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Enhancement of Biogenic Coalbed Methane Production and Back Injection of Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water

Description: Biogenic methane is a common constituent in deep subsurface environments such as coalbeds and oil shale beds. Coalbed methane (CBM) makes significant contributions to world natural gas industry and CBM production continues to increase. With increasing CBM production, the production of CBM co-produced water increases, which is an environmental concern. This study investigated the feasibility in re-using CBM co-produced water and other high sodic/saline water to enhance biogenic methane production from coal and other unconventional sources, such as oil shale. Microcosms were established with the selected carbon sources which included coal, oil shale, lignite, peat, and diesel-contaminated soil. Each microcosm contained either CBM coproduced water or groundwater with various enhancement and inhibitor combinations. Results indicated that the addition of nutrients and nutrients with additional carbon can enhance biogenic methane production from coal and oil shale. Methane production from oil shale was much greater than that from coal, which is possibly due to the greater amount of available Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from oil shale. Inconclusive results were observed from the other sources since the incubation period was too low. WRI is continuing studies with biogenic methane production from oil shale.
Date: May 31, 2007
Creator: Jin, Song
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Your World Magazine - Biofuels: Energy for Your Future

Description: Policymakers have been talking for years about measures to cut back how much petroleum we use. Interest has spiked recently, with government and private companies coming together to push forward scientific research and development of alternative fuel products such as ethanol. Biotechnology is helping make alternative energy sources easier - and more affordable - to produce. Most of the world's energy needs are met with oil and natural gas, which come from fossil fuel. No one knows how long the supply can last. Biobased fuels come from natural sources that can be replaced quickly. Along with corn, there are many other grains, grasses, trees, and even agricultural wastes being investigated for their usefulness and environmental friendliness as alternative fuel sources. Careers in this emerging new field emphasize chemistry and engineering. Look into it for a potential career - it's definitely a job full of energy.
Date: October 1, 2006
Creator: Institute, Biotechnology
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

History of Coastal Alabama Natural Gas Exploration and Development: Final Report

Description: This report tracks the history of the coastal region of Alabama following interest in oil drilling from 1969 to 1997. Mobil Oil Company sought to lease tracts to drill for oil in Mobile Bay from the state of Alabama, and later the oil companies Exxon, Chevron, and Shell became a part of the competition in the area.
Date: April 1999
Creator: Wade, William W.; Plater, Jason R. & Kelley, Jacqueline Q.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook

Description: This report discusses likely energy prices and weather over the winter of 2010-2011.
Date: October 13, 2010
Creator: Energy Information Administration
Partner: UNT Libraries

Natural Gas: Factors Affecting Prices and Potential Impacts on Consumers

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In early December 2005, wholesale natural gas prices topped $15 per million BTUs, more than double the prices seen last summer and seven times the prices common during the 1990s. For the 2005-2006 heating season, the U.S. Energy Information Administration predicts that residences heating with gas will pay 35 percent more, on average, than they paid last winter. This testimony addresses the following: (1) the factors causing natural gas price increases, (2) how consumers are affected by these higher prices, and (3) the roles federal government agencies play in ensuring that natural gas prices are determined in a competitive and informed marketplace. This testimony is based on GAO's 2002 published work in this area, updated through interviews, examination of data, and review of relevant publications. GAO's new work was conducted from December 2005 through February 2006 in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards."
Date: February 13, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

POLICY ANALYSIS OF PRODUCED WATER ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH IN-SITU THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES

Description: Commercial scale oil shale and oil sands development will require water, the amount of which will depend on the technologies adopted and the scale of development that occurs. Water in oil shale and oil sands country is already in scarce supply, and because of the arid nature of the region and limitations on water consumption imposed by interstate compacts and the Endangered Species Act, the State of Utah normally does not issue new water rights in oil shale or oil sands rich areas. Prospective oil shale and oil sands developers that do not already hold adequate water rights can acquire water rights from willing sellers, but large and secure water supplies may be difficult and expensive to acquire, driving oil shale and oil sands developers to seek alternative sources of supply. Produced water is one such potential source of supply. When oil and gas are developed, operators often encounter ground water that must be removed and disposed of to facilitate hydrocarbon extraction. Water produced through mineral extraction was traditionally poor in quality and treated as a waste product rather than a valuable resource. However, the increase in produced water volume and the often-higher quality water associated with coalbed methane development have drawn attention to potential uses of produced water and its treatment under appropriations law. This growing interest in produced water has led to litigation and statutory changes that must be understood and evaluated if produced water is to be harnessed in the oil shale and oil sands development process. Conversely, if water is generated as a byproduct of oil shale and oil sands production, consideration must be given to how this water will be disposed of or utilized in the shale oil production process. This report explores the role produced water could play in commercial oil shale and oil ...
Date: February 1, 2011
Creator: Keiter, Robert; Ruple, John & Tanana, Heather
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mild Catalytic methods for Alkyl-Alkyl Bond Formation

Description: Overview of Research Goals and Accomplishments for the Period 07/01/06 – 06/30/07: Our overall research goal is to transform the rapidly emerging synthetic chemistry involving alkyl-alkyl cross-couplings into more of a mechanism-based field so that that new, rationally-designed catalysts can be performed under energy efficient conditions. Our specific objectives for the previous year were 1) to obtain a proper electronic description of an active catalyst for alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions and 2) to determine the effect of ligand structure on the rate, scope, selectivity, and functional group compatibility of C(sp3)-C(sp3) cross-coupling catalysis. We have completed both of these initial objectives and established a firm base for further studies. The specific significant achievements of the current grant period include: 1) we have performed magnetic and computational studies on (terpyridine)NiMe, an active catalyst for alkyl-alkyl cross couplings, and have discovered that the unpaired electron resides heavily on the terpyridine ligand and that the proper electronic description of this nickel complex is a Ni(II)-methyl cation bound to a reduced terpyridine ligand; 2) we have for the first time shown that alkyl halide reduction by terpyridyl nickel catalysts is substantially ligand based; 3) we have shown by isotopic labeling studies that the active catalyst (terpyridine)NiMe is not produced via a mechanism that involves the formation of methyl radicals when (TMEDA)NiMe2 is used as the catalyst precursor; 4) we have performed an extensive ligand survey for the alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions and have found that electronic factors only moderately influence reactivity in the terpyridine-based catalysis and that the most dramatic effects arise from steric and solubility factors; 5) we have found that the use of bis(dialkylphosphino)methanes as ligands for nickel does not produce active catalysts for cross-coupling but rather leads to bridging hydride complexes of varying geometries; 6) we have determined that the geometry of aforementioned bridging ...
Date: August 10, 2009
Creator: Vicic, David A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

JV Task 95-Particulate Control Consulting for Minnesota Ore Operations

Description: The purpose of the project was to assist U.S. Steel in the evaluation, selection, planning, design, and testing of potential approaches to help meet U.S. Steel's goal for low-particulate matter emissions and regulatory compliance. The energy-intensive process for producing iron pellets includes treating the pellets in high-temperature kilns in which the iron is converted from magnetite to hematite. The kilns can be fired with either natural gas or a combination of gas and coal or biomass fuel and are equipped with wet venturi scrubbers for particulate control. Particulate measurements at the inlet and outlet of the scrubbers and analysis of size-fractionated particulate samples led to an understanding of the effect of process variables on the measured emissions and an approach to meet regulatory compliance.
Date: October 31, 2008
Creator: Miller, Stanley
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department