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Advanced alternate planar geometry solid oxide fuel cells. Interim quarterly technical progress report, November 1, 1988--January 31, 1989

Description: During this quarter, progress was made at Ceramatec in seal development and conductivity measurements of YIG compositions. A creep test was completed on the porous/dense/porous triilayer. IGT provided a discussion on possible interconnect materials. The following tasks are reported on: cell design analysis, program liaison and test facility preparation, cell component fabrication/development, out-of-cell tests. 9 figs, 2 tabs.
Date: December 31, 1989
Creator: Prouse, D.; Elangovan, S.; Khandkar, A.; Donelson, R. & Marianowski, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Hydride Laboratory

Description: Metal hydrides have been used at the Savannah River Tritium Facilities since 1984. However, the most extensive application of metal hydride technology at the Savannah River Site is being planned for the Replacement Tritium Facility, a $140 million facility schedules for completion in 1990 and startup in 1991. In the new facility, metal hydride technology will be used to store, separate, isotopically purify, pump, and compress hydrogen isotopes. In support of the Replacement Tritium Facility, a $3.2 million, ``cold,`` process demonstration facility, the Advanced Hydride Laboratory began operation in November of 1987. The purpose of the Advanced Hydride Laboratory is to demonstrate the Replacement Tritium Facility`s metal hydride technology by integrating the various unit operations into an overall process. This paper will describe the Advanced Hydride Laboratory, its role and its impact on the application of metal hydride technology to tritium handling.
Date: December 31, 1989
Creator: Motyka, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Hydride Laboratory

Description: The Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) is a $140 million reservoir loading and unloading facility using state-of-the-art technology, scheduled for completion in 1990 and startup in 1991. In the RTF, metal hydride technology will be used to store, separate, purify, pump, and compress hydrogen isotopes. In support of the RTF, a $3.2 million ``cold`` process demonstration facility began operation in November, 1987. The purpose of the Advanced Hydride Laboratory (AHL) is to demonstrate the RFT`s metal hydride technology by integrating the various unit operations into an overall process. While much of the RTF`s metal hydride technology had been demonstrated in laboratory bench-scale and pilot-scale units, none of the units had been operated together and integrated into an overall process.
Date: December 31, 1989
Creator: Horen, A. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced turbine design for coal-fueled engines. Quarterly technical report, [July 1, 1989--September 30, 1989]

Description: Coal-fueled gas turbines require the development of a number of new technologies which are being identified by METC and its Heat Engines Contractors. Three significant problems, that were Identified early in the development of coal-fueled engines, are the rapid wear of the turbine airfoils due to particulate erosion, the accumulation of deposits on portions of the airfoil surfaces due to slag deposition and the rapid corrosion of airfoils after the breakdown of surface coatings. The technology development study contained in this program is focused on improving the durability of the turbine through the development of erosion and deposition resistant airfoils and turbine operating conditions. The baseline turbine meanline design vas modified to prevent a local shock on the suction side of the rotor airfoil. New particle dimensionless parameters to be varied were determined. Three first-stage turbine meanline designs have been completed. The design of nev turbine airfoil shapes has been initiated. The calculation of particle trajectories has been completed for the baseline turbine vane and blade airfoils. The erosion model described in the previous technical report vas incorporated in the Post Processing Trajectory Analysis Code.
Date: December 31, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Water-Cooled Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Development. Quarterly technical progress report No. 14, April--June 1989

Description: Electrode substrate handsheets were formed. A new electrode edge seal with in-plane bubble pressures 40--50 psid and through-plane pressures 8--9 psid was demonstrated. A new polymeric edge seal for ERP`s with bubble pressure greater than 30 psid was tested and shown to be stable after 5 thermal cycles. A thin (1.2 mil) natrix was applied to full-size electrodes using a curtain coater. Full-size coolers were fabricated using both molded and commercial graphite holders.
Date: December 31, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell development. Quarterly technical progress report No. 17, July, August, September, 1989

Description: 150 electrolyte reservoir plates (ERP`s) were carbonized for the small area short stack. A process was developed which allows thin (1--2 mil) matrix to be applied to full-size electrodes using a curtain coater. Full-size cooler samples were molded with and without cooler tube arrays. Two alternative cooler hoses were evaluated and found to be acceptable based on 1400 h testing at simulated conditions.
Date: December 31, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell development. Quarterly technical progress report No. 20, October, November, December, 1989

