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The decays K{sub L} {r_arrow} l{sup +}l{sup {minus}}l{prime}{sup +}l{prime}{sup {minus}} revisited

Description: The double lepton pair decay modes of the K{sub L} meson are analyzed including all contributions of order p{sup 6} in Chiral Perturbation Theory. The experimentally established e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} mode and the recently observed e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}mu{sup +}mu{sup {minus}} mode are discussed in detail.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Zhang, Longzhe & Goity, J. L.
Item Type: Article

Decays of B_s Mesons and b Baryons: A Review of Recent First Observations and Branching Fractions

Description: Recent rate measurements of B{sub s}{sup 0} mesons and {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} baryons produced in {radical}s = 1.96 TeV proton-antiproton and {Upsilon}(5S) electron-positron collisions are reviewed, including the first observations of six new decay modes: B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +} K{sup -} (CDF), B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -} D{sub s}{sup +} (CDF), B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s1}{sup -}(2536){mu}{sup +} {nu}{sub {mu}} X (DZero), B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}{gamma} (Belle)< {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} p{pi}{sup -} (CDF), and {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} pK{sup -} (CDF). Also examined are branching-fraction measurements or limits for the B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)} D{sub s}{sup (*)} modes (Belle, CDF, and DZero), the B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} radiative penguin decay (Belle), and three two-body charmless B{sub s}{sup 0} meson decay channels (CDF). Implications for the phenomenology of electroweak and QCD physics, as well as searches for physics beyond the Standard Model, are identified where applicable.
Date: June 1, 2008
Creator: Warburton, Andreas
Item Type: Article

Decays of neutral pseudoscalar mesons into lepton pairs

Description: The authors calculate the branching ratio {Lambda}(P {yields} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -})/{Lambda}(P {yields} {gamma}{gamma}) to lowest contributing order in quantum electrodynamics, with a vector meson model for the pseudoscalar meson form factor. They treat the processes {eta} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}; {eta} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}; K{sub 2}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}; K{sub 2}{sup 0} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}; {pi}{sup 0} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}. Results are compared with those of previous calculations.
Date: September 24, 1968
Creator: Quigg, C. & Jackson, J.D.
Item Type: Report

DECAYS OF THE Tz = -2 NUCLEI 20Mg, 24Si AND 36Ca

Description: Beta-delayed protons have been observed from the decays of the mass separated T{sub z} = -2 nuclides {sup 20}Mg, {sup 24}Si, and {sup 36}Ca. From these proton spectra the mass excesses of the lowest T = 2 states in the T{sub z} = -1 nuclei {sup 20}Na, {sup 24}Al, and {sup 36}K are determined to be 13420 {+-} 50 keV ({sup 20}Na), 5903 {+-} 9 keV ({sup 24}Al), and - 13168 {+-} 22 keV ({sup 36}K). The complete A = 20, 24, and 36 isospin quintets have all their members bound against isospin allowed particle-decay modes, providing a stringent test of the isobaric multiplet mass equation. Good agreement is observed for all these quintets using only the quadratic form of this equation. Radioactivity {sup 20}Mg, {sup 24}Si, {sup 36}Ca (mass separated); measured {beta}-delayed protons; deduced T{sub 1/2} and proton branching; derived mass excesses of the lowest 0{sup +}, T = 2 states in {sup 20}Na, {sup 24}Al, and {sup 36}K; deduced coefficients of the isobaric multiplet mass equation.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Aysto, J.; Cable, M.D.; Parry, R.F.; Wouters, J.M.; Moltz, D.M. & Cerny, J.
Item Type: Article

December 11, 1996 The Honorable George W. Bush Governor of Texas Governor's Office State Capitol, Room E1.304 Austin, Texas 78701 Dear Governor Bush: The Texas Health Reinsurance System (System), effective September 1, 1995, is operating according to statute (V.T.C.S. Insurance Code, Article 26) and its Plan of Operation. It is governed by a Board of Directors (Board), whose nine members are appointed by the Commissioner of Insurance. In addition, the Board and the Department of Insurance (Department) have the necessary controls to ensure efficient and effective management of the System. No public funds are at risk in the System because it is financed by reinsurance premiums and carrier assessments, and the assessments do not qualify as offsets to premium taxes. As of September l, 1996, the System had 44 small-employer insurance carriers, with 18 group and 52 individual health plans reinsured (a total of 168 individuals). Our recommendations concerning the System are as follows: System Board of Directors Amend the Plan of Operation to include System requirements for reinsured carriers to provide their own audits. This Plan of Operation provision will serve as notice and explanation to reinsured carriers. The Board may also wish to consider tracking loss ratios for the reinsured carriers to help evaluate System performance. Department of Insurance Consider asking the Legislature to change the two-year, non-staggered terms for the Board of Directors to two- or three-year staggered terms. Under current statute, unless a Board member agrees to serve another term, a new Board is created every two years. Consider appointing a small carrier to the Board of Directors when a private-industry vacancy occurs. The five private-industry members currently serving the Board are from medium and large companies, but more small companies participate in the System.

