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Rediscovery of the Elements: Sir Humphry Davy and the Alkalis

Description: Article provides information on the history of alkalis, particularly discoveries associated with potassium and sodium. The article also gives information on Humphry Davy, the first person to prepare alkalis in elemental form.
Date: Summer 2015
Creator: Marshall, James L., 1940- & Marshall, Virginia R.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Bad Pyrmont Spa

Description: Photo depicts the Bad Pyrmont Spa in western Germany which is known for its therapeutic baths and vapor cave. The paragraph on the bottom of page 70 gives details about the photo and the spa.
Date: Winter 2015
Creator: Marshall, James L., 1940- & Marshall, Virginia R.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

High-harmonic Fast Wave Heating and Current Drive Results for Deuterium H-mode Plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

Description: A critical research goal for the spherical torus (ST) program is to initiate, ramp-up, and sustain a discharge without using the central solenoid. Simulations of non-solenoidal plasma scenarios in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [1] predict that high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating and current drive (CD) [2] can play an important roll in enabling fully non-inductive (fNI {approx} 1) ST operation. The NSTX fNI {approx} 1 strategy requires 5-6 MW of HHFW power (PRF) to be coupled into a non-inductively generated discharge [3] with a plasma current, Ip {approx} 250-350 kA, driving the plasma into an HHFW H-mode with Ip {approx} 500 kA, a level where 90 keV deuterium neutral beam injection (NBI) can heat the plasma and provide additional CD. The initial approach on NSTX has been to heat Ip {approx} 300 kA, inductively heated, deuterium plasmas with CD phased HHFW power [2], in order to drive the plasma into an H-mode with fNI {approx} 1.
Date: July 25, 2012
Creator: Taylor, G.; Bonoli, P. T.; Harvey, R. W.; Hosea, J. C.; Jaeger, E. F.; LeBlanc, B. P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HHFW Heating and Current Drive Studies of NSTX H-Mode Plasmas

Description: 30 MHz high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating and current drive are being developed to assist fully non-inductive plasma current (I{sub p}) ramp-up in NSTX. The initial approach to achieving this goal has been to heat I{sub p} = 300 kA inductive plasmas with current drive antenna phasing in order to generate an HHFW H-mode with significant bootstrap and RF-driven current. Recent experiments, using only 1.4 MW of RF power (P{sub RF}), achieved a noninductive current fraction, f{sub NI} {approx} 0.65. Improved antenna conditioning resulted in the generation of I{sub p} = 650 kA HHFW H-mode plasmas, with f{sub NI} {approx} 0.35, when P{sub RF} {ge} 2.5 MW. These plasmas have little or no edge localized mode (ELM) activity during HHFW heating, a substantial increase in stored energy and a sustained central electron temperature of 5-6 keV. Another focus of NSTX HHFW research is to heat an H-mode generated by 90 keV neutral beam injection (NBI). Improved HHFW coupling to NBI-generated H-modes has resulted in a broad increase in electron temperature profile when HHFW heating is applied. Analysis of a closely matched pair of NBI and HHFW+NBI H-mode plasmas revealed that about half of the antenna power is deposited inside the last closed flux surface (LCFS). Of the power damped inside the LCFS about two-thirds is absorbed directly by electrons and one-third accelerates fast-ions that are mostly promptly lost from the plasma. At longer toroidal launch wavelengths, HHFW+NBI H-mode plasmas can have an RF power flow to the divertor outside the LCFS that significantly reduces RF power deposition to the core. ELMs can also reduce RF power deposition to the core and increase power deposition to the edge. Recent full wave modeling of NSTX HHFW+NBI H-mode plasmas, with the model extended to the vessel wall, predicts a coaxial standing mode between ...
Date: June 8, 2011
Creator: Taylor, G.; Bonoli, P. T.; Green, D. L.; Harvey, R. W.; Hosea, J. C.; Jaeger, E. F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lithium Wall Conditioning And Surface Dust Detection On NSTX

