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The Measurement of Fuel-Air Ratio by Analysis of the Oxidized Exhaust Gas

Description: An investigation was made to determine a method of measuring fuel-air ratio that could be used for test purposes in flight and for checking conventional equipment in the laboratory. Two single-cylinder test engines equipped with typical commercial engine cylinders were used. The fuel-air ratio of the mixture delivered to the engines was determined by direct measurement of the quantity of air and of fuel supplied and also by analysis of the oxidized exhaust gas and of the normal exhaust gas. Five fuels were used: gasoline that complied with Army-Navy Fuel Specification, No. AN-VV-F-781 and four mixtures of this gasoline with toluene, benzene, and xylene. The method of determining the fuel-air ratio described in this report involves the measurement of the carbon-dioxide content of the oxidized exhaust gas and the use of graphs or the presented equation. This method is considered useful in aircraft, in the field, or in the laboratory for a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.047 to 0.124.
Date: October 1, 1943
Creator: Memm, J. Lawrence, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of individual aileron hinge moments and aileron control characteristics of a P-40F airplane

Description: From Summary: "Flight measurements have been made of the individual aileron hinge moments, aileron rolling effectiveness pb/2V ,and stick-force characteristics in abrupt aileron rolls with a P-40F airplane (AAF No. 41-14119) over an indicated airspeed range from 108 to 304 miles per hour. Three methods for measuring the rate of change of hinge moment with angle of attack were investigated. Presented for comparison with the flight results are data from two-dimensional wind-tunnel tests of the wing-aileron profile as measured at the center aileron hinge."
Date: January 29, 1945
Creator: Goranson, R. Fabian
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of flying qualities of a Douglas A-26B airplane (AAF No. 41-39120) 1: longitudinal stability and control characteristics

Description: Report discussing testing of the Douglas A-26B to determine the longitudinal stability and control characteristics. Information about the elevator, stick-fixed and stick-free stability, center of gravity, and flap effects are described.
Date: December 6, 1944
Creator: Crane, H. L.; Sjoberg, S. A. & Hoover, H. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of flying qualities of a Curtiss SB2C-1 airplane (number 00014)

Description: Report presenting an investigation of the flying qualities of a Curtiss SB2C-1 airplane. Tests were made to determine the effect of a bobweight in the elevator system and the effect of seals in the aileron gaps. Results regarding longitudinal stability and control, requirements for lateral stability and control, and stalling characteristics are provided.
Date: March 1944
Creator: Phillips, W. H.; Williams, W. C. & Hoover, H. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of the flying qualities of a Bell P-39D-1 airplane (AAF NO. 41-28378)

Description: Report discussing an investigation of the flight qualities of the Bell P-39D-1 airplane. Information about the longitudinal stability and control characteristics, lateral and directional stability and control, stalling characteristics, and control friction is provided.
Date: September 21, 1943
Creator: Johnson, Harold I.; Liddell, C. J. & Hoover, H. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements in Flight of the Lateral-Control Characteristics of an Airplane Equipped with Full-Span Zap Flaps and Simple Circular-Arc-Type Ailerons

Description: Flight tests were conducted on the OS2U-2 seaplane with simple circular-arc-type ailerons directly connected to the actuating torque tube. Two aileron test installations were made, differing only in the inclination of the projecting surface with the wing's upper surface. The lateral-control characteristics of the airplane were determined from data obtained in stalls and rudder-fixed aileron rolls. The revised ailerons were deficient in maximum rolling effectiveness, but were capable of controlling the rolling tendencies of the airplane near the stall.
Date: September 1944
Creator: Spahr, J. Richard & Christophersen, Don R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements in flight of the stability, lateral control, and stalling characteristics of an airplane equipped with full-span Zap flaps and spoiler-type ailerons

Description: Report presenting the stability, lateral-control, and stalling characteristics of an airplane modified to accommodate full-span Zap flaps.The static and dynamic longitudinal and lateral stability was satisfactory, but there were some undesirable lateral-control characteristics, including excessive friction and elasticity.
Date: December 1943
Creator: Spahr, J. Richard & Christophersen, Don R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flame-visibility tests with individual exhaust stacks

