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2-1/2-dimensional numerical solution for the electromagnetic scattering using a hybrid technique

Description: The use of the electromagnetic method for geothermal reservoir exploration and delineation was studied. A number of techniques were developed to provide high quality field data. The remaining problem of interpreting these data in regions of complex geologic structure was overcome by the development of a numerical solution based on the hybrid technique, making use of both the finite element and the integral equation techniques. The major improvement is in the computing speed. (ACR)
Date: March 1, 1983
Creator: Lee, K.H. & Morrison, H.F.

2.1 Pan-WCRP Monsoon Modelling Workshop Summary

Description: Ken Sperber led a discussion of the outcome of the Pan-WCRP Monsoon Modelling Workshop that was held at the University of California at Irvine from 15-17 June 2005. At the workshop presentations from key CLIVAR and GEWEX panels were presented to highlight the outstanding problems in modelling the Earth's monsoons. Additionally, presentations from invited experts were given to highlight important aspects of monsoon phenomena and processes, such as low-level jets, air-sea interaction, predictability, observational networks/studies, and model test beds etc. Since all persons attending the CLIVAR AAMP meeting were present for all, or most, of the monsoon workshop, a detailed description of the workshop presentations was not given. Rather, the discussion was focused on the recommendations of the workshop breakout groups and their relevance to CLIVAR AAMP. CLIVAR AAMP endorsed the near-term workshop recommendation of investigating the diurnal cycle using a hierarchy of models a key way forward for promoting CLIVAR/GEWEX interactions. In GCM studies CLIVAR researchers have identified the diurnal cycle as a forced ''mode'' of variability that is poorly represented in terms of amplitude and phase, especially in the case of precipitation. Typical phase errors of 6-12 hours are noted over both land and ocean in GCMs. CLIVAR views adequate simulation of the diurnal cycle as key aspect of variability in its own right, but also because of its potential rectification on to subseasonal variability (e.g., the Madden-Julian oscillation). It is hypothesized that improvement of diurnal variability may lead to an improved representation of intraseasonal variability and improved skill of monsoon forecasts on medium-range to seasonal time scales.
Date: June 28, 2005
Creator: Sperber, K R

(2,2-Bipyridyl)bis(eta5-1,2,3,4,5-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)Strontium(II)

Description: In the title compound, the Sr-N distances are 2.624 (3) and 2.676 (3) Angstroms. The Sr-centroid distances are 2.571 and 2.561 Angstroms. The N-C-C-N torsion angle in the bipyridine ligand is 2.2 (4){sup o}. Interestingly, the bipyridine ligand is tilted. The angle between the plane defined by Sr1, N1 and N2 and the plane defined by the 12 atoms of the bipyridine ligand is 10.7{sup o}.
Date: July 3, 2008
Creator: Kazhdan, Daniel; Kazhdan, Daniel; Hu, Yung-Jin; Kokai, Akos; Levi, Zerubba & Rozenel, Sergio

(02.2) Scoping experiments; (02.3) long-term corrosion testing and properties evaluation of candidate waste package basket material

Description: The work described in this activity plan addresses Information Need 2.7.3 of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Plan (l), which reads Determination that the design criteria in lOCFR60.130 through 60.133 and any appropriate additional design objectives pertaining to criticality control have been met. This work falls under section WBS 1.2.2.5 2 (Basket Materials) of WBS 1.2.2.5 (Waste Package Materials) in the Work Breakdown Structure of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project.
Date: December 20, 1996
Creator: VanKonynenburg, R. A.