Description: Lithium evaporation onto NSTX plasma facing components (PFC) has resulted in improved energy confinement, and reductions in the number and amplitude of edge-localized modes (ELMs) up to the point of complete ELM suppression. The associated PFC surface chemistry has been investigated with a novel plasma material interface probe connected to an in-vacuo surface analysis station. Analysis has demonstrated that binding of D atoms to the polycrystalline graphite material of the PFCs is fundamentally changed by lithium - in particular deuterium atoms become weakly bonded near lithium atoms themselves bound to either oxygen or the carbon from the underlying material. Surface dust inside NSTX has been detected in real-time using a highly sensitive electrostatic dust detector. In a separate experiment, electrostatic removal of dust via three concentric spiral-shaped electrodes covered by a dielectric and driven by a high voltage 3-phase waveform was evaluated for potential application to fusion reactors
Date: May 23, 2011
Creator: Skinner, C. H.; Bell, M. G.; Friesen, F. Q. L.; Heim, B.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kugel, H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Comprehensive Analysis of Groundwater Quality in the Barnett Shale Region

Description: This article presents an analysis of 550 groundwater samples collected from private and public supply water wells drawing from aquifers overlying the Barnett shale formation of Texas.
Date: June 16, 2015
Creator: Hildenbrand, Zacariah Louis; Carlton Jr., Doug D.; Fontenot, Brian; Meik, Jesse M.; Walton, Jayme; Taylor, Josh et al.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Scientific and Computational Challenges of the Fusion Simulation Program (FSP)

Description: This paper highlights the scientific and computational challenges facing the Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) a major national initiative in the United States with the primary objective being to enable scientific discovery of important new plasma phenomena with associated understanding that emerges only upon integration. This requires developing a predictive integrated simulation capability for magnetically-confined fusion plasmas that are properly validated against experiments in regimes relevant for producing practical fusion energy. It is expected to provide a suite of advanced modeling tools for reliably predicting fusion device behavior with comprehensive and targeted science-based simulations of nonlinearly-coupled phenomena in the core plasma, edge plasma, and wall region on time and space scales required for fusion energy production. As such, it will strive to embody the most current theoretical and experimental understanding of magnetic fusion plasmas and to provide a living framework for the simulation of such plasmas as the associated physics understanding continues to advance over the next several decades. Substantive progress on answering the outstanding scientific questions in the field will drive the FSP toward its ultimate goal of developing the ability to predict the behavior of plasma discharges in toroidal magnetic fusion devices with high physics fidelity on all relevant time and space scales. From a computational perspective, this will demand computing resources in the petascale range and beyond together with the associated multi-core algorithmic formulation needed to address burning plasma issues relevant to ITER - a multibillion dollar collaborative experiment involving seven international partners representing over half the world's population. Even more powerful exascale platforms will be needed to meet the future challenges of designing a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO). Analogous to other major applied physics modeling projects (e.g., Climate Modeling), the FSP will need to develop software in close collaboration with computers scientists and applied mathematicians and validated ...
Date: February 9, 2011
Creator: Tang, William M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimization of the Configuration of Pixilated Detectors Based on the Shannon-Nyquist Theory for the X-Ray Spectroscopy of Hot Tokamak Plasmas

Description: This paper describes an optimization of the detector configuration, based on the Shannon-Nyquist theory, for two major x-ray diagnostic systems on tokamaks and stellarators: x-ray imaging crystal spectrometers and x-ray pinhole cameras. Typically, the spectral data recorded with pixilated detectors are oversampled, meaning that the same spectral information could be obtained using fewer pixels. Using experimental data from Alcator C-Mod, we quantify the degree of oversampling and propose alternate uses for the redundant pixels for additional diagnostic applications.
Date: June 13, 2012
Creator: Wang, E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aprico; Hill, K. W. & Pablant, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Green Prison: Santa Rita Jail Creeps Towards Zero Net Energy (ZNE)

Description: A large project is underway at Alameda County's twenty-year old 45 ha 4,000-inmate Santa Rita Jail, about 70 km east of San Francisco. Often described as a green prison, it has a considerable installed base of distributed energy resources including a seven-year old 1.2 MW PV array, a four-year old 1 MW fuel cell with heat recovery, and efficiency investments. A current US$14 M expansion will add approximately 2 MW of NaS batteries, and undetermined wind capacity and a concentrating solar thermal system. This ongoing effort by a progressive local government with considerable Federal and State support provides some excellent lessons for the struggle to lower building carbon footprint. The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) finds true optimal combinations of equipment and operating schedules for microgrids that minimize energy bills and/or carbon emissions without 2 of 12 significant searching or rules-of-thumb prioritization, such as"efficiency first then on-site generation." The results often recommend complex systems, and sensitivities show how policy changes will affect choices. This paper reports an analysis of the historic performance of the PV system and fuel cell, describes the complex optimization applied to the battery scheduling, and shows how results will affect the jail's operational costs, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. DER-CAM is used to assess the existing and proposed DER equipment in its ability to reduce tariff charges.
Date: March 18, 2011
Creator: Marnay, Chris; DeForest, Nicholas; Stadler, Michael; Donadee, Jon; Dierckxsens, Carlos; Mendes, Goncalo et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Green Prison: The Santa Rita Jail Campus Microgrid

