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Electroproduction de pions neutres dans le Hall A au Jefferson Laboratory

Description: The past decade has seen a strong evolution of the study of the hadron structure through exclusive processes, allowing to access to a more complete description of this structure. Exclusive processes include DVCS (Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering) as well as hard exclusive meson production. This document is particularly focussed on the latter, and more particularly on exclusive neutral pion production. In this thesis is described the analysis of triple coincidence events H(e, e'{gamma}{gamma})X, which were a consequent by-product of the DVCS experiment which occured during Fall 2004 at Jefferson Lab Hall A, to extract the ep {yields} ep{pi}{sup 0} cross section. This cross section has been measured at two values of four-momentum transfer Q{sup 2} = 1.9 GeV{sup 2} and Q{sup 2} = 2.3 GeV{sup 2}. The statistical precision for these measurements is achieved at better than 5 %. The kinematic range allows to study the evolution of the extracted cross section as a function of Q{sup 2} and W. Results are be confronted with Regge inspired calculations and Generalized (GPD) predictions. An intepretation of our data within the framework of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering is also discussed.
Date: June 1, 2010
Creator: Fuchey, Eric
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study, design and realization of a Fabry-Perot cavity for the Compton polarimeter of TJNAF; Etude, conception et realisation d'une cavite Fabry-Perot pour le polarimetre Compton de TJNAF

Description: This is a doctoral dissertation, in French, on the subject of study, design and realization of a Fabry-Perot cavity for the Compton polarimeter of TJNAF.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Falletto, M. Nicolas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Argonne premium coal sample program. Annual technical progress report. Reporting period : 2/2006-2/2007.

Description: This project provides highly uniform, premium (unexposed to oxygen) coal samples to researchers investigating coal structure, properties and behavior, and maintains accessible databases of published reports describing work carried out on the Argonne Premium Coal Samples. The samples are made available to DOE researchers and others. The eight carefully selected samples have been kept in as pristine a condition as possible through careful control the conditions in all stages from sample collection throughout processing and packaging. The samples are available in glass ampoules to ensure sample uniformity and maintain premium quality to ensure sample integrity.
Date: March 4, 2007
Creator: Hunt, J. E. & Chemistry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

Description: Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.
Date: November 28, 2008
Creator: Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J. & Division, Environmental Science
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CIPDSS-PST: CIPDSS portfolio slection tool documentation and user's guide.

Description: The Critical Infrastructure Protection Decision Support System--Portfolio Support Tool (CIPDSS-PST) provides a versatile and powerful tool for selecting, optimizing, and analyzing portfolios. The software introduces a compact interface that facilitates problem definition, constraint specification, and portfolio analysis. The tool also provides a simple screen design for comparing user-preferred choices with optimized selections. CIPDSS-PST uses a portable, efficient, mixed-integer optimization engine (lp{_}solve) to derive the optimal mix of projects that satisfies the constraints and maximizes the total portfolio utility. The CIPDSS-PST software can be readily applied to other nonportfolio, resource-constrained optimization problems.
Date: June 27, 2008
Creator: VanKuiken, J. C.; Jusko, M. J.; Samsa, M. E. & Sciences, Decision and Information
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OPTUM : Optimum Portfolio Tool for Utility Maximization documentation and user's guide.

Description: The Optimum Portfolio Tool for Utility Maximization (OPTUM) is a versatile and powerful tool for selecting, optimizing, and analyzing portfolios. The software introduces a compact interface that facilitates problem definition, complex constraint specification, and portfolio analysis. The tool allows simple comparisons between user-preferred choices and optimized selections. OPTUM uses a portable, efficient, mixed-integer optimization engine (lp-solve) to derive the optimal mix of projects that satisfies the constraints and maximizes the total portfolio utility. OPTUM provides advanced features, such as convenient menus for specifying conditional constraints and specialized graphical displays of the optimal frontier and alternative solutions to assist in sensitivity visualization. OPTUM can be readily applied to other nonportfolio, resource-constrained optimization problems.
Date: September 30, 2008
Creator: VanKuiken, J. C.; Jusko, M. J.; Samsa, M. E. & Sciences, Decision and Information
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of intergranular fission gas bubbles in U-Mo fuel.

