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Development of Geothermally Assisted Process for Production of Liquid Fuels and Chemicals from Wheat Straw

Description: Recently there has been much interest in developing processes for producing liquid fuels from renewable resources. The most logical long term approach in terms of economics derives the carbohydrate substrate for fermentation from the hydrolysis of cellulosic crop and forest residues rather than from grains or other high grade food materials (1,2). Since the presence of lignin is the main barrier to the hydrolysis of cellulose from lignocellulosic materials, delignification processes developed by the wood pulping industry have been considered as possible prehydrolysis treatments. The delignification process under study in our laboratory is envisioned as a synthesis of two recently developed pulping processes. In the first step, called autohydrolysis, hot water is used directly to solubilize hemicellulose and to depolymerize lignin (3). Then, in a second step known as organosolv pulping (4), the autohydrolyzed material is extracted with aqueous alcohol. A s shown in Figure 1, this process can separate the original lignocellulosic material into three streams--hemicellulose in water, lignin in aqueous alcohol, and a cellulose pulp. Without further mechanical milling, delignified cellulose can be enzymatically hydrolyzed at 45-50 C to greater than 80% theoretical yield of glucose using fungal cellulases (5, 6). The resulting glucose syrup can then be fermented by yeast to produce ethanol or by selected bacteria to produce acetone and butanol or acetic and propionic acids (7). One objection to such a process, however, is the large energy input that is required. In order to extend our supplies of liquid fuels and chemicals, it is important that the use of fossil fuels in any lignocellulosic conversion process be minimized. The direct use of geothermal hot water in carrying out the autohydrolysis and extraction operations, therefore, seems especially attractive. On the one hand, it facilitates the conversion of non-food biomass to fuels and chemicals without wasting fossil ...
Date: June 1, 1981
Creator: Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R. & Lenz, T.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Countercurrent Process for Lignin Separation from Biomass Matrix

Description: The overall goal of the project was to test the concept of using a twin-screw extruder to conduct autohydrolysis pretreatment of wheat straw in countercurrent fashion, demonstrate in situ solid/liquid separation, and produce a low-lignin cellulose product using ethanol as an extractant. The resultant solid product is suitable for sugar production through enzymatic hydrolysis and for pulp applications. Pilot-scale equipment was used to successfully demonstrate the process both for sugar and pulp applications.
Date: March 31, 2006
Creator: Kadam, Kiran & Lehrburger, Ed
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of the IVA3 code for multifield flow simulation. Formal report

Description: This report presents an assessment of the IVA3 computer code for multifield flow simulation, as applied to the premixing phase of a hypothetical steam explosion in a water-cooled power reactor. The first section of this report reviews the derivation of the basic partial differential equations of multifield modeling, with reference to standard practices in the multiphase flow literature. Basic underlying assumptions and approximations are highlighted, and comparison is made between IVA3 and other codes in current use. Although Kolev`s derivation of these equations is outside the mainstream of the multiphase literature, the basic partial differential equations are in fact nearly equivalent to those in other codes. In the second section, the assumptions and approximations required to pass from generic differential equations to a specific working form are detailed. Some modest improvements to the IVA3 model are suggested. In Section 3, the finite difference approximations to the differential equations are described. The discretization strategy is discussed with reference to numerical stability, accuracy, and the role of various physical phenomena - material convection, sonic propagation, viscous stress, and interfacial exchanges - in the choice of discrete approximations. There is also cause for concern about the approximations of time evolution in some heat transfer terms, which might be adversely affecting numerical accuracy. The fourth section documents the numerical solution method used in IVA3. An explanation for erratic behavior sometimes observed in the first outer iteration is suggested, along with possible remedies. Finally, six recommendations for future assessment and improvement of the IVA3 model and code are made.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Stewart, H.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department