The 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of cholera toxin B subunit pentamer: Choleragenoid

Description: Cholera toxin, a heterohexameric AB{sub 5} enterotoxin released by Vibrio cholera, induces a profuse secretory diarrhea in susceptible hosts. Choleragenoid, the B subunit pentamer of cholera toxin, directs the enzymatic A subunit to its target by binding to GM{sub 1} gangliosides exposed on the luminal surface of intestinal epithelial cells. We have solved the crystal structure of choleragenoid at 2.3 {Angstrom} resolution by combining single isomorphous replacement with non-crystallographic symmetry averaging. The structure of the B subunits, and their pentameric arrangement, closely resembles that reported for the intact holotoxin (choleragen), the heat-labile enterotoxin from E. coli, and for a choleragenoid-GM{sub 1} pentasaccharide complex. In the absence of the A subunit the central cavity of the B pentamer is a highly solvated channel. The binding of the A subunit or the receptor pentasaccharide to choleragenoid has only a modest effect on the local stereochemistry and does not perceptibly alter the subunit interface.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Zhang, Rong-Guang; Westbrook, M.L.; Maulik, P.R.; Reed, R.A.; Shipley, G.; Westbrook, E.M. et al.

2. 5 MeV neutron source for fission cross section measurement

Description: A 2.5 MeV neutron source has been established on the beamline of a 100 kV, 0.5 ma ion accelerator. The ion accelerator provides a 100 kV deuteron beam of about 200 ..mu..a into a 3 mm beam spot at the target position. The neutron source is produced by the D(d,n)/sup 3/He reaction with a yield of about 10/sup 7/ n/sec. The time-correlated associated particle method (TCAP) is utilized for the neutron fluence determination and for neutron background elimination. The /sup 3/He associated particles are detected at 90 degrees behind a thin aluminum foil and the corresponding neutrons are emitted at 73.5 degrees with an energy near 2.5 MeV. Also, the protons from the competing D(d,p)T reaction are monitored at 135 degrees for normalization and diagnostic purposes. A fission chamber containing six uranium tetrafluoride deposits has been designed for use in the /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section measurement at 2.5 MeV. The 5 cm diameter deposits range in thickness from 230--300 ..mu..g/cm/sup 2/ and are expected to have good uniformity. A description of the 2.5 MeV neutron source facility is presented along with details of the associated particle detection and neutron beam characteristics. Preparations for the fission cross section measurement are discussed. 6 refs., 4 figs.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Duvall,, K.C.; Wasson, O.A. & Ma, Honchang

2.5 MHz feedforward beam loading compensation in the Fermilab Main Injector

Description: There are five 2.5 MHz ferrite cavities (h = 28) in the Main Injector with an R/Q of 500 that are presently used for coalescing for the Tevatron. For use with the Fermilab Recycler, feedforward (FF) beam loading compensation (BLC) is required on these cavities because they will be required to operate at a net of 2 kV. Under current Recycler beam conditions, the beam-induced voltage is of this order. Recently a system using a digital bucket delay module operating at 53 MHz (h = 588) was used to produce a one-turn-delay feedforward signal. This signal was then combined with the low level RF signal to the 2.5 MHz cavities to cancel the beam induced voltage. During current operation they have shown consistently to operate with over a 20 dB reduction in beam loading.
Date: May 19, 2003
Creator: Dey, Joseph E.; Kourbanis, Ioanis & Steimel, James

2. 05 x 10/sup 9/ age of the Oklo uranium deposit

Description: U and Pb isotopic data on samples (10 to 100 gram) 2 to 10 m away from the borders of the Oklo reactor zones indicate a primary age of 2.05 x 10/sup 9/ years for the Oklo deposit and a secondary age of 0.375 x 10/sup 9/ years. All samples show effects of Pb loss; the average loss is 50 percent. Both the U--Pb and Pb isotopic data are consistent with a model of a primary 2.05 x 10/sup 9/ year age of the deposit, continuous volume diffusion of Pb from uraninite, and either continuous or recent loss of this Pb. In this case the 0.375 x 10/sup 9/ year age is an artifact without time significance. Using an average value of D/a/sup 2/ 3.5 x 10/sup -11/ a/sup -1/ (Cowan, this conference) this model explains the apparent 1.8 x 10/sup 9/ year Pb age observed by other workers. From the /sup 208/Pb//sup 206/Pb data the average U/Th value calculated for the Oklo deposit is approximately 100.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Gancarz, A. J.

