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Cost Analysis of Simple Phase Change Material-Enhanced Building Envelopes in Southern U.S. Climates

Description: Traditional thermal designs of building envelope assemblies are based on static energy flows, yet building envelopes are subject to varying environmental conditions. This mismatch between the steady-state principles and their dynamic operation can decrease thermal efficiency. Design work supporting the development of low-energy houses showed that conventional insulations may not always be the most cost effective solution to improvement envelope thermal performance. PCM-enhanced building envelopes that simultaneously reduce the total cooling loads and shift the peak-hour loads are the focus of this report.
Date: January 1, 2013
Creator: Kosny, J.; Shukla, N. & Fallahi, A.

Cost and feasibility of stimulating tight gas reservoirs with chemical explosives

Description: Long, continuous, cylindrical charges of high explosives are considered as alternatives to nuclear explosives or massive hydraulic fracturing for the stimulation of gas production in tight gas formations. The calculational method was that used previously for nuclear stimulation; it was verified by comparison of the calculated and observed gas production from Rulison. The calculations indicate that charges of high explosives 24 inches in diameter and 2000 feet in length (the height assumed for the gas-bearing sands) detonated in four wells per section would be comparable in cost and effectiveness to estimates for one well stimulated by three 100-kiloton nuclear explosions. Stimulation by high explosives would require special development of the explosives (probably with ammonium nitrate as the base) to be suitably sensitive, temperature-resistant, and compatible with the gas-reservoir rocks; the required work appears to be straightforward, however. Comparative field testing is required to determine the optimum method (chemical or nuclear explosives or hydraulic fracturing) for a given region and to confirm that gas can be produced profitably for between 25 nd 80 er Mcf. (auth)
Date: January 16, 1973
Creator: Higgins, G.H.; Butkovich, T.R. & Montan, D.

Cost and Legal Authority for Selected Financial Literacy Programs and Activities

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "This letter provides additional information about federal financial literacy activities that were addressed in two reports to Congress issued in March 2011, Opportunities to Reduce Potential Duplication in Government Programs, Save Tax Dollars, and Enhance Revenue and List of Selected Federal Programs That Have Similar or Overlapping Objectives, Provide Similar Services, or Are Fragmented Across Government Missions. These reports were prepared in response to a statutory requirement to identify federal programs, agencies, offices, and initiatives, either within departments or governmentwide that have duplicative goals or activities."
Date: July 13, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

Cost and performance analysis of biomass-based integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) power systems

Description: To make a significant contribution to the power mix in the United States biomass power systems must be competitive on a cost and efficiency basis. We describe the cost and performance of three biomass-based integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. The economic viability and efficiency performance of the IGCC generation technology appear to be quite attractive.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Craig, K. R. & Mann, M. K.

Cost and performance analysis of conceptual designs of physical protection systems

Description: CPA -- Cost and Performance Analysis -- is a methodology that joins Activity Based Cost (ABC) estimation with performance based analysis of physical protection systems. CPA offers system managers an approach that supports both tactical decision making and strategic planning. Current exploratory applications of the CPA methodology are addressing analysis of alternative conceptual designs. To support these activities, the original architecture for CPA, is being expanded to incorporate results from a suite of performance and consequence analysis tools such as JTS (Joint Tactical Simulation), ERAD (Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion) and blast effect models. The process flow for applying CPA to the development and analysis conceptual designs is illustrated graphically.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Hicks, M.J.; Snell, M.S.; Sandoval, J.S. & Potter, C.S.

Cost and performance analysis of physical protection systems -- A case study

Description: Design and analysis of physical protection systems requires (1) identification of mission critical assets; (2) identification of potential threats that might undermine mission capability; (3) identification of the consequences of loss of mission-critical assets (e.g., time and cost to recover required capability and impact on operational readiness); and (4) analysis of the effectiveness of physical protection elements. CPA -- Cost and Performance Analysis -- addresses the fourth of these four issues. CPA is a methodology that joins Activity Based Cost estimation with performance-based analysis of physical protection systems. CPA offers system managers an approach that supports both tactical decision making and strategic planning. Current exploratory applications of the CPA methodology address analysis of alternative conceptual designs. Hypothetical data is used to illustrate this process.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Hicks, M.J.; Snell, M.S.; Sandoval, J.S. & Potter, C.S.

