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Design of a Gas Test Loop Facility for the Advanced Test Reactor

Description: The Office of Nuclear Energy within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE-NE) has identified the need for irradiation testing of nuclear fuels and materials, primarily in support of the Generation IV (Gen-IV) and Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) programs. These fuel development programs require a unique environment to test and qualify potential reactor fuel forms. This environment should combine a high fast neutron flux with a hard neutron spectrum and high irradiation temperature. An effort is presently underway at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to modify a large flux trap in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to accommodate such a test facility [1,2]. The Gas Test Loop (GTL) Project Conceptual Design was initiated to determine basic feasibility of designing, constructing, and installing in a host irradiation facility, an experimental vehicle that can replicate with reasonable fidelity the fast-flux test environment needed for fuels and materials irradiation testing for advanced reactor concepts. Such a capability will be needed if programs such as the AFCI, Gen-IV, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), and space nuclear propulsion are to meet development objectives and schedules. These programs are beginning some irradiations now, but many call for fast flux testing within this decade.
Date: September 1, 2005
Creator: Wemple, C. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental approach to determining subsurface leakage from a surface impoundment using a radioisotope tracer

Description: Bromine-82, a 35.3-h half-life radionuclide, was used as a tracer to determine the paths and rates of leakage from an unlined, 1,000,000-gal (3,785,000 L), surface impoundment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Since the impoundment is underlain and surrounded by storm sewer and sanitary sewer lines (most of them predating the impoundment), known and suspected leak sites in storm drain catch basins and sanitary sewer manholes were sampled periodically and analyzed for /sup 82/Br. A series of four ground water monitoring wells - three downgradient and one upgradient from the impoundment - were also sampled for /sup 82/Br. Although the catch basin and manhole samples picked up /sup 82/Br in leakage from the impoundment less than 5 h after application of the tracer, the monitoring well samples did not contain detectable levels of the radionuclide. It was concluded that the monitoring wells were sampling groundwater moving through the formation, whereas the storm drains and manholes were sampling water leaking rapidly through secondary porosity and along preferred pathways. The decline in tracer concentration as a function of time was used to determine the residence time of water in the pond and hence the flow rate through the pond. This flow rate, when compared with the known outflow rate, indicated that the leakage flow was small. Hence, the main value of the test was to identify rapid leakage pathways. The experiment demonstrates the need for sampling subsurface drain systems as part of an integrated monitoring system for leak detection. The effectiveness of /sup 82/Br as a tracer for rapid leaks was also shown.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Ashwood, T.L.; Story, J.D.; Larsen, I.L. & Schultz, F.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiences with aquifer testing and analysis in fractured low-permeability sedimentary rocks exhibiting nonradial pumping response

Description: Multiple-well aquifer pumping tests have been used successfully to measure the bulk hydraulic properties of limestone and shale formations of the Conasauga Group of East Tennessee and to define directional components in transmissivity associated with joints and small-scale folds. This experience demonstrates that multiple-well pumping tests can be used to measure the characteristics of low-permeability fractured rocks, and it illustrates the application of data interpretation techniques that are based on models of nonradial aquifer pumping response. Analytical models that have been used to interpret pumping test data include models for simple anisotropic response and for complex pumping response in an anisotropic aquifer intersected by a single high-conductivity vertical fracture. Comparisons of results obtained using nonradial flow methods with those obtained using traditional (radial flow) analytical methods indicate that the error from radial flow methods is generally less than an order of magnitude, an insignificant error in most low-permeability settings. However, the nonradial flow methods provide much more information on structural controls on groundwater movement. Special challenges encountered in conducting aquifer pumping tests in this hydrogeologic environment include selecting a pumping rate that can be sustained after fracture storage is depleted and laying out a test configuration that is consistent with the test geometry required by the nonradial flow interpretive models. Effective test design and data interpretation thus require extensive insight into site geology.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Smith, E.D. & Vaughan, N.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquid low level waste management expert system

Description: An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)) & Jackson, J.R. (Southwest Baptist Univ., Bolivar, MO (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Basalt near-surface test facility test plans

Description: The NSTF is under construction at Gable Mountain for in-situ testing, which will be conducted in two phases: Phase I, using electric heaters to simulate nuclear waste canisters in order to study the thermomechanical response of basalt; and Phase II, using spent fuel canisters. The tests planned for Phases I and II are described. (DLC)
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Krug, A.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical methods for large-scale sensitivity analysis using GRESS (GRadient Enhanced Software System) and ADGEN (Automated Adjoint Generator)