2. 6/sup 0/K refrigeration system for CBA magnet testing

Description: The superconducting magnets for the accelerator's rings will be cooled by a forced flow supercritical helium system from a central refrigeration plant. The design temperature for these magnets varies from 2.6 to 3.8/sup 0/K depending on a magnet's location in the ring. This paper describes the forced flow cooling system for testing a prototype magnet near 2.6/sup 0/K; this lowest temperature being of special interest to evaluate magnet quench protection. The test forced flow cooling system uses a three-stage approach, including an ejector pumped bath, similar to a cycle described previously. The coolant exists at 3.8/sup 0/K from these first stages and is then cooled further in a 64 cm diameter by 3 m high shielded liquid helium dewar. The supercritical helium gas passes through a submerged copper coil in this bath which is pumped to a pressure of 65 mm absolute by a screw compressor system. Temperatures are measured by thermistors located in the gas stream, and also embedded in the magnet coil.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Bamberger, J.A.

A 2.14 ms candidate optical pulsar in SN1987A: Ten years after

Description: We have monitored Supernova 1987A in optical/near-infrared bands from a few weeks following its birth until the present time in order to search for a pulsar remnant. We have found an apparent pattern of emission near the frequency of 467.5 Hz - a 2.14 ms pulsar candidate, first detected in data taken on the remnant at the Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) 2.5-m Dupont telescope during 14-16 Feb. 1992 UT. We detected further signals near the 2.14 ms period on numerous occasions over the next four years in data taken with a variety of telescopes, data systems and detectors, at a number of ground- and space-based observatories. The sequence of detections of this signal from Feb. `92 through August `93, prior to its apparent subsequent fading, is highly improbable (< 10{sup -10} for any noise source). We also find evidence for modulation of the 2.14 ms period with a {approx}1,000 s period which, when taken with the high spindown of the source (2-3 x 10{sup -10} Hz/s), is consistent with precession and spindown via gravitational radiation of a neutron star with a non- axisymmetric oblateness of {approx}10{sup -6}, and an implied gravitational luminosity exceeding that of the Crab Nebula pulsar by an order of magnitude.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Middleditch, J.; Kristian, J.A.; Kunkel, W.E.; Hill, K.M. & Watson, R.D.

2-D ACAR measurements of Ni/sub 3/A1

Description: In connection with a detailed study of the electronic structure and stability of the aluminides (Ni,Fe)/sub 3/Al, 2-D ACAR positron annihilation measurements were made on a Ni/sub 3/Al single crystal to study the Fermi surface. The results for Ni/sub 3/Al have been compared with results for pure Ni. Strong similarities were found for the electronic structures of these materials. Theoretical calculations of the Fermi surface for Ni/sub 3/Al are in good agreement with the experimental results. The GAMMA/sub 16/ sheet, not previously observed in any experiment, has now been observed for the first time in Ni/sub 3/Al. 14 refs., 10 figs.
Date: July 1987
Creator: Smedskjaer, L. C.; DasGupta, A.; Legnini, D. G. & Stahulak, M. D.

2-D and 3-D computations of curved accelerator magnets

Description: In order to save computer memory, a long accelerator magnet may be computed by treating the long central region and the end regions separately. The dipole magnets for the injector synchrotron of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), employ magnet iron consisting of parallel laminations, stacked with a uniform radius of curvature of 33.379 m. Laplace's equation for the magnetic scalar potential has a different form for a straight magnet (x-y coordinates), a magnet with surfaces curved about a common center (r-{theta} coordinates), and a magnet with parallel laminations like the APS injector dipole. Yet pseudo 2-D computations for the three geometries give basically identical results, even for a much more strongly curved magnet. Hence 2-D (x-y) computations of the central region and 3-D computations of the end regions can be combined to determine the overall magnetic behavior of the magnets. 1 ref., 6 figs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Turner, L.R.

