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Statistical methods for detecting ichthyoplankton density patterns that influence entrainment mortality

Description: Samples of drifting American shad eggs were collected at two transects in the Savannah River near industrial water intakes. At each transect the river was divided into four sectors that were sampled at two hour intervals over a 24 hour period. The actual risk of entrainment was approximately 35-50% lower that if the shad eggs were uniformly distributed, and the risk of entrainment was lower at one intake than the other.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Paller, M.H.; Tuckfield, R.C. & Starkel, W.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations -- Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii 1958--1986

Description: Since 1958, CO{sub 2} concentrations at Mauna Loa Observatory have been obtained using a nondispersive, dual detector, infrared gas analyzer. Air samples are obtained from air intakes at the top of four 7m towers and one 27m tower. Those involved in the monitoring project have attempted to improving sampling techniques, reduce possible contamination sources, and adjust data to represent uncontaminated, true conditions throughout the twenty-eight year sampling period. The gas analyzer is calibrated by standardized CO{sub 2}-in-nitrogen reference gases twice daily. Flask samples are taken twice a month for comparison to the data recorded using the infrared gas analyzer. Data are scrutinized daily for possible contamination and archived on magnetic tape for further scrutiny and adjustment. Daily, monthly, and annual averages are computed for the Mauna Loa data after deletion of contaminated samples and readjustment of the data. These averages have shown a steady rise in annual average concentration from 316 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in 1959 to 346 ppmv in 1986.
Date: September 1, 1986
Creator: Boden, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Meteorological tower data for the Yucca Alluvial (YA) site and Yucca Ridge (YR) site: Final data report, July 1983-October 1984

Description: The purpose of the NNWSI meteorological data collection program was to support environmental evaluations of site suitability for a nuclear waste repository. This is the last of a series of data summaries for the NNWSI Alluvial and Ridge Sites in southern Nevada. 3 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: November 1, 1987
Creator: Church, H.W.; Freeman, D.L.; Boro, K. & Egami, R.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Time-series records of pCO{sub 2} and NO{sub 3} during the OMP Field Program: a final report for DOE Grant DE-FG03-96ER62224

Description: The specific goals of this research are to (1) determine daily and seasonal variability of seawater pCO{sub 2} partial pressure of CO{sub 2} and NO{sub 3} in Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) waters; (2) estimate seasonal CO{sub 2} fluxes between the MAB shelf and the atmosphere; and (3) determine the primary controls of surface seawater pCO{sub 2} in this coastal system. During the first phase of the DOE-OMP (1992-1995) we developed the Submersible Autonomous Moored Instrument for CO{sub 2} (SAMI-CO{sub 2}) which is designed to measure seawater CO{sub 2} on ocean moorings for extended periods.
Date: April 1, 2000
Creator: DeGrandpre, Michael D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Daily snow depth measurements from 195 stations in the United States

Description: This document describes a database containing daily measurements of snow depth at 195 National Weather Service (NWS) first-order climatological stations in the United States. The data have been assembled and made available by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina. The 195 stations encompass 388 unique sampling locations in 48 of the 50 states; no observations from Delaware or Hawaii are included in the database. Station selection criteria emphasized the quality and length of station records while seeking to provide a network with good geographic coverage. Snow depth at the 388 locations was measured once per day on ground open to the sky. The daily snow depth is the total depth of the snow on the ground at measurement time. The time period covered by the database is 1893--1992; however, not all station records encompass the complete period. While a station record ideally should contain daily data for at least the seven winter months (January through April and October through December), not all stations have complete records. Each logical record in the snow depth database contains one station`s daily data values for a period of one month, including data source, measurement, and quality flags.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Allison, L. J.; Easterling, D. R.; Jamason, P.; Bowman, D. P.; Hughes, P. Y. & Mason, E. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A new approach to the characterization of long-term changes in total atmospheric ozone: Applications of frequency and extreme value statistics

