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Spin and Recovery Characteristics of the Curtiss-Wright XP-87 Airplane

Description: The spin and recovery characteristics of the Curtiss-Wright XP-87 airplane, as well as the spin-recovery parachute requirements, the control forces that would be encountered in the spin, and the best method for the crew to attempt an emergency escape, are presented in this report. The characteristics were estimated rather than determined by model tests because the XP-87 dimensional and mass characteristics were considered to be noncritical and because data were available from model tests of several similar airplanes. The study indicated that the recovery characteristics of the airplane will be satisfactory for all loadings if the controls are reversed fully and rapidly. The control forces, however, will probably be beyond the capabilities of the pilot unless some additional balance or a booster is used. A 6-foot tail parachute or a 3.5-foot wing-tip parachute with a drag coefficient of 0.7 will be a satisfactory, emergency spin-recovery device for spin demonstrations. If it is necessary for the crew to abandon the spinning airplane, they should leave from the outboard side of the cockpit.
Date: May 26, 1947
Creator: Berman, Theodore

Spin and Recovery Characteristics of the Northrop XF-89 Airplane

Description: The spin and recovery characteristics of the Northrop XF-89 airplane, as well as the spin-recovery parachute requirements, the control forces that would be encountered in the spin, and the best method for the crew to attempt an emergency escape are presented in this report. The characteristics were mainly estimated rather than determined by model tests because the XF-89 dimensional and mass characteristics were such as to make this airplane similar to several others, models of which have previously been tested. Brief tests were made on an available model of similar design to augment the estimation. The results indicate that the recovery characteristics will be satisfactory for all airplane loadings if recovery is attempted by use of rudder followed by moving the elevator down. The rudder pedal forces will be within the capabilities of the pilot but the elevator stick forces will be beyond the pilot's capabilities unless a trim tab, or a booster is used. A 9.5-foot-diameter flat-type tail parachute or a 5.0-foot-diameter flat-type wing-tip parachute with a drag coefficient of 0.7 will be a satisfactory emergency spin-recovery device for spin demonstrations and if it is necessary for the crew to abandon the spinning airplane, they should leave from the outboard side of the cockpit.
Date: February 28, 1949
Creator: Berman, Theodore

Spin Investigation of a 1/29-Scale Model of the Republic XF-91 Airplane with a Conventional Tail Installed

Description: An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel of a 1/29-scale model of the Republic XF-91 airplane with a.conventional-tail arrangement installed. Previously, tests were made on the model with a vee tail installed. The erect spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined for the normal loading with the wing installed at various amounts of incidence. The spin investigation also included inverted-spin tests, spin-recovery-parachute tests, tests with the center of gravity moved rearward, and tests with external fuel tanks added to the model. In addition, several tail.modifications were tested,on the model in an attempt, to improve the model's spin-recovery characteristics. The results indicate that any fully developed spin obtained on the airplane with the conventional tail installed will be satisfactorily terminated if rudder reversal is accompanied by moving the ailerons with the spin (stick right in a right spin).Decreasing the wing incidence from 6deg to -2deg should have a beneficial effect on the recovery characteristics of the airplane. Recovery characteristics by normal use of controls (full rudder reversal followed by moving the elevators down) will be satisfactory if the wing incidence,of the airplane is -2deg. Installation of external fuel tanks (with or without fuel) will have a somewhat adverse effect on the recovery characteristics of the airplane, but if the recovery technique includes movement of the ailerons to full with the spin, the spin rotation will be terminated rapidly. Varying the position of the center of gravity within the limits indicated to be possible on the airplane should not affect the recovery characteristics.
Date: May 5, 1949
Creator: Klinar, Walter J. & Jones, Ira P., Jr.

Spin Tests of 1/20-Scale Models of the Chance Vought Revised XF6U-1 and F6U-1 Airplanes, TED No. NACA 2390

Description: An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel on the 1/20-scale model of the Chance Vought XF6U-1 airplane altered to represent the XF6U-1 airplane as it will be spin-tested in flight, and also altered to represent the F6U-1 airplane as it will be produced for service use. Spin tests were made to determine the effects of control settings and movements at the normal loading. The results show that the spins obtained on the revised XF6U-1 airplane will be oscillatory in roll and yaw and that recoveries by rudder reversal will be rapid. Model test results indicate that the F6U-1 airplane will probably not spin. Inasmuch as the results of this investigation show that the new designs are as good as or better than the original XF6U-1 design in regard to spin recovery, it is felt that the conclusions and recommendations reached for the original design can be applied to the new designs for all loading conditions.
Date: June 28, 1948
Creator: Klinar, Walter J. & Berman, Theodore

Spin tests of a 0.059-scale model of the Curtiss-Wright XP-55 airplane

Description: Report discussing spin tests performed on a scale model of the Curtiss-Wright XP-55 airplane. A large elevator with increased deflections and large wing tips with extensions were installed to improve the longitudinal-trim characteristics. Information about the spins, attitude after rotation, and recommended technique for spin recovery is provided.
Date: August 1945
Creator: MacDougall, George F. & Schneiter, Leslie E.