Description: Fabrication of repeat parts for small area short stack is underway: 100 electrode substrates and 150 ERP substrates were graphitized, and 30 electrode substrates were run through each manufacturing step. Teflon content and compaction pressure of shop-made electrodes for the small area short stack was optimized based on single cell tests. A single cell with GSB-18P catalyst and 1 mg/cm{sup 2} loading is performing very well; performance is 0.66 V per cell after 1200 h at 300 ASF. 3 integral separator plate configurations have been selected for verification in the upcoming short stack. Bubble pressures over 7 psid have been demonstrated in filler bands applied with a production curtain and coating process. 5 full-size (small area) coolers were molded, and encapsulation development for molded and commercial graphite coolers continued.
Date: December 31, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of general circulation model results and comparison with regional climatic data, Task 3. [Progress report]

Description: On time scales of greater than one year the variability of weather and climate on a large path of the Earth is dominated by the Southern Oscillation. While current theories of this phenomenon have clarified the role of the interaction between the ocean and the atmosphere in maintaining this oscillation it has so far been unclear whether the Southern Oscillation originates in the ocean, in the atmosphere or during the interaction between the ocean and the atmosphere. In this study we compared simulations of climate in two global circulation models: the coupled OSU GCM in which the atmosphere and ocean interact dynamically and the slab OSU GCM in which the ocean is represented by a static layer.
Date: December 31, 1989
Creator: Cess, R. D. & Hameed, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of natural convection in a waste glass melter

Description: Laminar natural convection is a two-dimensional cavity with a line heat sink at the top boundary is investigated numerically. The fluid in the cavity is a high Prandtl number fluid with volumetric heat source. Parametric study is conducted to find the effect of variations in Rayleigh number, aspect ratio, sink location, and volumetric heat source on the flow and temperature field. 5 refs.
Date: December 31, 1989
Creator: Choi, Inn Gui
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Arctic hydrology and meteorology. Annual report

Description: To date, five years of hydrologic and meteorologic data have been collected at Imnavait Creek near Toolik Lake, Alaska. This is the most complete set of field data of this type collected in the Arctic of North America. These data have been used in process-oriented research to increase our understanding of atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere interactions. Basically, we are monitoring heat and mass transfer between various spheres to quantify rates. These could be rates of mass movement such as hillslope flow or rates of heat transfer for active layer thawing or combined heat and mass processes such as evapotranspiration. We have utilized a conceptual model to predict hydrologic processes. To test the success of this model, we are comparing our predicted rates of runoff and snowmelt to measured valves. We have also used a surface energy model to simulate active layer temperatures. The final step in this modeling effort to date was to predict what impact climatic warming would have on active layer thicknesses and how this will influence the hydrology of our research watershed by examining several streambeds.
Date: December 31, 1989
Creator: Kane, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aromatics oxidation and soot formation in flames. Progress report for year beginning 15 August 1988

Description: Work during this contract period has been concerned with the mechanisms through which aromatics are formed and destroyed in flames, and the processes responsible for soot formation. Recent progress has been primarily in two areas: experiments and modeling of the soot nucleation process in low pressure benzene flames and preparation for experiments on the destruction mechanisms of benzene. In addition, we have incorporated ``weak collision`` formalisms into a fall-off computer code.
Date: December 31, 1989
Creator: Howard, J. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric deposition, resuspension and root uptake of plutonium in corn and other grain-producing agroecosystems near a nuclear fuel facility

Description: Plutonium released to the environment may contribute to dose to humans through inhalation or ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. Plutonium contamination of agricultural plants may result from interception and retention of atmospheric deposition, resuspension of Pu-bearing soil particles to plant surfaces, and root uptake and translocation to grain. Plutonium on vegetation surfaces may be transferred to grain surfaces during mechanical harvesting. Data obtained from corn grown near the US Department of Energy`s H-Area nuclear fuel chemical separations facility on the Savannah River Site was used to estimated parameters of a simple model of Pu transport in agroecosystems. The parameter estimates for corn were compared to those previously obtained for wheat and soybeans. Despite some differences in parameter estimates among crops, the relative importances of atmospheric deposition, resuspension and root uptake were similar among crops. For even small deposition rates, the relative importances of processes for Pu contamination of corn grain should be: transfer of atmospheric deposition from vegetation surfaces to grain surfaces during combining > resuspension of soil to grain surfaces > root uptake. Approximately 3.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} of a year`s atmospheric deposition is transferred to grain. Approximately 6.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} of the Pu inventory in the soil is resuspended to corn grain, and a further 7.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} of the soil inventory is absorbed by roots and translocated to grains.
Date: December 31, 1989
Creator: Pinder, J. E. III; McLeod, K. W.; Adriano, D. C.; Corey, J. C. & Boni, A. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Background modelling in Rietveld analysis