Cost and performance analysis of physical security systems

Description: CPA - Cost and Performance Analysis - is a prototype integration of existing PC-based cost and performance analysis tools: ACEIT (Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools) and ASSESS (Analytic System and Software for Evaluating Safeguards and Security). ACE is an existing DOD PC-based tool that supports cost analysis over the full life cycle of a system; that is, the cost to procure, operate, maintain and retire the system and all of its components. ASSESS is an existing DOE PC-based tool for analysis of performance of physical protection systems. Through CPA, the cost and performance data are collected into Excel workbooks, making the data readily available to analysts and decision makers in both tabular and graphical formats and at both the system and subsystem levels. The structure of the cost spreadsheets incorporates an activity-based approach to cost estimation. Activity-based costing (ABC) is an accounting philosophy used by industry to trace direct and indirect costs to the products or services of a business unit. By tracing costs through security sensors and procedures and then mapping the contributions of the various sensors and procedures to system effectiveness, the CPA architecture can provide security managers with information critical for both operational and strategic decisions. The architecture, features and applications of the CPA prototype are presented. 5 refs., 3 figs.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Hicks, M.J.; Yates, D. & Jago, W.H.

Cost and performance analysis of physical security systems

Description: Analysis of cost and performance of physical security systems can be a complex, multi-dimensional problem. There are a number of point tools that address various aspects of cost and performance analysis. Increased interest in cost tradeoffs of physical security alternatives has motivated development of an architecture called Cost and Performance Analysis (CPA), which takes a top-down approach to aligning cost and performance metrics. CPA incorporates results generated by existing physical security system performance analysis tools, and utilizes an existing cost analysis tool. The objective of this architecture is to offer comprehensive visualization of complex data to security analysts and decision-makers.
Date: April 1, 1998
Creator: Hicks, M.J.; Yates, D.; Jago, W.H. & Phillips, A.W.

Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

Description: The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.
Date: November 1, 2010
Creator: Tidball, R.; Bluestein, J.; Rodriguez, N. & Knoke, S.

Cost and Performance Report Accelerated Site Technology Deployment Program

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) Environmental Restoration Division (ERD) Industrial Sites Project Deactivation and Decommissioning (D and D) source group has limited budget and is constantly searching for new technologies to reduce programmatic costs. Partnering with the DOE Office of Science and Technology Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) reduces NNSA/NV programmatic risk and encourages accelerated deployment of potentially beneficial technologies to the Nevada Test Site (NTS).
Date: May 1, 2002
Creator: Morris, P. S.

Cost and Performance Report for the ASTD Reuse of Concrete Within DOE from D&D Projects

Description: This cost and performance report describes the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment project that developed the Protocol for Development of Authorized Release Limits for Concrete at U.S. DOE Sites, which identifies the steps for obtaining approval to reuse concrete from Deactivation and Decommissioning of facilities. This protocol compares the risk and cost of various disposition paths for the concrete and follows the authorized release approach described in the DOE's draft handbook, Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle of Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material. This approach provides for the development of authorized release limits through a series of prescribed steps before approval for release is granted. A case study was also completed on a previously decommissioned facility.
Date: September 1, 2000
Creator: Kamboj, S.; Arnish, J.; Chen, S. Y.; Phillips, Ann Marie; Meservey, Richard Harlan & Tripp, Julia Lynn

Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1994

Description: This document presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. Purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.
Date: July 14, 1995

Cost and Reliability Improvement for CIGS-Based PV on Flexible Substrate: May 24, 2006 -- July 31, 2010