Description: Sensitivity analysis is an established methodology used by researchers in almost every field to gain essential insight in design and modeling studies and in performance assessments of complex systems. Conventional sensitivity analysis methodologies, however, have not enjoyed the widespread use they deserve considering the wealth of information they can provide, partly because of their prohibitive cost or the large initial analytical investment they require. Automated systems have recently been developed at ORNL to eliminate these drawbacks. Compilers such as GRESS and ADGEN now allow automatic and cost effective calculation of sensitivities in FORTRAN computer codes. In this paper, these and other related tools are described and their impact and applicability in the general areas of modeling, performance assessment and decision making for radioactive waste isolation problems are discussed. 7 refs., 2 figs.
Date: April 1, 1988
Creator: Pin, F.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of the environmental impacts produced by the transport of radioactive materials through urban areas

Description: Sandia Laboratories is performing an environmental assessment for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to ascertain the impacts produced by the transportation of radioactive materials near and through a large, densely populated area. Radiological, nonradiological and economic environmental impacts due to the transportation of all radioactive materials are considered, excepting those related to weapons, weapon components, or shipments on military vehicles. Although New York City is being studied initially to execute the methodology as a function of a real, complex urban environment, the assessment model developed is general in its basic content and is suitable for application to any urban area. Radiological consequences are being computed for cases involving ''normal'' and accident conditions. In the ''normal'' case, nothing unusual takes place, but small radiation doses are still received by nearby people. In the accident case, dispersion of possibly released material away from the accident site is considered. In addition, impacts due to deviations from quality assurance practices, as a result of human error, are being calculated using the assessment model in a special manner. Certain aspects of sabotage and diversion are also being investigated for an urban setting. Radiological consequences are being quantified in terms of human health effects and decontamination costs.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: DuCharme, A. R.; Taylor, J. M.; Tierney, M. S. & Finley, B. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methods for nondestructive assay holdup measurements in shutdown uranium enrichment facilities

Description: Measurement surveys of uranium holdup using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques are being conducted for shutdown gaseous diffusion facilities at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant). When in operation, these facilities processed UF{sub 6} with enrichments ranging from 0.2 to 93 wt % {sup 235}U. Following final shutdown of all process facilities, NDA surveys were initiated to provide process holdup data for the planning and implementation of decontamination and decommissioning activities. A three-step process is used to locate and quantify deposits: (1) high-resolution gamma-ray measurements are performed to generally define the relative abundances of radioisotopes present, (2) sizable deposits are identified using gamma-ray scanning methods, and (3) the deposits are quantified using neutron measurement methods. Following initial quantitative measurements, deposit sizes are calculated; high-resolution gamma-ray measurements are then performed on the items containing large deposits. The quantitative estimates for the large deposits are refined on the basis of these measurements. Facility management is using the results of the survey to support a variety of activities including isolation and removal of large deposits; performing health, safety, and environmental analyses; and improving facility nuclear material control and accountability records. 3 refs., 1 tab.
Date: September 1, 1991
Creator: Hagenauer, R.C. & Mayer, R.L. II.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geochemistry of Salado Formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

Description: Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogenous with respect to composition, but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Abitz, R.; Myers, J.; Drez, P. & Deal, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimation of dose to human tissues from ingestion of foods exposed to fallout from nuclear weapons tests in Nevada

Description: This paper provides a brief overview of the methodology developed to estimate the transport of radionuclides through agricultural ecosystems to persons of various ages, lifestyles, and geographic locations. The methodology, embodied in the computer code PATHWAY, was used to convert estimates of fallout deposition to time-dependent concentrations of radionuclides in food products, total intakes by people, and organ-specific doses from 21 radionuclides in fallout from 86 nuclear test events. A summary of model prediction uncertainties, an assessment of predictive accuracy, and a discussion of the relative importance of different exposure pathways is also provided. 14 refs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Whicker, F.W. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)) & Kirchner, T.B. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Natural Resources Ecology Lab.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Groundwater monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