Spin tests of a low-lying monoplane in flight and in the free-spinning wind tunnel

Description: Comparative full-scale and model spin tests were made with a low-lying monoplane in order to extend the available information as to the utility of the free-spinning wind tunnel as an aid in predicting full-scale spin characteristics. For a given control disposition the model indicated steeper spins than were actually obtained with the airplane, the difference being most pronounced for spins with elevators up. Recovery characteristics for the model, on the whole, agreed with those for the airplane, but a disagreement was noted for the case of recovery with elevators held full up. Free-spinning wind-tunnel tests are a useful aid in estimating spin characteristics of airplanes, but it must be appreciated that model results can give only general indications of full-scale behavior.
Date: July 1, 1940
Creator: Seidman, Oscar & Mcavoy, William H

Spinning of large airplanes

Description: Report discusses the problem of large airplanes spinning and the fact that they should not be intentionally spun because they are not designed for the loads and speeds that may be encountered in spin and recovery. Stall and spin characteristics for large airplanes are described. Recommended piloting procedures in case of a large airplane spinning event are also provided.
Date: October 1944
Creator: Seidman, Oscar

Spirit Leveling in South Carolina: Part 2. Southern South Carolina, 1896-1938

Description: From introduction: This bulletin, which is published in two parts, contains the complete results of all spirit leveling done in South Carolina by the Geological Survey of the United States Department of the Interior, including those heretofore published.' The 34th parallel of latitude, passing through Columbia, serves to divide the State into two sections, each of which is represented by one of the parts of the bulletin. Part 1 deals with the section lying north of the 34th parallel, designated as northern South Carolina, and part 2 deals with the section lying south of that parallel, designated as southern South Carolina. In each part descriptions of the points for which figures of elevation have been determined are listed according to the quadrangles in which the points occur, and the quadrangles are arranged in alphabetic order.
Date: 1940
Creator: Staack, J. G.

Sponge Chromium

Description: From Introduction: "There follows discussion of the reduction processes suitable for preparing sponge chromium from the chlorides, and finally the question of special methods required to insure the production of a high-purity product is investigated. This order is a natural and chronological one as well as being suited to the needs of presenting an analytic picture of the experimental work and its results and proposals engendered."
Date: 1942
Creator: Maier, C. G.

Spray characteristics and take-off and landing stability of several modifications of a 1/8-size model of the PBN-1 flying boat: NACA model 192

Description: Report discussing tests on the PBN-1 airplane to determine the effects of modifications on spray characteristics and take-off and landing stability. Spray strips were found to reduce the spray over the bow at low speeds. The effects of changing the main step location and altering the elevator position are described.
Date: April 1945
Creator: Woodward, David R. & Zeck, Howard

Spray characteristics of a powered dynamic model of a flying boat having a hull with a length-beam ratio of 9.0

Description: Report discusses an investigation into the spray characteristics of a twin-engine flying boat model similar to the Boeing XPBB-1 but with a modified length-beam ratio of the hull. The spray characteristics of the modified model compared favorably with the standard XPBB-1 flying boat and no adverse effects on spray characteristics were introduced by modifying the length-beam ratio and hull.
Date: January 1946
Creator: Olson, Roland E. & Bell, Joe W.

Spray characteristics of four flying-boat hulls as affected by length-beam ratio

Description: Report presenting an investigation of the spray characteristics in smooth water of four related models with varying length-beam ratios and constant values of length squared-beam product in Langley tank no. 1. Similar propeller and flap spray characteristics were found over the range of ratios, but higher length-beam ratios may require greater clearance between elevators and water.
Date: October 1948
Creator: Hodges, William W. & Woodward, David R.

Springs with stings ... : you can speed victory by salvaging and selling old metal. The steel industry needs scrap!

Description: A black & white drawing on the top half of the poster shows a metal spring figure pinching a cartoon Hitler's nose. Hitler's bare arms and legs form a swastika, and he holds a knife. The lower portion of the poster is text, with a small picture displaying various steel products. Under drawing is text and picture saying what steel is used for. The company's name, address, and logo appear at the bottom. Red text at the bottom explains the purpose of the advertisement and where it appears: Time and Business Week.
Date: 1942
Creator: Artzybasheff, Boris, 1899-1965.