Description: The Rietveld method is a complete profile fitting technique, which requires modelling the total scattering from crystalline samples. Many diffraction experiments involve the analysis of scattering patterns containing additional noncrystalline scattering components; these components are broad oscillations superimposed on the sharp Bragg pattern. Conventional background functions cannot be used for the noncrystalline scattering; but treating the additional scattering as though it were from an amorphous material can provide additional structural information. This is demonstrated using AlPO{sub 4}-5, an aluminophosphate framework molecular sieve. The correlation function for the amorphous component has peaks close to interatomic distances also characteristic of the crystal. The cose agreement suggests that the amorphous component, although lacking long-range periodicity, has a similar atomic arrangement to the crystal. A calibration experiment is performed using a 50-50 wt% quartz-amorphous silica mixture; the crystal structural parameters obtained from Fourier-filtered data are compared with neutron powder diffraction refinement of quartz and single-crystal x-ray results. All refined parameters agree within 3-4 {sigma}. 2 tables, 5 refs, 6 figs. (DLC)
Date: December 31, 1989
Creator: Richardson, J. W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biological production of ethanol from coal. [Fourth quarterly report], October 22, 1989--December 1989

Description: Two batch and one continuous reactor study involving Clostridium ljungdahlii were carried out. First, the effects of H{sub 2} partial pressure on growth, CO and H{sub 2} uptake and product formation by C. ljungdahlii were investigated in batch culture. Over the concentration range studied, it was observed that CO was preferentially utilized in favor of H{sub 2}. It was also seen that increasing H{sub 2} partial pressures increased the ratio of ethanol to acetate. Finally, a two-stage CSTR system was successfully operated with C. ljungdahlii in which growth occurred in the first stage and ethanol production occurred in the second stage.
Date: December 31, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calorimetry Sample Exchange analysis of data report for October--December, 1988

Description: The goals of the Calorimetry Sample Exchange Program are to: discuss measurement differences; review and improve analytical measurements and methods; discuss new measurement capabilities; provide data to DOE on measurement capabilities to evaluate shipper-receiver differences; provide characterized or standard materials as necessary for exchange participants; and provide a measurement control program for plutonium analysis. A sample of PuO{sub 2} powder is available at each participating site for NDA measurement, including either or both calorimetry and high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, the elements which are typically combined to provide a calorimetric assay of plutonium. The facilities measure the sample as frequently and to the level of precision which they desire, and then submit the data to the Exchange for analysis. Statistical tests are used to evaluate the data and to determine if there are significant differences from accepted values for the exchange sample or from data previously reported by that facility. This information is presented, in the form of a quarterly report, intended for use by Exchange participants in measurement control programs, or to indicate when bias corrections may be appropriate. No attempt, however, has been made to standardize methods or frequency of data collection, calibration, or operating procedures. Direct comparisons between laboratories may, therefore, be misleading since data have not bee collected to the same precision or for the same time periods. The six participating laboratories are Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, MRC-Mound, Westinghouse Hanford, Rocky Flats, and Savannah River.
Date: December 31, 1989
Creator: Lyons, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon and nitrogen isotope studies in an arctic aquatic ecosystem

Description: The Phase II studies of the R4D Program on stream and watershed ecology reflect the accomplishments and accumulation of baseline information obtained during the past studies. Although our rough estimates indicate that nitrogen inputs to the watershed ba lance losses, the carbon fluxes suggest that they are not in equilibrium and that there is a net loss of carbon from the tundra ecosystem through respiration and transport out of the watershed via the stream system. Radiocarbon profiles of soil sections coupled with mass transport calculations revealed that peat accumulation has essentially ceased in the R4D watershed and appears to be in ablative loss. Thus the carbon flux measurements provide validation tests for the PLANTGRO and GAS-HYDRO models of the PHASE II studies. These findings are also important in the context of global CO{sub 2} increases from positive feedback mechanisms in peatlands associated with climatic warming in the subarctic regions.
Date: December 31, 1989
Creator: Schell, D. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon and nitrogen isotope studies in an arctic ecosystem