Description: This paper discusses the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GPM) being conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The Regulatory and Environmental Programs (REP) section of the Environment, Safety and Health department (ES H) is responsible for conducting environmental monitoring at the WIPP. Groundwater monitoring is one of the ongoing environmental activities currently taking place. The REP section includes water quality sampling and water level monitoring. The WIPP Project is a research and develop facility designed to demonstrate the safe disposal of defense-generated waste in a geologic repository. Water quality sampling for physical, chemical, and radiological parameters has been an ongoing activity at the WIPP site for the past six years, and will continue through the life of the project. The water quality of a well is sampled while the well is continuously pumped. Serial samples of the pumped water are collected and tested for pH, Eh, temperature, specific gravity, specific conductivity, alkalinity, chlorides, divalent cations, ferrous iron, and total iron. Stabilization of serial sampling parameters determined if a representative sample is being obtained, Representative samples are sent to contract laboratories and analyzed for general chemistry, major cations and anions, and radionuclides. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Kehrman, R.; Broberg, K.; Tatro, G.; Richardson, R. & Dasczcyszak, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential applications of artificial intelligence in computer-based management systems for mixed waste incinerator facility operation

Description: The Department of Energy/Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE/OR) operates a mixed waste incinerator facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, designed for the thermal treatment of incinerable liquid, sludge, and solid waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the Resource Conversion and Recovery Act (RCRA). Operation of the TSCA Incinerator is highly constrained as a result of the regulatory, institutional, technical, and resource availability requirements. This presents an opportunity for applying computer technology as a technical resource for mixed waste incinerator operation to facilitate promoting and sustaining a continuous performance improvement process while demonstrating compliance. This paper describes mixed waste incinerator facility performance-oriented tasks that could be assisted by Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the requirements for AI tools that would implement these algorithms in a computer-based system. 4 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Rivera, A.L.; Singh, S.P.N. & Ferrada, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of the WIPP Project

Description: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, has been constructed to be a repository for transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated from the US defense activities. In order to use WIPP as a repository for permanent disposal of TRU waste, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has to demonstrate compliance with the Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes'' promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the US Code of Federal Regulations 40 CFR Part 191. The DOE initially plans to perform experiments with a small quantity of waste at WIPP and would like to bring additional quantities for operational demonstration'', before determining whether WIPP is to be a repository for permanent disposal. There are serious problems in pursuing this course of action from an operational point of view. It would be wiser to take the actions necessary to decide whether the facility should be used as a permanent repository, before emplacing a substantial quantity of waste in it. This report evaluates the status of the WIPP Project as of February 1991. 22 refs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Neill, R.H. & Chaturvedi, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fracture mechanics assessment of PWR vessel integrity incorporating dynamic crack arrest data above 220 MPa radical m

Description: The present rules and criteria regarding the PTS issue, as established by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), are the PTS rule (Code of Federal Regulations, 1985) and Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.154 (Regulatory Guide 1.154, 1987). The PTS rule specifics screening criteria in the form of limiting values of reference nil ductility temperature (RT{sub NDT}) of the reactor pressure vessel. Also, the PTS rule requires that a plant specific safety analysis must be performed for any plant that a utility seeks to operate beyond the screening criteria. Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.154 provides guidance for utilities on how to perform the plant specific analysis. It references the IPTS study as an acceptable methodology for performing the probabilistic fracture mechanics portion of the plant specific analysis and specifies that the frequency of vessel failure due to PTS shall not exceed 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} failures per reactor year. Since the IPTS Program was completed, the Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program has conducted several large specimen fracture mechanics experiments which demonstrated that prototypical reactor pressure vessel steels are capable of arresting a crack propagating in the cleavage mode at fracture toughness values considerably above 220 MPa{radical}m, the implicit limit of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code and the maximum value included in the IPTS studies. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential impact of the enhanced crack arrest data on the results of probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses. 12 refs., 5 figs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Dickson, T.L. & Cheverton, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Contracting seminar - engineering services to federal agencies - of the National Society of Professional Engineers annual meeting

Description: The seminar discusses the government-private sector engineering team for accomplishing engineering for the government. The challenge of engineers for the 1980s focuses on energy. Approach in accomplishing engineering is different for different agencies. How the Corps of Engineers, TVA, and DOE team together with the private sector to accomplish engineering is discussed. Representatives from these organizations made presentations, and then principals from three firms discussed how they work as part of the government team and how they manage the work. They discussed the requirements they must meet and the hurdles they must overcome in working for the government. A question-and-answer period followed.
Date: December 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AESOP XXII