Description: A large microgrid project is nearing completion at Alameda County’s twenty-two-year-old 45 ha 4,000-inmate Santa Rita Jail, about 70 km east of San Francisco. Often described as a green prison, it has a considerable installed base of distributed energy resources (DER) including an eight-year old 1.2 MW PV array, a five-year old 1 MW fuel cell with heat recovery, and considerable efficiency investments. A current US$14 M expansion adds a 2 MW-4 MWh Li-ion battery, a static disconnect switch, and various controls upgrades. During grid blackouts, or when conditions favor it, the Jail can now disconnect from the grid and operate as an island, using the on-site resources described together with its back-up diesel generators. In other words, the Santa Rita Jail is a true microgrid, or μgrid, because it fills both requirements, i.e. it is a locally controlled system, and it can operate both grid connected and islanded. The battery’s electronics includes Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology (CERTS) Microgrid technology. This enables the battery to maintain energy balance using droops without need for a fast control system.
Date: January 22, 2012
Creator: Marnay, Chris; DeForest, Nicholas & Lai, Judy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

Description: Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.
Date: May 14, 2010
Creator: Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve & Letschert, Virginie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A turbulent reacting shear layer in a premixed propane/air flow has been studied in a two dimensional combustor, with the flame stabilized behind a rearward facing streamlined step. Spark shadowgraphs show that in the range of velocities (7.5 to 22.5 m/sec corresponding to Reynolds numbers of .5 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup -1} to 1. 5 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup -1} ) and equivalence ratios (0.4 to 0.7) studied, the mixing layer is dominated by Brown~ Roshko type large coherent structures in both reacting and nonreacting flows. High speed schlieren movies show that these eddies are convected downstream and increase their size and spacing by combustion and coalescence with neighboring eddies. Tracing individual eddies shows, in the reacting shear layer, that, on the average, eddies accelerate as they move downstream with the highest acceleration close to the origin of the shear layer. Combustion is confined to these large structures which develop as a result of vortical action of the shear flow. On the average, the reacting eddies have a lower growth rate than nonreacting eddies. A turbulent boundary layer created by means of a tripping wire upstream of the edge of the step virtually eliminates the large coherent structures in the shear layer, while for the case in which the wire could not trigger the transition to turbulence, the large coherent structures dominated the reacting and nonreacting flows.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Ganji, A.R. & Sawyer, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative

Description: The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this paper we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33percent of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33percent RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65percent). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41percent). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Further, we find that even with total transmission expenditures of $17-34 billion these costs still represent just 10-19percent of the total delivered cost of renewable energy.
Date: June 10, 2010
Creator: Mills, Andrew D.; Phadke, Amol A. & Wiser, Ryan H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Facilitating Energy Savings through Enhanced Usability of Thermostats

Description: Residential thermostats play a key role in controlling heating and cooling systems. Occupants often find the controls of programmable thermostats confusing, sometimes leading to higher heating consumption than when the buildings are controlled manually. A high degree of usability is vital to a programmable thermostat's effectiveness because, unlike a more efficient heating system, occupants must engage in specific actions after installation to obtain energy savings. We developed a procedure for measuring the usability of thermostats and tested this methodology with 31 subjects on five thermostats. The procedure requires first identifying representative tasks associated with the device and then testing the subjects ability to accomplish those tasks. The procedure was able to demonstrate the subjects wide ability to accomplish tasks and the influence of a device's usability on success rates. A metric based on the time to accomplish the tasks and the fraction of subjects actually completing the tasks captured the key aspects of each thermostat's usability. The procedure was recently adopted by the Energy Star Program for its thermostat specification. The approach appears suitable for quantifying usability of controls in other products, such as heat pump water heaters and commercial lighting.
Date: May 23, 2011
Creator: Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel & Pritoni, Marco
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Factors Affecting Indoor Air Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds at a Site of Subsurface Gasoline Contamination

