model verification exercise in and around the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) northwest of Denver, Colorado, between January 29 and February 8. As part of this exercise, Argonne (ANL) operated a portable minisodar at several locations around REP during each of the experimental nights. In addition, ANL operated permanent'' network minisodars with enhanced time resolution at Coal Creek and the Bartlett Ranch for the duration of the field study. Real-time data from each minisodar are identical in format, consisting of (1) vertical profiles of horizontal wind speed along the pointing directions of each of two beams tilted from the vertical by about 17 deg, (2) vertical wind speed along a vertically pointed beam, (3) the standard deviation of the components along each of these direction, (4) the signal amplitude, and (5) the number of samples within each average that were accepted as good.'' The data output to the ASCOT data center consists of wind speed, wind direction, vertical wind speed, standard deviation of wind speed along the three pointing directions, and the vertical beam signal amplitude in arbitrary units. Maximum heights of the minisodars were generally limited to 300 m; however, lower heights were occasionally used to increase the sampling rate or because of limited signal strength. During this field study, operational periods were on selected nights from 20000 hr until 0500 hr the following morning.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Coulter, R.L. & Martin, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric CO sub 2 concentrations derived from flask samples collected at USSR-operated sampling sites

Description: This document presents daily atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations from four USSR-operated sampling sites (Teriberka Station, Ocean Station Charlie, Bering Island, and Kotelny Island). The period of record varies by station with the earliest measurements dating back to 1983 and recent estimates from early 1991. These CO{sub 2} concentrations are derived from air samples collected in 1.5-L stainless steel electropolished flasks and later analyzed at the Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg, USSR) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer. Measurements not meeting wind direction, wind speed, inter-flask agreement, and climate condition criteria were either discarded or flagged. All measurements have been corrected for drift biases introduced during flask storage. These atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are considered indicative of regional background air conditions and are directly traceable to the World Meteorological Organization's primary CO{sub 2} standards. These measurements support the rising trend in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations measured at other monitoring sites around the world and may be compared with similar measurements made by various monitoring programs at other northern latitude sites. The document presents the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations in graphical and tabular form, describes the sampling methods, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, and describes the information on the magnetic media.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Boden, T.A. (comp.) (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center); Brounshtein, A.M.; Faber, E.V. & Shashkov, A.A. (Glavnaya Geofizicheskaya Observatoriya, St. Petersburg (USSR))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

United States Historical Climatology Network daily temperature and precipitation data

Description: This document describes a data base containing daily observations of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation amounts from 138 US stations. These stations are a specially chosen subset of the 1219-station US Historical Climatology Network (HCN), compiled by the National Climatic Data Center (Asheville, North Carolina). The daily data network (herein referred to as the HCN/D) consists of stations considered to be the best of those from the HCN, selected to provide reasonably homogeneous spatial coverage of the contiguous US after considering the temporal homogeneity of each station's observing times, instrument types/positions, and surroundings. The data for each station extend through 1987, and most station records are complete for at least 80 years. The daily resolution of these data lends maximum flexibility for studies attempting to detect and monitor long-term climatic changes on a regional scale. Studies using daily data may be able to detect changes in regional climate that would not be apparent from analysis of the more commonly used monthly temperature and precipitation data. Such studies may include analyses of trends in maximum/minimum temperatures, temperature extremes, daily temperature range, precipitation event size'' frequency, and the magnitude and duration of wet and dry periods. Other applications of the data include planning and risk assessment in areas such as agriculture, natural resource exploration, and construction. This document describes how the stations in the HCN/D were selected, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, describes the format and contents of the magnetic tape, and provides reprints of literature pertinent to the collection and application of daily climate data.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Kaiser, D.P. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center); Hughes, P.Y.; Mason, E.H.; Karl, T.R. & Brower, W.A. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Asheville, NC (United States). National Climatic Data Center)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in the John Day Pool. 1982 Annual Report.

Description: This study was initiated to determine the extent of predation by resident populations of native and introduced fish on juvenile salmonids in main stem Columbia River Reservoirs. The John Day Reservoir and tailrace was selected as the study area. First year objectives were: (1) determine whether native and introduced predators preyed on juvenile salmonids; (2) determine which species were major predators; and (3) locate areas where predation was most intense. Results indicated that juvenile salmonids were consumed by all four predatory fish species studied: northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). However, degree of predation varied among predators as a function of spatial distribution, apparent abundance, size, and temporal feeding behavior. 15 figs., 16 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Gray, Gerard A. & Administration, United States. Bonneville Power
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy modeling and data support for the Electric Power Research Institute. Annual report, July 1977

Description: Progress for the period from July 1, 1976 to June 30, 1977 is reviewed in this second annual report in support of the Energy Modeling and Data Support program for EPRI. Reference Energy Systems were formulated for the base year 1972 and projections developed for the years 1980, 1985, and 2000 for the area serviced by the New York Power Pool. In addition, Brookhaven, EPRI, and the Tennessee Valley Authority have entered into a cooperative effort to develop demand projections for the area serviced by TVA. The RES and associated data will provide a baseline against which TVA can evaluate the effect of substituting alternate technologies and policies for one another. Development of the Dynamic Energy Systems Optimization Model is continuing, with effort this year directed toward better representation of the electrical sector within the model. The model has been reformulated such that the year is divided into three seasons and two daily divisions, thus allowing the model to choose whether a summer or winter peak will occur and better depict the yearly time dependence of demands.
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Abilock, H; Beller, M; Cherniavsky, E A; Hermelee, A; Juang, L L & Marcuse, W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exploration of volcanic geothermal energy resources based on rheological techniques. Fourth technical status report, January 1, 1979-March 31, 1979

Description: Two tilt-meters have been operated at a site on the Oregon Institute of Technology campus at Klamath Falls, Oregon, since February 13. One strain-meter was installed at the same site on March 11 and the second on March 22. All four instruments have been tested and calibrated and are now fully operational. There have been no major problems except that the first temperature recorders were not sensitive enough and two new instruments have therefore been ordered. Both tilt and strain records obtained so far display semi-diurnal and diurnal oscillations that have the characteristics of solid earth tidal strain fields. Considering the small forcing fields, the records appear to be of a satisfactory quality.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Bodvarsson, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department