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Salt transport extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

Description: This report discusses a process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels which contain rare earth and noble metal fission products. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of CaCl{sub 2} and a Cu-Mg alloy containing not less than about 25% by weight Mg at a temperature in the range of from about 750{degrees}C to about 850{degrees}C to precipitate uranium metal and some of the noble metal fission products leaving the Cu-Mg alloy having transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals and some of the noble metal fission products dissolved therein. The CaCl{sub 2} having Cao and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein is separated and electrolytically treated with a carbon electrode to reduce the CaO to Ca metal while converting the carbon electrode to CO and CO{sub 2}. The Ca metal and CaCl{sub 2} is recycled to reduce additional oxide fuel. The Cu-Mg alloy having transuranium metals and rare earth fission product metals and the noble metal fission products dissolved therein is contacted with a transport salt including Mg C1{sub 2} to transfer Mg values from the transport salt to the Cu-Mg alloy .hile transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product metals transfer from the Cu-Mg alloy to the transport salt. Then the transport salt is mixed with a Mg-Zn alloy to transfer Mg values from the alloy to the transport salt while the transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product values dissolved in the salt are reduced and transferred to the Mg-Zn alloy.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Pierce, R.D.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R. & Miller, W.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Expansion joint for guideway for magnetic levitation transportation system

Description: An expansion joint that allows a guideway of a magnetic levitation transportation system to expand and contract while minimizing transients occurring in the magnetic lift and drag forces acting on a magnetic levitation vehicle traveling over the joint includes an upper cut or recess extending downwardly from the upper surface of the guideway and a non-intersecting lower cut or recess that extends upwardly from the lower surface of the guideway. The sidewalls of the cuts can be parallel to each other and the vertical axis of the guideway; the depth of the lower cut can be greater than the depth of the upper cut; and the overall combined lengths of the cuts can be greater than the thickness of the guideway from the upper to lower surface so that the cuts will overlap, but be spaced apart from each other. The distance between the cuts can be determined on the basis of the force transients and the mechanical behavior of the guideway. A second pair of similarly configured upper and lower cuts may be disposed in the guideway; the expansion joint may consist of two upper cuts and one lower cut; or the cuts may have non-parallel, diverging sidewalls so that the cuts have a substantially dove-tail shape.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Rossing, T.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ionic conductors for solid oxide fuel cells

Description: An electrolyte that operates at temperatures ranging from 600{degree}C to 800{degree}C is discussed. The electrolyte conducts charge ionically as well as electronically. The ionic conductors include molecular framework structures having planes or channels large enough to transport oxides or hydrated protons and having net-positive or net-negative charges. Representative molecular framework structures include substituted aluminum phosphates, orthosilicates, silicoaluminates, cordierites, apatites, sodalites, and hollandites.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Krumpelt, M.; Bloom, I.D.; Pullockaran, J.D. & Myles, K.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Method of improving catalytic activity and catalytics produced thereby

Description: A process for dissociating H{sub 2}S in a gaseous feed using an improved catalytic material is disclosed in which the feed is contacted at a temperature of at least about 275C with a catalyst of rutile nanocrystalline titania having grain sizes in the range of from about 1 to about 100 manometers. Other transition metal catalysts are disclosed, each of nanocrystalline material with grain sizes in the 1--100 nm range. This invention may have application to vehicle emissions control (three-way catalysts).
Date: September 23, 1993
Creator: Beck, D.D. & Siegel, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ceramic membranes for partial oxygenation of hydrocarbon fuels to high-value-added products

Description: This report describes the design of a membrane reactor for converting methane into value added products. The design includes an outer tube of perovskite which contacts air, an inner tube of zirconium oxide which contacts methane, and a bonding layer of a mixture of zirconium oxide and perovskite.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Kleefisch, M.S. & Kobylinski, T.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Insulator coating for high temperature alloys method for producing insulator coating for high temperature alloys

Description: A method for fabricating an electrically insulating coating on a surface is disclosed comprising coating the surface with a metal, and reacting the metal coated surface with a nonmetal so as to create a film on the metal-coated surface. Alternatively, the invention provides for a method for producing a noncorrosive, electrically insulating coating on a surface saturated with a nonmetal comprising supplying a molten fluid, dissolving a metal in the molten fluid to create a mixture, and contacting the mixture with the saturated surface. Lastly, the invention provides an electrically insulative coating comprising an underlying structural substrate coated with an oxide or nitride compound. This invention has applications to breeding blankets for fusion reactors as well as to alkali metal thermal to electric converters.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Park, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A flow injection trace gas analyzer for on-site determination of organoarsenicals