Description: We report a field study of soil gas transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into a slab-on-grade building found at a site contaminated with gasoline. Although the high VOC concentrations (30-60 g m{sup -3}) measured in the soil gas at depths of 0.7 m below the building suggest a potential for high levels of indoor VOC, the measured indoor air concentrations were lower than those in the soil gas by approximately six orders of magnitude ({approx} 0.03 mg m{sup -3}). This large ratio is explained by (1) the expected dilution of soil gas entering the building via ambient building ventilation (a factor of {approx}1000), and (2) an unexpectedly sharp gradient in soil gas VOC concentration between the depths of 0.1 and 0.7 m (a factor of {approx}1000). Measurements of the soil physical and biological characteristics indicate that a partial physical barrier to vertical transport in combination with microbial degradation provides a likely explanation for this gradient. These factors are likely to be important to varying degrees at other sites.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Fischer, M. L.; Bentley, A. J.; Dunkin, K. A.; Hodgson, A. T.; Nazaroff, W. W.; Sextro, R. G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Inorganic arsenic and organoarsenic compounds were speciated in seven oil shale retort and process waters, including samples from simulated, true and modified in situ processes, using a high performance liquid chromatograph automatically coupled to a graphite furnace atomic absorption detector. The molecular forms of arsenic at ppm levels (({micro}g/mL) in these waters are identified for the first time, and shown to include arsenate, methylarsonic acid and phenylarsonic acid. An arsenic-specific fingerprint chromatogram of each retort or process water studied has significant impliestions regarding those arsenical species found and those marginally detected, such as dimethylarsinic acid and the suspected carcinogen arsenite. The method demonstrated suggests future means for quantifying environmental impacts of bioactive organometal species involved in oil shale retorting technology.
Date: July 1, 1981
Creator: Fish, Richard H.; Brinckman, Frederick E. & Jewett, Kenneth L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Framework for the Evaluation of the Cost and Benefits of Microgrids

Description: A Microgrid is recognized as an innovative technology to help integrate renewables into distribution systems and to provide additional benefits to a variety of stakeholders, such as offsetting infrastructure investments and improving the reliability of the local system. However, these systems require additional investments for control infrastructure, and as such, additional costs and the anticipated benefits need to be quantified in order to determine whether the investment is economically feasible. This paper proposes a methodology for systematizing and representing benefits and their interrelationships based on the UML Use Case paradigm, which allows complex systems to be represented in a concise, elegant format. This methodology is demonstrated by determining the economic feasibility of a Microgrid and Distributed Generation installed on a typical Canadian rural distribution system model as a case study. The study attempts to minimize the cost of energy served to the community, considering the fixed costs associated with Microgrids and Distributed Generation, and suggests benefits to a variety of stakeholders.
Date: July 15, 2011
Creator: Morris, Greg Young; Abbey, Chad; Joos, Geza & Marnay, Chris
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Field effect transistors have been fabricated on high-purity germanium substrates using low-temperature technology. The aim of this work is to preserve the low density of trapping centers in high-quality starting material by low-temperature (< 350 C) processing. The use of germanium promises to eliminate some of the traps which cause generation-recombination noise in silicon field-effect transistors (FET's) at low temperatures. Typically, the transconductance (g{sub m}) in the germanium FET's is 10 mA/V and the gate leakage can be less than 10{sup -12} A. Our present devices exhibit a large 1/f noise component and most of this noise must be eliminated if they are to be competitive with silicon FET's commonly used in high-resolution nuclear spectrometers.
Date: November 1, 1978
Creator: Hansen, William L.; Goulding, Frederick S. & Haller, Eugene E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling

Description: Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and remains on the roadmap for the foreseeable future. This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders of magnitude larger than that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transition from air to liquid cooling is an inflection point providing an opportunity to work collectively to set guidelines for facilitating the energy efficiency of liquid-cooled High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities and systems. The vision is to use non-compressor-based cooling, to facilitate heat re-use, and thereby build solutions that are more energy-efficient, less carbon intensive and more cost effective than their air-cooled predecessors. The Energy Efficient HPC Working Group is developing guidelines for warmer liquid-cooling temperatures in order to standardize facility and HPC equipment, and provide more opportunity for reuse of waste heat. This report describes the development of those guidelines.
Date: August 26, 2011
Creator: Corporation, IBM; Group, Energy Efficient HPC Working; Corporation, Hewlett Packard; SGI; Inc., Cray; Corporation, Intel et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