2-D and 3-D Elastic Modeling with Shared Seismic Models

Description: Several elastic models, both 2-D and 3-D, are being built for use in calculating synthetic elastic seismic data. The models will be made available to the research community, along with the synthetic data that are being calculated from them. These shared models have been proposed or contributed by participants in a collaborative industry, national laboratory, and university research project. The purpose of the modeling is to provide synthetic data to better understand elastic wave propagation and the effects of structural and stratigraphic complexities. The 2-D models are easier to design and change and synthetic calculations can be run relatively quickly in them. It will be possible to alter their layer properties and calculate time-lapse data sets from them. Field data will be available to accompany many of the 2-D models. 3-D models are more realistic, but more difficult to design and change. They also require considerably more computing resources to calculate synthetic data from them. A new 3-D model is being designed, and will be used for computing synthetic elastic data.
Date: April 30, 2002
Creator: House, L.; Marfurt, K. J.; Larsen, S. & Martin, G. S.

2-D axisymmetric line transport

Description: The methods used in the ALTAIR code for computing the transfer of spectral line radiation in two-dimensional axially-symmetric geometry are described. ALTAIR uses a variable-Eddington-tensor approach, in which the transfer equation of non-coherent line scattering is written in moment form, and the moments are closed with an assumed tensor relating the monochromatic pressure tensor and energy density; this Eddington tensor is obtained self-consistently using an accurate angle-dependent solution of the transfer equation. The finite element method for solving the moment system, and the discontinuous finite element method for solving the S{sub n} equation of transfer are described. Two applications of the method are discussed: line formation in uniform cylinders with different length-diameter ratios, and monochromatic transfer on an irregular x-y mesh (the Mordant test problem). 13 refs., 2 figs.
Date: November 20, 1990
Creator: Castor, J.I.; Dykema, P.G. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)) & Klein, R.I. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Astronomy)

2-D electric fields and drifts near the magnetic separatrix in divertor tokamaks

Description: A 2-D calculation is presented for the transport of plasma in the edge region of a divertor tokamak solving continuity, momentum, and energy balance fluid equations. The model uses anomalous radial diffusion, including perpendicular ion momentum, and classical cross-field drifts transport. Parallel and perpendicular currents yield a self-consistent electrostatic potential on both sides of the magnetic separatrix. Outside the separatrix, the simulation extends to material divertor plates where the incident plasma is recycled as neutral gas and where the plate sheath and parallel currents dominate the potential structure. Inside the separatrix, various radial current terms - from viscosity, charge-exchange and poloidal damping, inertia, and {triangledown}B - contribute to the determining the potential. The model rigorously enforces cancellation of gyro-viscous and magnetization terms from the transport equations. The results emphasize the importance of E x B particle flow under the X-point which depends on the sign of the toroidal magnetic field. Radial electric field (E{sub y}) profiles at the outer midplane are small with weak shear when high L-mode diffusion coefficients are used and are large with strong shear when smaller H-mode diffusion coefficients are used. The magnitude and shear of the electric field (E{sub y}) is larger both when the core toroidal rotation is co-moving with the inductive plasma current and when the ion {triangledown}B-drift is towards the single-null X-point.
Date: November 15, 1998
Creator: Mattor, N.; Porter, G. D.; Rognlien, T. D. & Ryutov, D. D.

2-D emittance equation with acceleration and compression

Description: Since both acceleration and compression are required for an Inertial Fusion Driver, the understanding of their effect on the beam quality, emittance, is important. This report attempts to generalize the usual emittance formula for the drifting beam to include these effects. The derivation of the 2-D emittance equation is carried out and a comparison with the particle code results is given. The 2-D emittance at a given axial location is reasonable to consider for a long beam, particularly with velocity tilt; transverse emittance averaged over the entire bunch is not a useful quantity. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Date: October 1, 1988
Creator: Hahn, K.D. & Smith, L.