Description: This paper sets forth a new approach for describing long-term changes in total ozone by using extreme value statistics and firquency distributions. We applied this methodology to the database of column ozone provided by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer aboard Nimbus 7. We examined a geographic region measuring 7.0 degrees in latitude by 6.25 degrees in longitude in the midwestern United States from 1979--1991. On any given spring day, individual ozone measurements in this region show a large variability, where the differences between noontime maximum and minimum values sometimes exceed 100 Dobson units. During spring, the frequency of extremely low ozone values decreased over the period 1980--1991, while the opposite situation prevailed during fall.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Reck, R.A.; Bornick, R.M.; Wen, G.; Frederick, J.E. & Weinberg, B.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric Aerosol Source-Receptor Relationships: The Role of Coal-Fired Power Plants

Description: This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of March 2005 through August 2005. Significant progress was made this project period on the source characterization, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. This report highlights new data on road dust, vegetative detritus and motor vehicle emissions. For example, the results show significant differences in the composition in urban and rural road dust. A comparison of the organic of the fine particulate matter in the tunnel with the ambient provides clear evidence of the significant contribution of vehicle emissions to ambient PM. The source profiles developed from this work are being used by the source-receptor modeling activities. The report presents results on the spatial distribution of PMF-factors. The results can be grouped into three different categories: regional sources, local sources, or potentially both regional and local sources. Examples of the regional sources are the sulfate and selenium PMF-factors which most likely-represent coal fired power plants. Examples of local sources are the specialty steel and lead factors. There is reasonable correspondence between these apportionments and data from the EPA TRI and AIRS emission inventories. Detailed comparisons between PMCAMx predictions and measurements by the STN and IMPROVE measurements in the Eastern US are presented. Comparisons were made for the major aerosol components and PM{sub 2.5} mass in July 2001, October 2001, January 2002, and April 2002. The results are encouraging with average fraction biases for most species less than 0.25. The improvement of the model performance during the last two years was mainly due to the comparison of the model predictions with the continuous measurements in the Pittsburgh Supersite. Major improvements have included the descriptions: of ammonia emissions (CMU inventory), night time nitrate chemistry, EC emissions and their diurnal variation, and nitric acid dry removal.
Date: December 1, 2005
Creator: Robinson, Allen L.; Pandis, Spyros N. & Davidson, Cliff I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Significance of frost action and surface soil characteristics to wind erosion at Rocky Flats, Colorado. Final report

Description: This study of the potential links between soil freezing and wind erosion was conducted at Rocky Flats during 4 winters. Most of the study has involved the conditions leading to the growth of segregation ice in the surface soil and the ground heave which that produces. This occurs about 15 times in the average winter at Rocky Flats, always on a diurnal cycle. Such frost action is preferentially distributed in time and space and cannot be estimated from air temperatures alone. November and March are the months of most frequent frost heave, and then only in the days following precipitation or snowmelt. The most marked frost effects are found on exposed interfluve and hillcrest situations, where there are patches of bare soil. Almost no effects are found on the valley floors. Soil disturbance by segregation ice leads to a marked decrease in soil bulk density, and presumably in soil strength though this change has not been quantitatively defined. However, this does not lead to wind erosion of the soil at the study site because that surface is more influenced by the vegetation cover than by the soil characteristics.
Date: September 1, 1978
Creator: Caine, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Meteorological and climatological investigation: review of July-December 1979 investigative period. Appendix D

Description: The specific goals of the meteorological and climatological investigations on the Geokinetics Incorporated (GKI) field research site (Section 2, T14S, R22E) in Uintah County, Utah, are to collect, reduce and analyze meteorological and microclimatological data for the purpose of: (1) obtaining knowledge of the structure and flexibility of the local microclimate; (2) evaluating any trends associated with the locale; and (3) monitoring for project induced changes in the local microclimate. The findings presented herein reflect the results of the collection, reduction and analysis of raw data acquired during the investigative period from July 1, 1979 through December 31, 1979. In addition, a composite profile summary of findings for the entire year (1979) are presented as an addendum to the report. During the latter six-months of 1979, the results were found to be consistent with those gathered during the same period the previous year.
Date: January 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Meteorological and climatological investigation: review of July-December 1979 investigative period. Appendix D