Description: This report can be divided into two parts: the first part, which is composed of sections 1, 2, and 3, is devoted to report the analyses of fission gas bubbles; the second part, which is in section 4, is allocated to describe the mechanistic model development. Swelling data of irradiated U-Mo alloy typically show that the kinetics of fission gas bubbles is composed of two different rates: lower initially and higher later. The transition corresponds to a burnup of {approx}0 at% U-235 (LEU) or a fission density of {approx}3 x 10{sup 21} fissions/cm{sup 3}. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that gas bubbles appear only on the grain boundaries in the pretransition regime. At intermediate burnup where the transition begins, gas bubbles are observed to spread into the intragranular regions. At high burnup, they are uniformly distributed throughout fuel. In highly irradiated U-Mo alloy fuel large-scale gas bubbles form on some fuel particle peripheries. In some cases, these bubbles appear to be interconnected and occupy the interface region between fuel and the aluminum matrix for dispersion fuel, and fuel and cladding for monolithic fuel, respectively. This is a potential performance limit for U-Mo alloy fuel. Microscopic characterization of the evolution of fission gas bubbles is necessary to understand the underlying phenomena of the macroscopic behavior of fission gas swelling that can lead to a counter measure to potential performance limit. The microscopic characterization data, particularly in the pre-transition regime, can also be used in developing a mechanistic model that predicts fission gas bubble behavior as a function of burnup and helps identify critical physical properties for the future tests. Analyses of grain and grain boundary morphology were performed. Optical micrographs and scanning electron micrographs of irradiated fuel from RERTR-1, 2, 3 and 5 tests were used. Micrographic comparisons between as-fabricated and ...
Date: April 14, 2008
Creator: Kim, Y. S.; Hofman, G.; Rest, J.; Shevlyakov, G. V.; Division, Nuclear Engineering & RIAR, SSCR
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen production by water dissociation using ceramic membranes. Annual report for FY 2007.

Description: The objective of this project is to develop dense ceramic membranes that, without using an external power supply or circuitry, can produce hydrogen via coal/coal gas-assisted water dissociation. This project grew out of an effort to develop a dense ceramic membrane for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures such as those generated during coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions [1]. That effort led to the development of various cermet (i.e., ceramic/metal composite) membranes that enable hydrogen to be produced by two methods. In one method, a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) selectively removes hydrogen from a gas mixture by transporting it through either a mixed protonic/electronic conductor or a hydrogen transport metal. In the other method, an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) generates hydrogen mixed with steam by removing oxygen that is generated through water splitting [1, 2]. This project focuses on the development of OTMs that efficiently produce hydrogen via the dissociation of water. Supercritical boilers offer very high-pressure steam that can be decomposed to provide pure hydrogen by means of OTMs. Oxygen resulting from the dissociation of steam can be used for coal gasification, enriched combustion, or synthesis gas production. Hydrogen and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} can be produced from coal and steam by using the membrane being developed in this project. Although hydrogen can also be generated by high-temperature steam electrolysis, producing hydrogen by water splitting with a mixed-conducting membrane requires no electric power or electrical circuitry.
Date: March 4, 2008
Creator: Balachandran, U.; Chen, L.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Park, C. Y. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen separation membranes - annual report for FY 2007.

Description: The objective of this work is to develop dense ceramic membranes for separating hydrogen from other gaseous components in a nongalvanic mode, i.e., without using an external power supply or electrical circuitry.
Date: January 31, 2008
Creator: Chen, L.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of terrorism on public confidence : an exploratory study.

Description: A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the metrics it uses to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, several factors--including a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, by type of terrorist event, and as a function of time--are critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data were collected from the groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery bombing, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions that resulted in identity theft and financial losses. Our findings include the following: (a) the subjects can be classified into at least three distinct groups on the basis of their baseline outlook--optimistic, pessimistic, and unaffected; (b) the subjects make discriminations in their interpretations of an event on the basis of the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) the recovery of confidence after a terrorist event has an incubation period and typically does not return to its initial level in the long-term; (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence differ between the optimists and the pessimists; and (e) individuals are able to associate a monetary value with a loss or gain in confidence, and the value associated with a loss is greater than the value associated with a gain. These findings illustrate ...
Date: October 31, 2008
Creator: Berry, M. S.; Baldwin, T. E.; Samsa, M. E.; Ramaprasad, A. & Sciences, Decision and Information
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.

Description: The use of hydrogen in the energy sector of the United States is projected to increase significantly in the future. Current uses are predominantly in the petroleum refining sector, with hydrogen also being used in the manufacture of chemicals and other specialized products. Growth in hydrogen consumption is likely to appear in the refining sector, where greater quantities of hydrogen will be required as the quality of the raw crude decreases, and in the mining and processing of tar sands and other energy resources that are not currently used at a significant level. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel has been proposed both by automobile manufacturers and the federal government. Assuming that the use of hydrogen will significantly increase in the future, there would be a corresponding need to transport this material. A variety of production technologies are available for making hydrogen, and there are equally varied raw materials. Potential raw materials include natural gas, coal, nuclear fuel, and renewables such as solar, wind, or wave energy. As these raw materials are not uniformly distributed throughout the United States, it would be necessary to transport either the raw materials or the hydrogen long distances to the appropriate markets. While hydrogen may be transported in a number of possible forms, pipelines currently appear to be the most economical means of moving it in large quantities over great distances. One means of controlling hydrogen pipeline costs is to use common rights-of-way (ROWs) whenever feasible. For that reason, information on hydrogen pipelines is the focus of this document. Many of the features of hydrogen pipelines are similar to those of natural gas pipelines. Furthermore, as hydrogen pipeline networks expand, many of the same construction and operating features of natural gas networks would be replicated. As a result, the description of ...
Date: February 1, 2008
Creator: Gillette, J .L. & Kolpa, R. L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluating the potential impact of transmission constraints on the operation of a competitive electricity market in Illinois.