Description: No Description Available.
Date: December 11, 1996
Item Type: Report

Decennial Census: Additional Actions Could Improve the Census Bureau's Ability to Control Costs for the 2020 Census

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The average cost to count each housing unit rose from $70 in 2000 to $97 in 2010 (in constant 2010 dollars). While the U.S. Census Bureau (Bureau) made changes to its budget structure from 2000 to 2010, they did not document the changes that would facilitate comparisons over time and cannot identify specific drivers of this cost growth. According to GAO’s Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide, an agency can strengthen its ability to control costs by using available cost data to make comparisons over time and identify and quantify trends. The Bureau faces the fundamental challenge of striking a balance between how best to control costs without compromising accuracy. However, the Bureau’s inability to identify specific actionable factors affecting past growth will make it difficult for the Bureau to focus its efforts to control costs for the 2020 Census."
Date: January 24, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Item Type: Report

Decennial Census: Answers to Hearing Questions on Census Address List

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the Local Update of Census Addresses (LUCA) program's impact on the census address list, focusing on: (1) the importance of local government participation in updating the census address list; (2) the options available to local governments if the Bureau of the Census does not include their address change recommendations in the address list; (3) the percentage of total addresses that were eligible to participate in LUCA 1998; (4) the accuracy of the Master Address File (MAF); and (5) whether local governments declined to participate in LUCA 1998 because of their frustrations with the inaccurate and incomplete information that the Bureau sent for their review."
Date: October 29, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Item Type: Text

Decennial Census: Census Bureau and Postal Service Should Pursue Opportunities to Further Enhance Collaboration

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Census Bureau (Bureau) and U.S. Postal Service (USPS) collaborated on aspects of the 2010 Census and prior decennials, and those efforts generally went well in such areas as address list development. But both agencies face challenges: the Bureau needs to control the escalating cost of the decennial census and maintain its accuracy, while USPS must improve its financial condition. As requested, GAO examined opportunities to enhance collaboration in such areas as technology, personnel, and facilities that could improve the cost-effectiveness of the 2020 Census and generate revenue for USPS. GAO analyzed Bureau and USPS data and documents, compared the agencies' existing collaborative efforts with prior GAO work, and interviewed agency officials."
Date: September 30, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Item Type: Report

Decennial Census: Information on the Accuracy of Address Coverage

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the: (1) extent to which the accuracy of the 1990 census address counts varied by geographic area; and (2) difficulties that the Bureau of the Census faces in building a quality address list."
Date: November 19, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Item Type: Text

Decennial Census: Lessons Learned for Locating and Counting Migrant and Seasonal Farm Workers

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "One of the U.S. Census Bureau's (Bureau) long-standing challenges has been counting migrant farm workers. Although the Bureau goes to great lengths to locate these individuals, its efforts are often hampered by the unconventional and hidden housing arrangements, distrust of outsiders, and language and literacy issues often associated with this population group. To help inform the planning for the 2010 Census, we were asked to review the adequacy of the Bureau's procedures for locating migrant farm workers and their dwellings during the 2000 Census, and the steps, if any, that the Bureau can take to improve those procedures."
Date: July 3, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Item Type: Report

Decennial Census: Methods for Collecting and Reporting Data on the Homeless and Others without Conventional Housing Need Refinement

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Bureau of the Census partnered with local governments, advocacy groups, and other organizations to help it enumerate people without conventional housing. Counting this population--which includes shelter residents and the homeless--has been a longstanding challenge for the Bureau. A number of organizations put substantial resources into an operation the Bureau called Service-Based Enumeration. In return, some expected the Bureau to provide data that would help them plan and deliver employment, health, and other services. However, the Bureau did not release the data as planned, which raised questions about the Bureau's decision-making on data quality issues. In response to a congressional request, GAO examined the Bureau's decision-making process behind its change in plans."
Date: January 17, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Item Type: Report

Decennial Census: Methods for Collecting and Reporting Hispanic Subgroup Data Need Refinement