Description: Lewisite was developed during World War I as a chemical warfare agent. Several countries produced large quantities of the agent before, during and after World War II. The Chemical Weapons Convention treaty, recently signed, requires the destruction of Lewisite. In implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention treaty, it will be necessary to monitor the facilities at which various chemical agents including Lewisite may be stored for compliance with the agreement. The inspection procedures must meet stringent standards for safety, quality assurance and accountability. In preparing for these inspections a technology gap has been identified in the ability to detect and monitor for the presence of Lewisite in ambient air, particularly in the facilities where chemical warfare agents are stored. A method and an apparatus for determining the concentration of Lewisite in the ambient atmosphere are described. The apparatus includes a mechanism for separating and collecting a Lewisite sample from the atmosphere, a mechanism for converting the collected Lewisite to an arsenite ion solution sample, and a mechanism for electrochemically detecting the converted arsenite ions in the sample, whereby the amount of arsenite ions detected is proportional to the concentration of Lewisite in the atmosphere.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Aldstadt, J.H. III
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing

Description: An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500{degree}C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li-Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode.
Date: December 23, 1993
Creator: Gay, E.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

Description: This invention relates to an improved process of preparing Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BSCCO) powders, and more particularly, to a process for preparing BSCCO powders that utilize freeze-drying. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution; grinding the flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the powder to form dry green precursor powders; denitrating the powders; and heating the powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Balachandran, U.; Krishnaraj, P.; Eror, N.G. & Lelovic, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors

Description: An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal Zro{sub 2} particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (123) to improve it fracture toughness (K{sub IC}). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} (211) on the ZrO{sub 2} particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO{sub 2} coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K{sub IC} of 4.5 MPa(m){sup 0.5}.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Goretta, K.C. & Kullberg, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A method for treating electrolyte to remove Li{sub 2}O

Description: Electrorefining has been used in processes for recovering uranium and plutonium metals from spent nuclear fuel. The electrorefining is performed in an electrochemical cell in which the chopped fuel elements from the reactor forms the anode, the electrolyte, preferably, is the fused eutectic salt of the LiCl-KCl which contain UCl{sub 3} and PuCl{sub 3}. Purified metal collected at the cathode collects at the bottom of the cell. This invention provides a method for removing lithium oxide from the electrolyte salt, with the end formation of a solid lithium-aluminium alloy.
Date: April 1, 1998
Creator: Tomczuk, Z.; Miller, W.E.; Johnson, G.K. & Willit, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Method for detecting and diagnosing disease caused by pathological protein aggregation

Description: A method is provided for detecting pathological macromolecules in a patient, comprising obtaining body fluid from the patient, pretreating the body fluid, subjecting the pretreated body fluid to size-exclusion chromatography to create an excluded fluid, and analyzing the excluded fluid to detect macromolecules having a predetermined molecular weight. The method also allows for comparing elution spectra with reference spectra of suspect pathologic proteins.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Stevens, F.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Li-alloy electrode for Li-alloy/metal sulfide cells

Description: The present invention relates to electrodes for use in secondary electrochemical cells. More particularly, it concerns a method of making a negative electrode composition, the electrode composition made thereby and the secondary electrochemical cell containing the electrode, wherein the negative electrode composition includes a lithium alloy including silicon and nickel.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Kaun, T.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lookout device for high voltage circuit breaker

Description: An improved lockout assembly is provided for a circuit breaker to lock the switch handle into a selected switch position. The lockout assembly includes two main elements, each having a respective foot for engaging a portion of the upper housing wall of the circuit breaker. The first foot is inserted into a groove in the upper housing wall, and the second foot is inserted into an adjacent aperture (e.g., a slot) in the upper housing wall. The first foot is slid under and into engagement with a first portion, and the second foot is slid under and into engagement with a second portion of the upper housing wall. At the same time the respective two feet are placed in engagement with the respective portions of the upper housing wall, two holes, one on each of the respective two main elements of the assembly, are placed in registration; and a locking device, such as a special scissors equipped with a padlock, is installed through the registered holes to secure the lockout assembly on the circuit breaker. When the lockout assembly of the invention is secured on the circuit breaker, the switch handle of the circuit breaker is locked into the selected switch position and prevented from being switched to another switch position.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Kozlowski, L.J. & Shirey, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A means for positively seating a piezoceramic element in a piezoelectric valve during inlet gas injection

Description: This invention is comprised of a piezoelectric valve in a gas delivery system which includes a piezoceramic element bonded to a valve seal and disposed over a valve seat, and retained in position by an O-ring and a retainer; and insulating ball normally biased by a preload spring against the piezoceramic element; and inlet gas port positioned such that upon admission of inlet gas into the valve. The piezoceramic element is positively seated. The inelt gas port is located only on the side of the piezoceramic element opposite the seal.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Wright, K.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Circuit breaker lockout device