Description: Despite the current adequacy of the generation and transmission system in Illinois, there is concern that the uncertainties of electricity restructuring warrant a more detailed analysis to determine if there might be pitfalls that have not been identified under current conditions. The problems experienced elsewhere in the country emphasize the need for an evaluation of how Illinois might fare under a restructured electricity market. The Illinois Commerce Commission (ICC) commissioned this study to be undertaken as a joint effort by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate the Illinois situation in the 2007 period when restructuring is scheduled to be fully implemented in the State. The purpose of this study is to make an initial determination if the transmission system in Illinois and the surrounding region would be able to support a competitive electricity market, would allow for effective competition to keep prices in check, and would allow for new market participants to effectively compete for market share. The study seeks to identify conditions that could reasonably be expected to occur that would enable a company to exercise market power in one or more portions of the State and thereby create undue pressure on the prices charged to customers and/or inhibit new market participants from entering the market. The term 'market power' has many different definitions, and there is no universal agreement on how to measure it. For the purposes of this study, the term is defined as the ability to raise prices and increase profitability by unilateral action. A more complete definition is provided later. With this definition, the central question of this analysis becomes: 'Can a company, acting on its own, raise electricity prices and increase its profits?' It should be noted that the intent of the study is not to predict whether ...
Date: April 30, 2006
Creator: Cirillo, R.; Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.; Koritarov, V.; Conzelmann, G.; Macal, C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technology demonstration for reducing mercury emissions from small-scale gold refining facilities.

Description: Gold that is brought from artisanal and small-scale gold mining areas to gold shops for processing and sale typically contains 5-40% mercury. The uncontrolled removal of the residual mercury in gold shops by using high-temperature evaporation can be a significant source of mercury emissions in urban areas where the shops are located. Emissions from gold shop hoods during a burn can exceed 1,000 mg/m{sup 3}. Because the saturation concentration of mercury vapor at operating temperatures at the hood exhaust is less than 100 mg/m{sup 3}, the dominant component of the exhaust is in the form of aerosol or liquid particles. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with technical support from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), has completed a project to design and test a technology to remove the dominant aerosol component in the emissions from gold shops. The objective was to demonstrate a technology that could be manufactured at low cost and by using locally available materials and manufacturing capabilities. Six prototypes designed by Argonne were locally manufactured, installed, and tested in gold shops in Itaituba and Creporizao, Brazil. The initial prototype design incorporated a pebble bed as the media for collecting the mercury aerosols, and a mercury collection efficiency of over 90% was demonstrated. Though achieving high efficiencies, the initial prototype was determined to have practical disadvantages such as excessive weight, a somewhat complex construction, and high costs (>US$1,000). To further simplify the construction, operation, and associated costs, a second prototype design was developed in which the pebble bed was replaced with slotted steel baffle plates. The system was designed to have flexibility for installation in various hood configurations. The second prototype with the baffle plate design was installed and tested in several different hood/exhaust systems to determine the optimal installation configuration. The significance of coagulation and collection of the ...
Date: June 30, 2008
Creator: Habegger, L. J.; Fernandez, L. E.; Engle, M.; Bailey, J. L.; Peterson, D. P.; MacDonell, M. M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of DOE/PERF water program review.