Description: The specific goals of the meteorological and climatological investigations on the Geokinetics Incorporated (GKI) field research site (Section 2, T14S, R22E) in Uintah County, Utah, are to collect, reduce and analyze meteorological and microclimatological data for the purpose of: (1) obtaining knowledge of the structure and flexibility of the local microclimate; (2) evaluating any trends associated with the locale; and (3) monitoring for project induced changes in the local microclimate. The findings presented herein reflect the results of the collection, reduction and analysis of raw data acquired during the collection, reduction and analysis of raw data acquired during the investigative period from July 1, 1979 through December 31, 1979. In addition, a composite profile summary of findings for the entire year (1979) are presented as an addendum to the report. During the latter six-months of 1979, the results were found to be consistent with those gathered during the same period the previous year.
Date: January 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Meteorological and climatological investigation: review of July-December 1979 investigative period

Description: The specific goals of the meteorological and climatological investigations on the Geokinetics Incorporated (GKI) field research site (Section 2, T14S, R22E) in Uintah County, Utah, are to collect, reduce and analyze meteorological and microclimatological data for the purpose of: (1) obtaining knowledge of the structure and flexibility of the local microclimate; (2) evaluating any trends associated with the locale; and (3) monitoring for project induced changes in the local microclimate. The findings presented herein reflect the results of the collection, reduction and analysis of raw data acquired during the investigative period from July 1, 1979 through December 31, 1979. In addition, a composite profile summary of findings for the entire year (1979) are presented as an addendum to the report. During the latter six-months of 1979, the results were found to be consistent with those gathered during the same period the previous year.
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Spradlin, H.K.L. & Lundberg, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced metering techniques

Description: The goal of the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to facilitate energy-efficiency improvements at federal facilities. This is accomplished by a balanced program of technology development, facility assessment, and use of cost-sharing procurement mechanisms. Technology development focuses upon the tools and procedures used to identify and evaluate efficiency improvements. For facility assessment, FEMP provides metering equipment and trained analysts to federal agencies exhibiting a commitment to improve energy-use efficiency. To assist in implementing energy-efficiency measures, FEMP helps federal agencies with identifying efficiency opportunities and in implementing energy-efficiency and demand-side management programs at federal sites. As the lead laboratory for FEMP, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provides technical assistance to federal agencies to better understand and characterize energy systems. The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked PNL to provide technical assistance to characterize and modernize energy systems at FORSCOM installations. As part of that technical assistance, PNL performed an in-depth examination of automatic meter-reading system technologies currently available. The operating characteristics and relative merits of all the major systems were reviewed in the context of applicability to federal installations. That review is documented in this report.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Szydlowski, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Generation and mobility of radon in soil

Description: This study has confirmed large seasonal and daily variations of Rn in soil gas, developed models for the effects of temperature and moisture on air-water Rn partition, inhibited Rn diffusion from wet soil into sparse large air-filled pores and effects of diffusion into bedrock, demonstrated that organic matter is a major host for 226Ra in soils and that organic-bound Ra largely determines the proportion of 222Rn emanated to pore space, shown that in contrast 220Rn is emanated mainly from 224Ra in Fe-oxides, detected significant disequilibrium between 226Ra and 238U in organic matter and in some recent glacial soils, demonstrated by computer models that air convection driven by temperature differences is expected in moderately permeable soils on hillsides.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Rose, A.W.; Jester, W.A. & Ciolkosz, E.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An evaluation of thermal energy storage options for precooling gas turbine inlet air