2-D Eulerian hydrodynamics with fluid interfaces, self-gravity and rotation

Description: The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail the numerical approach we have developed over the past five years for solving 2-dimensional gas-dynamical problems in astrophysics involving inviscid compressible flow, self-gravitation, rotation, and fluid instabilities of the Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz types. The computer code to be described has been applied most recently to modeling jets in radio galaxies (Norman et al. 1981, 1982) and is an outgrowth of a code developed for studying rotating protostellar collapse (Norman, Wilson and Barton 1980; Norman 1980). This basic methodology draws heavily on the techniques and experience of James R. Wilson and James M. LeBlanc of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and thus the code is designed to be a general purpose 2-D Eulerian hydrocode, and is characterized by a high degree of simplicity, robustness, modularity and speed. Particular emphases of this article are: (1) the recent improvements to the code's accuracy through the use of vanLeer's (1977) monotonic advection algorithm, (2) a discussion of the importance of what we term consistent advection, and (3) a description of a numerical techique for modeling dynamic fluid interfaces in multidimensional Eulerian calculations developed by LeBlanc. 23 refs., 14 figs.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Norman, M.L. & Winkler, K.H.A.

2-D Finite Element Cable and Box IEMP Analysis

Description: A 2-D finite element code has been developed for the solution of arbitrary geometry cable SGEMP and box IEMP problems. The quasi- static electric field equations with radiation- induced charge deposition and radiation-induced conductivity y are numerically solved on a triangular mesh. Multiple regions of different dielectric materials and multiple conductors are permitted.
Date: December 17, 1998
Creator: Scivner, G.J. & Turner, C.D.

2-D image segmentation using minimum spanning trees

Description: This paper presents a new algorithm for partitioning a gray-level image into connected homogeneous regions. The novelty of this algorithm lies in the fact that by constructing a minimum spanning tree representation of a gray-level image, it reduces a region partitioning problem to a minimum spanning tree partitioning problem, and hence reduces the computational complexity of the region partitioning problem. The tree-partitioning algorithm, in essence, partitions a minimum spanning tree into subtrees, representing different homogeneous regions, by minimizing the sum of variations of gray levels over all subtrees under the constraints that each subtree should have at least a specified number of nodes, and two adjacent subtrees should have significantly different average gray-levels. Two (faster) heuristic implementations are also given for large-scale region partitioning problems. Test results have shown that the segmentation results are satisfactory and insensitive to noise.
Date: September 1995
Creator: Xu, Y. & Uberbacher, E. C.

A 2-D imaging heat-flux gauge

Description: This report describes a new leadless two-dimensional imaging optical heat-flux gauge. The gauge is made by depositing arrays of thermorgraphic-phosphor (TP) spots onto the faces of a polymethylpentene is insulator. In the first section of the report, we describe several gauge configurations and their prototype realizations. A satisfactory configuration is an array of right triangles on each face that overlay to form squares when the gauge is viewed normal to the surface. The next section of the report treats the thermal conductivity of TPs. We set up an experiment using a comparative longitudinal heat-flow apparatus to measure the previously unknown thermal conductivity of these materials. The thermal conductivity of one TP, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu, is 0.0137 W/cm{center dot}K over the temperature range from about 300 to 360 K. The theories underlying the time response of TP gauges and the imaging characteristics are discussed in the next section. Then we discuss several laboratory experiments to (1) demonstrate that the TP heat-flux gauge can be used in imaging applications; (2) obtain a quantum yield that enumerates what typical optical output signal amplitudes can be obtained from TP heat-flux gauges; and (3) determine whether LANL-designed intensified video cameras have sufficient sensitivity to acquire images from the heat-flux gauges. We obtained positive results from all the measurements. Throughout the text, we note limitations, areas where improvements are needed, and where further research is necessary. 12 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: July 1, 1991
Creator: Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Beshears, D.L.; Sartory, W.K.; Tobin, K.W.; Williams, R.K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)) et al.

2-D Imaging of Electron Temperature in Tokamak Plasmas

Description: By taking advantage of recent developments in millimeter wave imaging technology, an Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) instrument, capable of simultaneously measuring 128 channels of localized electron temperature over a 2-D map in the poloidal plane, has been developed for the TEXTOR tokamak. Data from the new instrument, detailing the MHD activity associated with a sawtooth crash, is presented.
Date: July 8, 2004
Creator: Munsat, T.; Mazzucato, E.; Park, H.; Domier, C. W.; Johnson, M.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr. et al.