Description: For many years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported and sponsored various types of water research relating to the oil and gas industry through its Office of Fossil Energy and its National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In early 2005, the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (PERF) submitted a proposal to DOE for funding an upcoming PERF meeting that would feature water research in the petroleum industry. PERF is a nonprofit organization created in 1986 to provide a stimulus to and a forum for the collection, exchange, and analysis of research information related to the development of technology concerning the petroleum industry, and a mechanism for establishing joint research projects in that field. Additional information on PERF can be accessed at http://www.perf.org. DOE agreed to provide funding to hold a review of its water research program in conjunction with the fall 2005 PERF meeting. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) was asked to coordinate and host the meeting, which was referred to as the DOE/PERF Water Program Review. The program review was held on November 1-4, 2005, in Annapolis, Maryland, at the Historic Inns of Annapolis. The purpose of the program review was to provide a forum for sharing information, reviewing current programs (especially recent unpublished research), and reviewing industry and regulatory needs regarding water use and reuse issues. PERF and DOE/NETL can use this information to plan for future water-related research projects. The water program review provided a unique opportunity in several ways. First, DOE was able to have all of the contractors currently receiving DOE funds for water research present in one room at the same time. Each contractor described his or her research and was able to learn about the research being conducted by the other researchers. Second, this forum allowed representatives of many large oil and gas companies ...
Date: January 31, 2006
Creator: Veil, J.; Gasper, J.; Puder, M.; Leath, P. & Division, Environmental Science
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program : FY 2008 benefits analysis, methodology and results --- final report.

Description: This report describes the approach to estimating the benefits and analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the Vehicle Technologies (VT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identifying technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs, (3) Estimating the market potential of technologies that improve fuel efficiency and/or use alternative fuels, and (4) Determining the petroleum and greenhouse gas emissions reductions associated with the advanced technologies. In FY 08 the Heavy Vehicles program continued its involvement with various sources of energy loss as compared to focusing more narrowly on engine efficiency and alternative fuels. These changes are the result of a planning effort that first occurred during FY 04 and was updated in the past year. (Ref. 1) This narrative describes characteristics of the heavy truck market as they relate to the analysis, a description of the analysis methodology (including a discussion of the models used to estimate market potential and benefits), and a presentation of the benefits estimated as a result of the adoption of the advanced technologies. The market penetrations are used as part of the EERE-wide integrated analysis to provide final benefit estimates reported in the FY08 Budget Request. The energy savings models are utilized by the VT program for internal project management purposes.
Date: February 29, 2008
Creator: Singh, M.; Systems, Energy & Engineering, TA
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy consumption and expenditure projections by population group on the basis on the annual energy outlook 2000 forecast.

Description: The changes in the patterns of energy use and expenditures by population group are analyzed by using the 1993 and 1997 Residential Energy Consumption Surveys. Historically, these patterns have differed among non-Hispanic White households, non-Hispanic Black households, and Hispanic households. Patterns of energy use and expenditures are influenced by geographic and metropolitan location, the composition of housing stock, economic and demographic status, and the composition of energy use by end-use category. As a consequence, as energy-related factors change across groups, patterns of energy use and expenditures also change. Over time, with changes in the composition of these factors by population group and their variable influences on energy use, the impact on energy use and expenditures has varied across these population groups.
Date: May 31, 2001
Creator: Poyer, D. A. & Sciences, Decision and Information
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Process-scale modeling of elevated wintertime ozone in Wyoming.

Description: Measurements of meteorological variables and trace gas concentrations, provided by the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality for Daniel, Jonah, and Boulder Counties in the state of Wyoming, were analyzed for this project. The data indicate that highest ozone concentrations were observed at temperatures of -10 C to 0 C, at low wind speeds of about 5 mph. The median values for nitrogen oxides (NOx) during these episodes ranged between 10 ppbv and 20 ppbv (parts per billion by volume). Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during these periods were insufficient for quantitative analysis. The few available VOCs measurements indicated unusually high levels of alkanes and aromatics and low levels of alkenes. In addition, the column ozone concentration during one of the high-ozone episodes was low, on the order of 250 DU (Dobson unit) as compared to a normal column ozone concentration of approximately 300-325 DU during spring for this region. Analysis of this observation was outside the scope of this project. The data analysis reported here was used to establish criteria for making a large number of sensitivity calculations through use of a box photochemical model. Two different VOCs lumping schemes, RACM and SAPRC-98, were used for the calculations. Calculations based on this data analysis indicated that the ozone mixing ratios are sensitive to (a) surface albedo, (b) column ozone, (c) NOx mixing ratios, and (d) available terminal olefins. The RACM model showed a large response to an increase in lumped species containing propane that was not reproduced by the SAPRC scheme, which models propane as a nearly independent species. The rest of the VOCs produced similar changes in ozone in both schemes. In general, if one assumes that measured VOCs are fairly representative of the conditions at these locations, sufficient precursors might be available to produce ozone in the ...
Date: December 31, 2007
Creator: Kotamarthi, V. R.; Holdridge, D. J. & Division, Environmental Science
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for corn refining plants.

Description: Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing their plant's performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing facilities can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the corn refining industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for facilities that produce a variety of products--including corn starch, corn oil, animal feed, corn sweeteners, and ethanol--for the paper, food, beverage, and other industries in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for corn refining plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.
Date: July 31, 2006
Creator: Boyd, G. A.; Sciences, Decision and Information & USEPA
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department