Description: Several approaches have been used to reduce the temperature of gas turbine inlet air. One of the most successful uses off-peak electric power to drive vapor-compression-cycle ice makers. The ice is stored until the next time high ambient temperature is encountered, when the ice is used in a heat exchanger to cool the gas turbine inlet air. An alternative concept would use seasonal thermal energy storage to store winter chill for inlet air cooling. The objective of this study was to compare the performance and economics of seasonal thermal energy storage in aquifers with diurnal ice thermal energy storage for gas turbine inlet air cooling. The investigation consisted of developing computer codes to model the performance of a gas turbine, energy storage system, heat exchangers, and ancillary equipment. The performance models were combined with cost models to calculate unit capital costs and levelized energy costs for each concept. The levelized energy cost was calculated for three technologies in two locations (Minneapolis, Minnesota and Birmingham, Alabama). Precooling gas turbine inlet air with cold water supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage system provided lower cost electricity than simply increasing the size of the turbine for meteorological and geological conditions existing in the Minneapolis vicinity. A 15 to 20% cost reduction resulted for both 0.05 and 0.2 annual operating factors. In contrast, ice storage precooling was found to be between 5 and 20% more expensive than larger gas turbines for the Minneapolis location. In Birmingham, aquifer thermal energy storage precooling was preferred at the higher capacity factor and ice storage precooling was the best option at the lower capacity factor. In both cases, the levelized cost was reduced by approximately 5% when compared to larger gas turbines.
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Antoniak, Z.I.; Brown, D.R. & Drost, M.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary information and data sets for NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory, 1981--1991

Description: This report summarizes the solar radiation and meteorological data collected at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, from 1981 through 1991. The data collection was part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project. The report includes long-term averages and monthly and annual variability for key solar radiation elements and describes the hourly data sets for 1981 through 1991. Described in the report are how the elements were measured and how the data were collected and processed into hourly values. Procedures used for quality assessment of the hourly data values are presented, and the position of the solar radiation and meteorological elements in the data sets are defined; samples of read statements are provided.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Marion, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent changes of weather patterns in North America

Description: Climate models predict a general increase of surface air temperature and drought frequency in parts of the North American continent due to increased CO[sub 2] concentrations. Regional climate change results in part from the changed frequency of the atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns in addition to the changed properties of the different air mass types. We are investigating the frequency and properties of the air mass types differentiated by moisture dependent variables and comparing the findings to that simulated by numerical climate models. The objectives of this project are to analyse the time related changes and variability in the properties and frequency of air masses and weather extremes over North America. To determine the agree to which the observed changes agree with climate model predictions.
Date: April 1, 1993
Creator: Kukla, G.J. (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory) & Karl, T. (National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of airborne radioactivity and its meteorological application. Part VIII. Annual report, 1 August 1976-31 October 1977

Description: Studies of the stratospheric-tropospheric exchange were continued. Continuous data of the concentration of cosmogenic radionuclides /sup 7/Be, /sup 32/P, /sup 33/P, as well as of fallout and daily means of ozone concentrations, measured at 3000 m ASL are presented for the reporting period. Installation of two additional ozone measuring stations at 1800 and 740 m ASL provided the means for getting insight into the balance of the tropospheric ozone. First results of routine monitoring of the stratospheric aerosol with a high resolution lidar are shown. Accuracy of the method is discussed. Control of the stratospheric-tropospheric exchange by solar activity is examined with the aid of the key day method using an 8-year measuring sequence. Relevant literature available on the subject is reviewed.
Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: Reiter, R.; Kanter, H. J.; Sladkovic, R.; Jaeger, H. & Poetzl, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relation of air pollution to mortality: a critique. [SO/sub 2/ in New York City air]

Description: A study of the relation between SO/sub 2/ and smoke-shade in the surface air of New York City and deaths resulting from respiratory and heart diseases is discussed. The need to use data from a number of sampling stations in any epidemiological study on the health effects of air pollutants is stressed. It is pointed out that the complicated effects of weather on the environmental transport of air pollutants and the variations in statistical methods used may lead to eronious conclusions as to the cause of deaths.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Goldstein, I F; Goldstein, M & Landovitz, L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heating/daylighting prototype development. Phase I, Passive and Hybrid Solar Manufactured Building Project. Interim report and project status report No. 1, 1 October 1979-29 February 1980