Description: Report presenting testing made on a Wright 1820-G single-cylinder engine to determine the effect of operating variables and the effect of shape and size of the exhaust stack on the visibility of exhaust gases for individual-stack installations. Flame damping was improved by decrease in nozzle-exit area, increase in stack length, and reduction in hydraulic diameter of the exhaust jets. Results regarding the characteristics of exhaust flames and damping of exhaust flames are provided.
Date: February 1944
Creator: Turner, L. Richard & Humble, Leroy V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight tests of an SB2C-3 airplane with a production and tilted propeller axis

Description: Report discussing the changes in static longitudinal stability due to tilting the propeller axis of an SB2C-3 airplane downward. Tilting the propeller was found to be beneficial for stability, but only if the pilot was in a forward center-of-gravity position with a tilted engine. Installing a tilted engine reduced trim forces due to the changes in power up to 25 percent.
Date: May 1945
Creator: Goranson, R. Fabian
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight tests of exhaust-gas jet propulsion

Description: From Summary: "Flight tests were conducted on the XP-41 airplane, equipped with a Pratt & Whitney R1830-19, 14-cylinder, air-cooled engine, to determine the increase in flight speed obtainable by the use of individual exhaust stacks directly rearwardly to obtain exhaust-gas thrust. Speed increases up to 13 miles per hour at 20,000 feet altitude were obtained using stacks having an exit area of 3.42 square inches for each cylinder. A slight increase in engine power and decrease in cylinder temperature at a given manifold pressure were obtained with the individual stacks as compared with a collector-ring installation."
Date: November 1940
Creator: Pinkel, Benjamin & Turner, L. Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight tests of two airplanes having moderately high effective dihedral and different directional stability and control characteristics

Description: Report presenting flight tests of a twin-engine midwing attack bomber and a single-engine low-wing fighter, which indicate that both have moderately high effective dihedral but different directional stability and control characteristics. The pilots had a harder time controlling the fighter airplane, while the attack bomber was found to have a higher degree of directional stability and low directional trim forces, which the pilots preferred.
Date: October 1945
Creator: Sjoberg, S. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight variables affecting fuel-vapor loss from a fuel tank

Description: From Summary: "Tests were conducted to determine the effect of several flight variables and several types of fuel agitation on fuel-vapor loss from a fuel tank during flight. Data were obtained from simulated-flight tests, in which the effects of rate of climb, altitude, initial fuel temperature, weathering of fuel, and fuel agitation were investigated; and a correlation between the simulated-flight and actual-flight data was established."
Date: December 1944
Creator: Stone, Charles S.; Baker, Sol & Black, Dugald O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight tests of beveled-trailing-edge ailerons with various modifications on a North American XP-51 airplane (AAF No.41-38)

Description: Report presenting flight testing using a North American XP-51 airplane with several arrangements of beveled-trailing-edge ailerons to determine the most satisfactory arrangement. Results regarding the aileron configuration, trimming tabs, and factors affecting symmetry of aileron characteristics are provided.
Date: December 1943
Creator: White, Maurice D. & Hoover, Herbert H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight Tests of Modifications to Improve the Aileron Control Characteristics of a North American XP-51 Airplane (AC No. 41-38)

Description: Investigations were undertaken to improve the ailerons of a P-51 fighter so as to obtain greater effectiveness without increasing the stick forces. Modifications consisted of increasing the deflection range of the aileron to 70 percent and changing the original concave section to a thick section with beveled trailing edge. Results of the modified ailerons showed an increase in effectiveness over the original aileron of 70 percent at low speed and 55 percent at high speeds.
Date: June 1942
Creator: White, M. D. & Hoover, Herbert H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight tests of the Sikorsky HNS-1 (Army YR-4B) helicopter 1: experimental data on level-flight performance with original rotor blades

Description: From Summary: "Results of performance measurements made in level fight with the HNS-1 (Army YR-4B) helicopter are presented. These data include torquemeter measurements of shaft power for both the main rotor and the tail rotor. The power data, in conjunction with full-scale-tunnel date on the lift and drag of the fuselage, are used to calculate the drag-lift ratio for the main rotor."
Date: March 1945
Creator: Gustafson, F. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight tests of the Sikorsky HNS-1 (Army YR-4B) helicopter 2: hovering and vertical-flight performance with the original and an alternate set of main-rotor blades, including a comparison with hovering performance theory