Description: This proposal requests funding for the completion of our current ecological studies at the MS-117 research site at Toolik Lake, Alaska. We have been using a mix of stable and radioisotope techniques to assess the fluxes of carbon and nitrogen within the ecosystem and the implications for long-term carbon storage or loss from the tundra. Several tentative conclusions have emerged from our study including: Tundra in the foothills is no longer accumulating carbon. Surficial radiocarbon abundances show little or no accumulation since 1000--2500 yrs BP. Coastal plain tundra is still accumulating carbon, but the rate of accumulation has dropped in the last few thousand years. Carbon export from watersheds in the Kuparuk and Imnavait Creek drainages are in excess of that expected from estimated primary productivity; and Nitrogen isotope abundances vary between species of plants and along hydrologic gradients.
Date: December 31, 1989
Creator: Schell, D. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of liquid-water percolation in tuffs in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

Description: A surface-based borehole investigation currently (1989) is being done to characterize liquid-water percolation in tuffs of Miocene age in the unsaturated zone beneath Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada Active in-situ testing and passive in-situ monitoring will be used in this investigation to estimate the present-day liquid-water percolation (flux). The unsaturated zone consists of a gently dipping sequence of fine-grained, densely fractured, and mostly welded ash-flow tuffs that are interbedded with fine-grained, slightly fractured, non-welded ash-flow and ash-fall tuffs that are partly vitric and zeolitized near the water table. Primary study objectives are to define the water potential field within the unsaturated zone and to determine the in-situ bulk permeability and bulk hydrologic properties of the unsaturated tuffs. Borehole testing will be done to determine the magnitude and spatial distribution of physical and hydrologic properties of the geohydrologic units, and of their water potential fields. The study area of this investigation is restricted to that part of Yucca Mountain that immediately overlies and is within the boundaries of the perimeter drift of a US Department of Energy proposed mined, geologic, high-level radioactive-waste repository. Vertically, the study area extends from near the surface of Yucca Mountain to the underlying water table, about 500 to 750 meters below the ground surface. The average distance between the proposed repository and the underlying water table is about 205 meters.
Date: December 31, 1989
Creator: Kume, J. & Rousseau, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemistry and Materials Science Department annual report, 1988--1989

Description: This is the first annual report of the Chemistry & Materials Science (C&MS) Department. The principal purpose of this report is to provide a concise summary of our scientific and technical accomplishments for fiscal years 1988 and 1989. The report is also tended to become part of the archival record of the Department`s activities. We plan to publish future editions annually. The activities of the Department can be divided into three broad categories. First, C&MS staff are assigned by the matrix system to work directly in a program. These programmatic assignments typically involve short deadlines and critical time schedules. A second category is longer-term research and development in technologies important to Laboratory programs. The focus and direction of this technology-base work are generally determined by programmatic needs. Finally, the Department manages its own research program, mostly long-range in outlook and basic in orientation. These three categories are not mutually exclusive but form a continuum of technical activities. Representative examples of all three are included in this report. The principal subject matter of this report has been divided into six sections: Innovations in Analysis and Characterization, Advanced Materials, Metallurgical Science and Technology, Surfaces and Interfaces, Energetic Materials and Chemical Synthesis, and Energy-Related Research and Development.
Date: December 31, 1989
Creator: Borg, R.J.; Sugihara, T.T.; Cherniak, J.C. & Corey, C.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[A clinical trial of neutron capture therapy for brain tumors]. Technical progress report 1989

Description: This report describes accomplishments by this laboratory concerning development of high-resolution alpha-autoradiography design of an optimized epithermal neutron beam dosimetry and treatment planning Using Monte Carlo techniques development of a prompt-gamma {sup 10}B analysis facility.
Date: December 31, 1989
Creator: Zamenhof, R. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Collaborative research on fluidization employing computer-aided particle tracking. Quarterly progress report No. 4, July 1, 1989--September 30, 1989

Description: This report covers the fourth quarter of the subject contract. The primary objective of the first year is construction of a portable computer-aided particle tracking apparatus to be used eventually at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Third quarter effort was devoted to software development and system interconnection. These efforts continue in this quarter with hardware interface has enabled us to verify that that detectors, scalers, and discriminators are all working properly. Software debugging is now proceeding. Progress has also been made in the fabrication of the tracer particle to match the bed particles to be used at METC.
Date: December 31, 1989
Creator: Chen, M. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Collaborative research on fluidization employing computer-aided particle tracking. Quarterly progress report No. 5, October 1, 1989--December 31, 1989

Description: The primary objective of this work was debugging and testing of the hardware and software of the transportable computer-aided particle tracking apparatus to be used at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Earlier effort was devoted to system interconnection and software development. While the hardware interconnections have been finished, the software development and debugging was completed in this quarter with successful initial testing. Two tracer particles were also made from 1/8th inch nylon particles, and they will be sent to METC soon.
Date: December 31, 1989
Creator: Chen, M. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department