Description: Climatological data, both representative (typical) and extreme conditions, relevant to building energy use in Grandview, Missouri are presented. The energy-related characteristics of a particular building and its use are merged with ambient weather conditions. The graphs depict daily fluctuations in the major categories of building heating/cooling load for the experimental building (Roof Runner facility) at Butler Research Center. Data input include hourly weather and building occupancy schedules, the geometry and fixed thermal characteristics (component R-values, heat capacities, etc.) of the prototype structure, and variable conditions (status of moveable insulating shutters, HVAC operating modes, etc.). The prototype systems to be incorporated in the new Roof Runner building are shown. Both warehouse (no ceiling) and office (suspended ceiling) system types are included. The diagrams conceptually depict the heat flows in several representative operating modes, sampling the wide variety of operating conditions which will be evaluated during the testing phase of this project. Cost estimates for the designs selected for construction are provided. (MHR)
Date: March 31, 1980
Creator: Snyder, M.; Fraker, H.; Lindsey, L.; Braham, W.; Hallagan, W. & Huffman, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Generation and mobility of radon in soil

Description: Objectives of this research include: (1) To determine the processes that cause large seasonal and short-term changes in the radon (Rn) content of soil gases, and to develop methods of predicting and modeling these variations; (2) to evaluate the relation of Rn emanation coefficients to form of radium (Ra) and other U-series decay products, particularly the role of Ra in organic matter and Fe-oxides; (3) to evaluate the conditions in which convection of gas in soil and bedrock may affect soil gas radon availability in houses; and, (4) to collaborate with other DOE researchers on evaluation of Rn flux into houses, using our well characterized soil sites.
Date: January 1, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SIMS three year study on statistics and environmental factors in health. Technical progress report No. 2

Description: Progress is reported on a study of statistical methods for the correlation of environmental factors and health effects, with emphasis on the effects of air pollution. Statistical methods and models for describing the effects of the environment, measured in terms of pollution and weather variables on health, so far measured only in terms of respiratory diseases, are discussed. Plans for conducting a six-city pollution health study are also discussed. A list of publications during 1976 and 1977 is included.
Date: December 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Basalt Waste Isolation Project. Quarterly report, January 1-March 31, 1980

Description: This report addresses the technical progress for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project for the second quarter of fiscal year 1980. Seismic design values were developed for preliminary repository design purposes; 0.25 g horizontal and 0.125 g vertical maximum accelerations for surface, zero-period conditions. Preliminary seismic data indicate broad, smooth areas exist in the bedrock surface in the western portion of the Cold Creek syncline and a gently undulating bedrock surface in the eastern portion. Test results indicate hydraulic property values fall within the range previously reported for sedimentary and interflow zones in basalt formations at the Hanford Site. Preliminary results of available hydrochemical data obtained from several borehole sites indicate that little, if any, vertical mixing of groundwaters is taking place across this stratigraphic boundary. Multiple barrier studies indicate that the primary candidate canister/overpack alloys are TiCode-12, Inconel 625, Incoloy 825, and Zircaloy 2. Low-carbon steel and cast iron are among the list of secondary candidate canister alloys. Laboratory tests of borehole plug designs have shown that it is feasible to design a composite plug system that will satisfactorily seal a nuclear waste repository in Columbia River basalt. The National Lead Industries, Inc., NLI-1/2 Universal Spent Fuel Shipping Cask was selected for use in Phase II operations. Creep test results of samples of Umtanum basalt from borehole DC-6 were plotted and show the day-to-day variation in deformation versus time. The concept selection phase of repository conceptual design was completed in March 1980. A test plan for the Exploratory Shaft Test Facility was developed and is scheduled for submittal to the US Department of Energy in May 1980.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Deju, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department