How People Actually Use Thermostats

Description: Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.
Date: August 15, 2010
Creator: Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Low cost material is needed for grouting abandoned retorts. Experimental work has shown that a hydraulic cement can be produced from Lurgi spent shale by mixing it in a 1:1 weight ratio with limestone and heating one hour at 1000°C. With 5% added gypsum, strengths up to 25.8 MPa are obtained. This cement could make an economical addition up to about 10% to spent shale grout mixes, or be used in ordinary cement applications.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P. & Fox, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Future Roles of Milli-, Micro-, and Nano- Grids

Description: Although it has slowed considerably, consumption of electricity continues to grow in developed economies. Further, there are some unknowns which might accelerate this growth, such as electrification of vehicle fleets and geothermal heat pump space and water heating. Most analysts anticipate that distributed energy resources (DER) will provide a large share of the expanded generation capacity required to meet this seemingly inexorably increasing electricity demand. Further, given the urgency of tackling the climate change problem, most of the added assets must be carbonfree renewables or nuclear, end-use efficiency improvements, or highly efficient fossil-fired technologies. In developed economies worldwide, the current power delivery paradigm has been in place for more than a century, i.e. since the emergence of polyphase AC systems around the turn of the last century. A key feature of this structure is that, in principle, universal service is delivered at a consistent level of power quality and reliability (PQR) throughout large regions. This paper describes a future possible structure for the electricity generation and delivery system that leaves the existing high voltage meshed grid paradigm in place, but involves radical reorganization of parts of the distribution network and customer sites. Managing a much more diverse dispersed system poses major challenges to the current centralized grid paradigm, particularly since many of these assets are small to tiny by macrogrid standards and they may ultimately number in the millions. They are also not ones that centralized control can rely upon to function in traditionally dependable ways, e.g. renewable generation can be highly variable and changes in output of generators are not independent. Although most involved in the industry agree that a paradigm shift is both necessary and desirable to manage the new system, the nature of the future system remains quite unclear. In the possible structure described here, the traditional ...
Date: July 1, 2011
Creator: Marnay, Chris; Nordman, Bruce & Lai, Judy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas and Particulate Sampling of Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds

Description: The denuder surfaces of the gas and particle (GAP) sampler (developed at the Atmospheric Environment Service of Environment Canada) have been modified by coating with XAD-4 resin, using techniques developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for the lower capacity integrated organic vapor/particle sampler (IOVPS). The resulting high capacity integrated organic gas and particle sampler (IOGAPS) has been operated in ambient air at 16.7 L min{sup -1} for a 24-hour period in Berkeley, California, USA. Simultaneous measurements were made at the same collection rate with a conventional sampler that used a filter followed by two sorbent beds. Gas and particle partition measurements were determined for 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) ranging from 2-ring to 6-ring species. The IOGAPS indicated a higher particle fraction of these compounds than did the conventional sampler, suggesting that the conventional sampler suffered from 'blow-off' losses from the particles collected on the filter.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Lane, D.A. & Gundel, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Key Elements of and Materials Performance Targets for Highly Insulating Window Frames

Description: The thermal performance of windows is important for energy efficient buildings. Windows typically account for about 30-50 percent of the transmission losses though the building envelope, even if their area fraction of the envelope is far less. The reason for this can be found by comparing the thermal transmittance (U-factor) of windows to the U-factor of their opaque counterparts (wall, roof and floor constructions). In well insulated buildings the U-factor of walls, roofs an floors can be between 0.1-0.2 W/(m2K). The best windows have U-values of about 0.7-1.0. It is therefore obvious that the U-factor of windows needs to be reduced, even though looking at the whole energy balance for windows (i.e. solar gains minus transmission losses) makes the picture more complex.In high performance windows the frame design and material use is of utmost importance, as the frame performance is usually the limiting factor for reducing the total window U-factor further. This paper describes simulation studies analyzing the effects on frame and edge-of-glass U-factors of different surface emissivities as well as frame material and spacer conductivities. The goal of this work is to define materials research targets for window frame components that will result in better frame thermal performance than is exhibited by the best products available on the market today.
Date: March 28, 2011
Creator: Gustavsen, Arild; Grynning, Steinar; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter & Goudey, Howdy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department