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Combustion oscillation control by cyclic fuel injection

Description: A number of recent articles have demonstrated the use of active control to mitigate the effects of combustion instability in afterburner and dump combustor applications. In these applications, cyclic injection of small quantities of control fuel has been proposed to counteract the periodic heat release that contributes to undesired pressure oscillations. This same technique may also be useful to mitigate oscillations in gas turbine combustors, especially in test rig combustors characterized by acoustic modes that do not exist in the final engine configuration. To address this issue, the present paper reports on active control of a subscale, atmospheric pressure nozzle/combustor arrangement. The fuel is natural gas. Cyclic injection of 14% control fuel in a premix fuel nozzle is shown to reduce oscillating pressure amplitude by a factor of 0.30 (i.e., {approximately}10 dB) at 300 Hz. Measurement of the oscillating heat release is also reported.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J.; Robey, E.; Cowell, L. & Rawlins, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structure and evolution of the stabilization point of a lifted reacting jet

Description: In this work the authors study the stabilization point of a lifted, reacting jet of nitrogen diluted methane in co-flowing air. The jet flow is acoustically forced so as to organize the large scale vortical structures. The validation of the numerical results is possible through a concurrent experimental investigation of a similar planar jet. The use of an acoustically forced planar jet allows for significant savings by the restriction of the computation to two dimensions; the model is otherwise applicable in three dimensions. The authors based their study on the following parameters, which are derived from the experimental setup: a jet width of 1.16 cm, a mean jet velocity of 0.8 m/s, and a coflow velocity of 0.1 m/s. The acoustical forcing is studied at frequencies of 7.5 MHz and 90 MHz, which have been established experimentally as being characteristic of two broad behavioral modes. The authors restrict themselves to five species and the single step, irreversible, global reaction: CH{sub 4} + 2O{sub 2} {R_arrow} CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O (with passive N{sub 2}). This global chemistry is sufficient to establish the characteristics of the flow and the flame structure.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Milne, B.; Devine, K.; Kempka, S. & Najm, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Triple flame structure and dynamics at the stabilization point of a lifted jet diffusion flame

Description: A coupled Lagrangian-Eulerian low-Mach-number numerical scheme is developed, using the vortex method for the momentum equations, and a finite difference approach with adaptive mesh refinement for the scalar conservation equations. The scheme is used to study the structure and dynamics of a forced lifted buoyant planar jet flame. Outer buoyant structures, driven by baroclinic vorticity generation, are observed. The flame base is found to stabilize in a region where flow velocities are sufficiently small to allow its existence. A triple flame is observed at the flame base, a result of premixing of fuel and oxidizer upstream of the ignition point. The structure and dynamics of the triple flame, and its modulation by jet vortex structures, are studied. The spatial extent of the triple flame is small, such that it fits wholly within the rounded flame base temperature field. The dilatation rate field outlines the edge of the hot fluid at the flame base. Neither the temperature field nor the dilatation rate field seem appropriate for experimental measurement of the triple flame in this flow.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Najm, H.N.; Milne, R.B.; Devine, K.D. & Kempka, S.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stability of Quasi-Steady Deflagrations in Confined Porous Energetic Materials

Description: Previous analyses have shown that unconfined deflagrations propagating through both porous and nonporous energetic materials can exhibit a thermal/diffusive instability that corresponds to the onset of various oscillatory modes of combustion. For porous materials, two-phase-flow effects, associated with the motion of the gas products relative to the condensed material, play a significant role that can shift stability boundaries with respect to those associated with the nonporous problem. In the present work, additional significant effects are shown to be associated with confinement, which produces an overpressure in the burned-gas region that leads to reversal of the gas flow and hence partial permeation of the hot gases into the unburned porous material. This results in a superadiabatic effect that increases the combustion temperature and, consequently, the burning rate. Under the assumption of gas phase quasi-steadiness, an asymptotic model is presented that facilitates a perturbation analysis of both the basic solution, corresponding to a steadily propagating planar combustion wave, and its stability. The neutral stability boundaries collapse to the previous results in the absence of confinement, but different trends arising from the presence of the gas-permeation layer are predicted for the confined problem. Whereas two-phase-flow effects are generally destabilizing in the unconfined geometry, the effects of increasing overpressure and hence combustion temperature associated with confinement are shown to be generally stabilizing with respect to thermal/diffusive instability, analogous to the effects of decreasing heat losses on combustion temperature and stability in single-phase deflagrations.
Date: July 30, 2000
Creator: Telengator, A. M.; Margolis, S. B. & Williams, F. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion instability modeling and analysis