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "To help boost response rates of both the general and Hispanic populations, the U.S. Census Bureau (Bureau) redesigned the 2000 questionnaire, in part by deleting a list of examples of Hispanic subgroups from the question on Hispanic origin. While more Hispanics were counted in 2000 compared to 1990, the counts for Dominicans and other Hispanic subgroups were lower than expected. Concerned that this was caused by the deletion of Hispanic subgroup examples, congressional requesters asked us to investigate the research and management activities behind the changes."
Date: January 17, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Item Type: Report

Decennial Censuses: Historical Data on Enumerator Productivity Are Limited

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "GAO reviewed census data to better clarify the relationship between the Census Bureau's data collection workload and the time and work force needed to complete it. These factors--used to calculate productivity--are some of the largest drivers of census costs, and the Bureau developed its budget for the 2000 Census using a model that contained key assumptions about expected workload and enumerator productivity. GAO was unable to calculate productivity levels for the 2000 census or most of the earlier censuses examined because data was largely unavailable, incomplete, or not comparable. Moreover, definitional differences in how the Bureau counted the number of enumerators who worked on the census, and variations in census-taking methodologies, limited the comparability of productivity data from one census to the next."
Date: January 5, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Item Type: Text

Decentralized fuzzy control of multiple nonholonomic vehicles

Description: This work considers the problem of controlling multiple nonholonomic vehicles so that they converge to a scent source without colliding with each other. Since the control is to be implemented on simple 8-bit microcontrollers, fuzzy control rules are used to simplify a linear quadratic regulator control design. The inputs to the fuzzy controllers for each vehicle are the (noisy) direction to the source, the distance to the closest neighbor vehicle, and the direction to the closest vehicle. These directions are discretized into four values: Forward, Behind, Left, and Right, and the distance into three values: Near, Far, Gone. The values of the control at these discrete values are obtained based on the collision-avoidance repulsive forces and the change of variables that reduces the motion control problem of each nonholonomic vehicle to a nonsingular one with two degrees of freedom, instead of three. A fuzzy inference system is used to obtain control values for inputs between the small number of discrete input values. Simulation results are provided which demonstrate that the fuzzy control law performs well compared to the exact controller. In fact, the fuzzy controller demonstrates improved robustness to noise.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Driessen, B.J.; Feddema, J.T. & Kwok, K.S.
Item Type: Article

Deception used for Cyber Defense of Control Systems

Description: Control system cyber security defense mechanisms may employ deception to make it more difficult for attackers to plan and execute successful attacks. These deceptive defense mechanisms are organized and initially explored according to a specific deception taxonomy and the seven abstract dimensions of security previously proposed as a framework for the cyber security of control systems.
Date: May 1, 2009
Creator: Boyer, Wayne F. & McQueen, Miles A.
Item Type: Article

Deceptive Mail: Consumers' Problems Appear Substantial

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed matters related to deceptive mail marketing practices, focusing on the extent and nature of consumers' problems with deceptive mail and the initiatives various federal agencies and other organizations have made to address deceptive mail problems and educate consumers."
Date: August 4, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Item Type: Text

Dechanneling measurements of defect depth profiles and effective cross- channel distribution of misaligned atoms in ion irradiated gold

Description: Defect depth profiles for self ion and He$sup +$ irradiated gold are obtained from single and multiple scatter dechanneling analysis in single crystal gold films. Quantitative defect densities are obtained through use of atomic scattering cross sections. Integral damage profiles are extracted from the dechanneling spectra and subsequently differentiated to yield the volume concentration of defects as a function of depth. Results from the self ion irradiations suggest that incident ions produce defect distributions across depths much greater than predicted by random stopping theory. This is in agreement with TEM observations of others. Comparison of the experimental profiles is made with theoretical vacancy distributions predicted by defect diffusion in a radiation environment. Similarities are observed for the low fluence irradiations suggesting that profile characteristics may be controlled by rapid migration and loss of interstitials to the film surfaces during irradiation. Information on the across-channel distribution of misaligned atoms in the damaged films is obtained with the steady increase of transverse energy model applied to the dechanneling spectra. A predominance of slight misalignment is observed with no contribution to dechanneling coming from atoms displaced significantly close to the center of the channels. This is in keeping with what is expected for crystal distortions caused by the strain fields associated with vacancy cluster defects. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Pronko, P.P.
Item Type: Article

Deciduous-fruit improvement through tree-performance records.