Description: Report discussing testing of an HNS-1 (Army YR-4B) helicopter to determine the hovering data in the ground-effect region and at altitude with an original set of rotor blades and an alternate set with different aerodynamic design and surface condition.
Date: April 1945
Creator: Gustafson, F. B. & Gessow, Alfred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel data on the aerodynamic characteristics of airplane control surfaces

Description: Report presenting lift and hinge-moment characteristics of various types of airplane control surface. The data can be used to determine curves correlating the results of many tests of the various types of aerodynamic balance.
Date: December 1943
Creator: Sears, Richard I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a Low-Drag Airfoil Section with a Double Slotted Flap

Description: From Summary: "Tests were made of an 0.309-chord double-slotted flap on an NACA 65, 3-118, a equals 1.0 airfoil section to determine drag, lift, and pitching-moment characteristics for a range of flap deflections. Results indicate that combination of a low-drag airfoil and a double-slotted flap, of which the two parts moved as a single unit, gave higher maximum lift coefficients than have been obtained with plain, split, or slotted flaps on low-drag airfoils. Pitching moments were comparable to those obtained with other high-lift devices on conventional airfoils for similar lift coefficients."
Date: September 1943
Creator: Bogdonoff, Seymour M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind tunnel investigation of control surface characteristics 9: some analytical considerations and experimental test results for an internally balanced flap

Description: Report presenting an analysis of the probable aerodynamic section characteristics of a plain flap with various arrangements of internal balance. The results of the calculations previously obtained were found to be in agreement with the experiment. Some possible applications of the data to balancing tabs are also provided.
Date: July 1942
Creator: Sears, Richard I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel investigation of control-surface characteristics 1: effect of gap on the aerodynamic characteristics of an NACA 0009 airfoil with a 30-percent-chord plain flap

Description: From Summary: "Tests have been made to determine the effect of a gap at the flap nose upon the aerodynamic section characteristics of an NACA 0009 airfoil with a plain flap and tab. The results are presented in the form of airfoil and flap section characteristics for several flap deflections, tab deflections, and for four sizes of gap."
Date: June 1941
Creator: Sears, Richard I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full-scale-tunnel performance tests of the PV-2 helicopter rotor

Description: Report discussing basic performance data obtained on the PV-2 helicopter rotor. Blade motion, rotor forces, and power were measured for static-thrust condition and a limited range of forward-flight conditions. Recommendations are provided for further testing to obtain blade-motion data and force-test data in order to develop a more detailed analysis.
Date: April 1945
Creator: Migotsky, Eugene
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full-scale wind-tunnel and flight tests of a Fairchild XR2K-1 airplane with a zap flap and upper-surface aileron-wing installation

Description: Report presenting testing of a Fairchild XR2K-1 airplane equipped with a wing having a full-span Zap flap and upper-surface ailerons in the full-scale wind tunnel and in flight to determine the characteristics of the flap and ailerons. Results regarding the lift, drag, and pitching-moment coefficients of the airplane and the aileron rolling, yawing, and hinge-moment coefficients were measured at various flap deflections are provided. Maximum rolling velocity and acceleration, yawing velocity, time lag in aileron response, and aileron control forces were also determined.
Date: March 1942
Creator: Clousing, L. A.; Lehr, Robert R. & O'Sullivan, William J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The high-speed characteristics of several flaps and spoilers on the upper surface of the horizontal stabilizer of a model of a radial-engine pursuit airplane

Description: Report discussing an investigation into several types and sizes of flaps and spoilers located forward of the elevators on the upper surface of the horizontal stabilizer of a model of a radial-engine pursuit airplane. Information about the elevator characteristics, elevator-fixed and elevator-free balance lift coefficient, and trim drag coefficient for a range of Mach numbers is provided.
Date: January 21, 1946
Creator: Boddy, Lee E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel-evaporation loss as determined by the change in the specific gravity of the fuel in an aircraft fuel tank

Description: Report discusses the results of an investigation to determine the feasibility of using the change in the specific gravity of fuels in aircraft fuel tanks to measure fuel-vaporization loss. Six fuels were tested via fuel-distillation tests and simulated-flight tests. An equation based on the specific gravity of the fuel is also described.
Date: May 1945
Creator: Stone, Charles S. & Kramer, Walter E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department