Description: An improved lockout assembly for locking a circuit breaker in a selected off or on position is provided. The lockout assembly includes a lock block and a lock pin. The lock block has a hollow interior which fits over the free end of a switch handle of the circuit breaker. The lock block includes at least one hole that is placed in registration with a hole in the free end of the switch handle. A lock tab on the lock block serves to align and register the respective holes on the lock block and switch handle. A lock pin is inserted through the registered holes and serves to connect the lock block to the switch handle. Once the lock block and the switch handle are connected, the position of the switch handle is prevented from being changed by the lock tab bumping up against a stationary housing portion of the circuit breaker. When the lock pin is installed, an apertured-end portion of the lock pin is in registration with another hole on the lock block. Then a special scissors conforming to O.S.H.A. regulations can be installed, with one or more padlocks, on the lockout assembly to prevent removal of the lock pin from the lockout assembly, thereby preventing removal of the lockout assembly from the circuit breaker.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Kozlowski, L. J. & Shirey, L. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Apparatus and method for extracting power from energetic ions produced in nuclear fusion

Description: This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method of extracting power from energetic ions produced by nuclear fusion in a toroidal plasma to enhance respectively the toroidal plasma current and fusion reactivity. By injecting waves of predetermined frequency and phase traveling substantially in a selected poloidal direction within the plasma, the energetic ions become diffused in energy and space such that the energetic ions lose energy and amplify the waves. The amplified waves are further adapted to travel substantially in a selected toroidal direction to increase preferentially the energy of electrons traveling in one toroidal direction which, in turn, enhances or generates a toroidal plasma current. In an further adaptation, the amplified waves can be made to preferentially increase the energy of fuel ions within the plasma to enhance the fusion reactivity of the fuel ions. The described direct, or in situ, conversion of the energetic ion energy provides an efficient and economical means of delivering power to a fusion reactor.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Fisch, N.J. & Rax, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct current sputtering of boron from boron/carbon mixtures

Description: A method for coating a substrate with boron by sputtering includes lowering the electrical resistance of a boron-containing rod to allow electrical conduction in the rod; placing the boron-containing rod inside a vacuum chamber containing substrate material to be coated; applying an electrical potential between the boron target material and the vacuum chamber; countering a current avalanche that commences when the conduction heating rate exceeds the cooling rate, and until a steady equilibrium heating current is reached and coating the substrate material with boron by sputtering from the boron-containing rod.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Timberlake, J.R.; Manos, D. & Nartowitz, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cermet crucible for metallurgical processing

Description: A cermet crucible for metallurgically processing metals having high melting points comprising a body consisting essentially of a mixture of calcium oxide and erbium metal, the mixture comprising calcium oxide in a range between about 50 and 90% by weight and erbium metal in a range between about 10 and 50% by weight.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Boring, C.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Crack detection using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

Description: This invention is comprised of a method and apparatus for detecting crack-like flaws in components. A plurality of exciting frequencies are generated and applied to a component in a dry condition to obtain a first ultrasonic spectrum of the component. The component is then wet with a selected liquid to penetrate any crack-like flaws in the component. The plurality of exciting frequencies are again applied to the component and a second ultrasonic spectrum of the component is obtained. The wet and dry ultrasonic spectra are then analyzed to determine the second harmonic components in each of the ultrasonic resonance spectra and the second harmonic components are compared to ascertain the presence of crack-like flaws in the component.
Date: December 31, 1992
Creator: Migliori, A. & Bell, T.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Insensitive explosive

Description: This invention relates to the field of chemistry and, more particularly, to explosives. This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36). It is desirable to use explosives in weapons and other applications which are less sensitive than the common explosives RDX, TNT, and HMX, since there have been catastrophic explosions of munitions which use these compounds. In preliminary characterization and sensitivity testing, it has been found that 3-amino-5-nitro-1,2,4-triazole (ANTA) is a promising insensitive high explosive. This report details the safety, production, and physical properties of ANTA.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Lee, Kien-yin & Storm, C.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energetic composites and method of providing chemical energy

Description: A method for providing chemical energy and energetic compositions of matter consisting of thin layers of substances which will exothermically react with one another. The layers of reactive substances are separated by thin layers of a buffer material which prevents the reactions from taking place until the desired time. The reactions are triggered by an external agent, such as mechanical stress or an electric spark. The compositions are known as metastable interstitial composites (MICs). This class of compositions includes materials which have not previously been capable of use as energetic materials. The speed and products of the reactions can be varied to suit the application.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Danen, W.C. & Martin, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

Description: An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Karr, T. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Method for chemically analyzing a solution by acoustic means

Description: A method and apparatus are described for determining a type of solution and the concentration of that solution by acoustic means. Generally stated, the method consists of: immersing a sound focusing transducer within a first liquid filled container; locating a separately contained specimen solution at a sound focal point within the first container; locating a sound probe adjacent to the specimen, generating a variable intensity sound signal from the transducer; measuring fundamental and multiple harmonic sound signal amplitudes; and then comparing plot of a specimen sound response with a known solution sound response, thereby determining the solution type and concentration.
Date: November 1995
Creator: Beller, L. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department