Description: Discusses commercial production of deciduous fruits based on the culture of established, profitable varieties. Describes the use of individual tree-records, the negative impacts of undesirable trees, and how to locate and isolate them.
Date: 1940
Creator: Shamel, A. D. (Archibald Dixon), 1878- & Pomeroy, C. S. (Carl Stone), 1882-
Item Type: Book

Deciphering the details of RNA aminoglycoside interactions: from atomistic models to biotechnological applications

Description: A detailed study was done of the neomycin-B RNA aptamer for determining its selectivity and binding ability to both neomycin– and kanamycin-class aminoglycosides. A novel method to increase drug concentrations in cells for more efficiently killing is described. To test the method, a bacterial model system was adopted and several small RNA molecules interacting with aminoglycosides were cloned downstream of T7 RNA polymerase promoter in an expression vector. Then, the growth analysis of E. coli expressing aptamers was observed for 12-hour period. Our analysis indicated that aptamers helped to increase the intracellular concentration of aminoglycosides thereby increasing their efficacy.
Date: July 23, 2012
Creator: Ilgu, Muslum

Deciphering the genetic regulatory code using an inverse error control coding framework.

Description: We have found that developing a computational framework for reconstructing error control codes for engineered data and ultimately for deciphering genetic regulatory coding sequences is a challenging and uncharted area that will require advances in computational technology for exact solutions. Although exact solutions are desired, computational approaches that yield plausible solutions would be considered sufficient as a proof of concept to the feasibility of reverse engineering error control codes and the possibility of developing a quantitative model for understanding and engineering genetic regulation. Such evidence would help move the idea of reconstructing error control codes for engineered and biological systems from the high risk high payoff realm into the highly probable high payoff domain. Additionally this work will impact biological sensor development and the ability to model and ultimately develop defense mechanisms against bioagents that can be engineered to cause catastrophic damage. Understanding how biological organisms are able to communicate their genetic message efficiently in the presence of noise can improve our current communication protocols, a continuing research interest. Towards this end, project goals include: (1) Develop parameter estimation methods for n for block codes and for n, k, and m for convolutional codes. Use methods to determine error control (EC) code parameters for gene regulatory sequence. (2) Develop an evolutionary computing computational framework for near-optimal solutions to the algebraic code reconstruction problem. Method will be tested on engineered and biological sequences.
Date: March 1, 2005
Creator: Rintoul, Mark Daniel; May, Elebeoba Eni; Brown, William Michael; Johnston, Anna Marie & Watson, Jean-Paul
Item Type: Report

DECISION ANALYSIS AND TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENTS FOR METAL AND MASONRY DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES

Description: The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a comparative analysis of innovative technologies for the non-aggressive removal of coatings from metal and masonry surfaces and the aggressive removal of one-quarter to one-inch thickness of surface from structural masonry. The technologies tested should be capable of being used in nuclear facilities. Innovative decontamination technologies are being evaluated under standard, non-nuclear conditions at the FIU-HCET technology assessment site in Miami, Florida. This study is being performed to support the OST, the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) Focus Area, and the environmental restoration of DOE facilities throughout the DOE complex by providing objective evaluations of currently available decontamination technologies.
Date: January 1, 1999
Creator: M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.
Item Type: Report

Decision analysis for mobilizing and retrieving sludge from double-shell tanks

Description: This decision analysis evaluates alternative technologies for the initial mobilization and retrieval of sludges in double-shell tanks (DSTs). The analysis is from the perspective of the need to move sludges from one DST to another for interim retrieval. It supports the more general decision of which technologies to use to retreive various types of DST waste. The initial analysis is from the perspective of a typical DST with 2 ft of sludge to mobilize. During the course of the analysis, it became clear that it was important to also consider sludge mobilization in support of the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification demonstration plant, and in particular the risks associated with failing to meeting the minimum order requirements for the vendor, as well as the cost of mobilization and retrieval from the HLW vitrification source tanks.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Brothers, A.J.; Williams, N.C.; Dukelow, J.S. & Hansen, R.I.
Item Type: Report

Decision Analysis for Remediation Technologies (DART) user`s manual

Description: This user`s manual is an introduction to the use of the Decision Analysis for Remediation Technology (DART) Report Generator. DART provides a user interface to a database containing site data (e.g., contaminants, waste depth, area) for sites within the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area (SCFA). The database also contains SCFA requirements, needs, and technology information. The manual is arranged in two major sections. The first section describes loading DART onto a user system. The second section describes DART operation. DART operation is organized into sections by the user interface forms. For each form, user input, both optional and required, DART capabilities, and the result of user selections will be covered in sufficient detail to enable the user to understand DART, capabilities and determine how to use DART to meet specific needs.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Sebo, D.
Item Type: Report