Description: It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors. The present study represents a coordinated effort between industry, government and academia to investigate gas turbine combustion dynamics. Specific study areas include development of advanced diagnostics, definition of controlling phenomena, advancement of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities, and assessment of the current status of our ability to apply these tools to practical gas turbine combustors. The present work involves four tasks which address, respectively, (1) the development of a fiber-optic probe for fuel-air ratio measurements, (2) the study of combustion instability using laser-based diagnostics in a high pressure, high temperature flow reactor, (3) the development of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities for describing combustion instability which will be validated against experimental data, and (4) the preparation of a literature survey and establishment of a data base on practical experience with combustion instability.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A. & Sheppard, E.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Approximate calculations of NO{sub x} formation in an oscillating flow field

Description: Chiefly for improved efficiency, the trend to increasing use of gas turbine engines in stationary powerplants has been firmly established. The requirement for minimum NOx production has motivated operation as close as practically possible near the lean flammability limit, to reduce formation of nitrogen oxides by the Zeldovich thermal mechanism. However, experience has shown that under these conditions, stability of the chamber is reduced, often leading to the presence of sustained oscillations in the combustor. That possibility raises the problem of the influence of oscillatory motions on the production of nitrogen oxides. The work represented in this paper covers the initial steps in constructing an analysis suitable for application to that problem in design and development of operational gas turbine combustors.
Date: June 1996
Creator: Swenson, G.; Pun, W. & Culick, F. E. C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LES Software for the Design of Low Emission Combustion Systems for Vision 21 Plants: First Year Program Review

Description: In this project, an advanced computational software tool will be developed for the design of low emission combustion systems required for Vision 21 clean energy plants. This computational tool will utilize Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methods to predict the highly transient nature of turbulent combustion. The time-accurate software will capture large scale transient motion, while the small scale motion will be modeled using advanced subgrid turbulence and chemistry closures. This three-year project is composed of: Year 1--model development/implementation, Year 2--software alpha validation, and Year 3--technology transfer of software to industry including beta testing. In this first year of the project, subgrid models for turbulence and combustion are being developed through university research (Suresh Menon-Georgia Tech and J.-Y. Chen- UC Berkeley) and implemented into a leading combustion CFD code, CFD-ACE+. The commercially available CFDACE+ software utilizes unstructured , parallel architecture and 2nd-order spatial and temporal numerics. To date, the localized dynamic turbulence model and reduced chemistry models (up to 19 species) for natural gas, propane, hydrogen, syngas, and methanol have been incorporated. The Linear Eddy Model (LEM) for subgrid combustion-turbulence interaction has been developed and implementation into CFD-ACE+ has started. Ways of reducing run-time for complex stiff reactions is being studied, including the use of in situ tabulation and neural nets. Initial validation cases have been performed. CFDRC has also completed the integration of a 64 PC cluster to get highly scalable computing power needed to perform the LES calculations ({approx} 2 million cells) in several days. During the second year, further testing and validation of the LES software will be performed. Researchers at DOE-NETL are working with CFDRC to provide well-characterized high-pressure test data for model validation purposes. To insure practical, usable software is developed, a consortium of gas turbine and industrial burner manufacturers has been established to guide and ...
Date: November 6, 2001
Creator: Cannon, Steven M.; Adumitroaie, Virgil; McDaniel, Keith S. & Smith, Clifford E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using computers to answer fundamental questions in combustion theory: an example from droplet combustion

Description: Many fundamental questions in combustion theory are either partially or totally intractable analytically. Thus, it is often desirable to use computed results to supplement information obtained by analytic means. We illustrate how computation can supplement analysis by examining the role of gas-phase unsteadiness in droplet vaporization and combustion. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Janssen, R.D. & O'Rourke, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamic high-pressure studies of an electrothermal capillary

Description: This paper describes arc discharge tests conducted in a prepressurized, constant-volume pressure vessel to study arc behavior over a wide range of current densities, discharge durations and initial vessel pressures. This method allows controlled access to a wider range of conditions than those previously studied in capillary tests. We have investigated aspects of the radiative heat transfer by calculating the material opacity and mean free paths of photons for conditions typical of arc diagnostics. We also performed one-dimensional Eulerian hydrodynamic calculations of the boundary layer behavior in the radiative diffusion approximation. These calculations, which describe the radial mass flow and heat transfer in the absence of turbulent flow effects, show the characteristic times for equilibrium of the high-pressure arc. Finally, we describe progress on a promising means for increasing the mass flux from the capillary discharge through the use of chemically reactive media on the capillary walls. 20 refs., 7 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Benson, D.A. & Cahill, P.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department