Description: The Association for Energy Systems, Operations, and Programming (AESOP) was created to provide Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE-contractor management personnel with a means for acquiring and exchanging information concerning effective management of ADP resources and personnel as well as a variety of computer applications. AESOP serves as a forum for the data processing management of more than 50 DOE offices and private corporations under contract to DOE. AESOP Operations Managers Conferences are held approximately every 18 months. Conference topics include personnel problems, training situations, reorganization plans, and work scheduling. Security and other issues affecting ADP procedures and personnel are also often addressed. Papers published in this volume of the proceedings have been summarized from speeches and discussions held at the AESOP XXII Conference in Idaho Falls, Idaho.
Date: September 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Controlled waste-oil biodegradation at existing drying beds

Description: A feasibility study at the Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Facility to determine if sludge drying beds at a sewage treatment plant could be used as controlled waste oil biodegradation plots has been completed. A greenhouse-like enclosure would be constructed over three 9.1 meter by 21.3 meter beds to allow for year-round use, and any waste oil runoff would be collected by existing leachate piping. It has been determined that this proposed facility could dispose of existing radioactive waste oil generation (7200 liters/year) from the Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP); however, it would be inadequate to handle radioactive waste oils from the new Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) as well. The study reviewed nuclear criticality constraints, biodegradation technology, and the capital cost for an enclosed biodegradation facility.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Hary, L.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cooling tower windage: a new aspect to environmental assessment

Description: Results of the several investigations provided quantitative estimates of windage from Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant cooling towers. Windage water deposited on the ground has the potential to reach nearby streams through runoff. Windage deposited on moisture depleted soils would not be significant. During winter months at Oak Ridge soils generally have a high moisture content such that windage deposition could be quickly transported as runoff. It is during this time that cooling towers are sometimes operated without fan-induced draft. Since windage water contains the same hexavalent chromium concentration (9 ppM) as the recirculating cooling water system, the runoff stream from the K-892J tower constitues a NPDES violation as an unpermitted discharge. As a long-term abatement strategy, concrete aprons were constructed along each side of new cooling towers at the Paducah, Kentucky Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The maximum distance of windage impact is wind dependent. If apron construction is envisioned as an abatement strategy at Oak Ridge, the maximum distance of impact can be inferred graphically from the several points where windage (fans off) and drift (fans on) loss curves intersect under the different meteorological conditions. Once the hexavalent chromium laden runoff stream reaches Poplar Creek, it is diluted well below the standards for drinking water and poses little potential for biological effects to aquatic systems.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Taylor, F.G. & Park, S.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Collection and analysis of training simulator data

Description: The purposes of this paper are: (1) to review the objectives, approach, and results of a series of research experiments performed on nuclear power plant training simulators in support of regulatory and research programs of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and (2) to identify general research issues that may lead to an improved research methodology using the training simulator as a field setting. Research products consist of a refined field research methodology, a data store on operator performance, and specific results pertinent to NRC regulatory positions. Issues and potential advances in operator performance measurement are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Krois, P.A. & Haas, P.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computer modeling of greater confinement disposal of radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site

Description: A 1.1 MegaCuri and 3.5 kilowatt waste source has been buried 30 meters down an auger hole in a tuffaceous alluvium for over three years. Temperature and moisture have been monitored in the surrounding soil during this time and two gaseous tracer migration studies conducted to determine flow parameters. Temperatures exceeding 300/sup 0/C have been recorded and the moisture range has increased from 10 to 12% to 2 to 14%. The tracer migration data is being analyzed. A two-dimensional transient multi-phase and E.P.A. accepted model, WAFE, is being used to simulate this data and make long term performance projections. Many problems associated with precession, array boundaries and local subroutines have been encountered in converting the model which was developed on the Los Alamos National Laboratory's CRAY based computer system to run on a DEC/VAX 750. Documentation, which is still in rough draft, has also made the valid modification of the code or organization of an input data file difficult. 10 figs.
Date: October 1, 1987
Creator: Ebeling, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of waste streams on the Oak Ridge Reservation

Description: The Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) plants generate solid low-level waste (LLW) that must be disposed of or stored on-site. The available disposal capacity of the current sites is projected to be fully utilized during the next decade. An LLW disposal strategy has been developed by the Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration (LLWDDD) Program as a framework for bringing new, regulator-approved disposal capacity to the ORR. An increasing level of waste stream characterization will be needed to maintain the ability to effectively manage solid LLW by the facilities on the ORR under the new regulatory scenario. In this paper, current practices for solid LLW stream characterization, segregation, and certification are described. In addition, the waste stream characterization requirements for segregation and certification under the LLWDDD Program strategy are also examined. 6 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Rivera, A.L.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Jackson, A.M.; Butcher, B.T. Jr. & Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department