Description: Global Solar Energy rapidly advances the cost and performance of commercial thin-film CIGS products using roll-to-roll processing on steel foil substrate in compact, low cost deposition equipment, with in-situ sensors for real-time intelligent process control. Substantial increases in power module efficiency, which now exceed 13%, are evident at GSE factories in two countries with a combined capacity greater than 75 MW. During 2009 the average efficiency of cell strings (3780 cm2) was increased from 7% to over 11%, with champion results exceeding 13% Continued testing of module reliability in rigid product has reaffirmed extended life expectancy for standard glass product, and has qualified additional lower-cost methods and materials. Expected lifetime for PV in flexible packages continues to increase as failure mechanisms are elucidated, and resolved by better methods and materials. Cost reduction has been achieved through better materials utilization, enhanced vendor and material qualification and selection. The largest cost gains have come as a result of higher cell conversion efficiency and yields, higher processing rates, greater automation and improved control in all process steps. These improvements are integral to this thin film PV partnership program, and all realized with the 'Gen2' manufacturing plants, processes and equipment.
Date: May 1, 2011
Creator: Wiedeman, S.

Cost and schedule estimate to construct the tunnel and shaft remedial shielding concept, Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. Final report

Description: The report provides an estimate of the cost and associated schedule to construct the tunnel and shaft remedial shielding concept. The cost and schedule estimate is based on a preliminary concept intended to address the potential radiation effects on Line D and Line Facilities in event of a beam spill. The construction approach utilizes careful tunneling methods based on available excavation and ground support technology. The tunneling rates and overall productivity on which the cost and project schedule are estimated are based on conservative assumptions with appropriate contingencies to address the uncertainty associated with geological conditions. The report is intended to provide supplemental information which will assist in assessing the feasibility of the tunnel and shaft concept and justification for future development of this particular aspect of remedial shielding for Line D and Line D Facilities.
Date: November 30, 1993

COST AND SCHEDULE FOR DRILLING AND MINING UNDERGROUND TEST FACILITIES

Description: Cost estimates and lead times are calculated for a mining and drilling program to establish underground test facilities at depths of 300, 700 and 1500 metres. Estimates are provided for establishing the facility in an existing mine and in a mine opened for the facility. The Stripa test facility in Sweden is used as a model in this study for the facility design and the drilling program. Cost estimates and lead time range from just less than $1.5 million and 10 months for an existing mine at 300 metres to $15 million and 58 months for a new mine at 1500 metres. Lithologies of granite, high-grade metamorphic rock. sedimentary rock with argillaceous strata at the depth of the facility. and tuffaceous rock were considered; the effect of lithology on the cost and schedule of opening a test facility was found to be relatively insignificant.
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Lamb, D. W.

Cost Assessment Guide: Best Practices for Estimating and Managing Program Costs--Exposure Draft (Superseded by GAO-09-3SP)

Description: Guidance issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "This publication has been superseded by GAO-09-3SP, GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide: Best Practices for Developing and Managing Capital Program Costs, March 2009. From August 13, 2007 - July 14, 2008, GAO is seeking input and feedback on this Exposure Draft from all interested parties. See page 4 for more information. The U.S. Government Accountability Office is responsible for, among other things, assisting the Congress in its oversight of the federal government, including agencies' stewardship of public funds. To effectively use public funds, the government must meet the demands of today's changing world by employing effective management practices and processes, including the measurement of government program performance. Legislators, government officials, and the public want to know whether government programs are achieving their goals and what their costs are. We developed the Cost Guide in order to establish a consistent methodology, based on best practices, to be used across the federal government for developing and managing its program cost estimates. For the purposes of this guide, a cost estimate is the summation of individual cost elements, using established methods and valid data to estimate the future costs of a program, based on what is known today. The management of a cost estimate involves continually updating the estimate with actual data as they become available, revising the estimate to reflect changes, and analyzing differences between estimated and actual costs--for example, using data from a reliable earned value management (EVM) system."
Date: July 2, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

Cost avoidance realized through transportation and disposal of Fernald mixed low-level waste

Description: Currently, Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are undergoing a transformation from shipping radiologically contaminated waste within the DOE structure for disposal to now include Mixed Low Level Waste (MLLW) shipments to a permitted commercial disposal facility (PCDF) final disposition. Implementing this change can be confusing and is perceived as being more difficult than it actually is. Lack of experience and disposal capacity, sometimes and/or confusing regulatory guidance, and expense of transportation and disposal of MLLW ar contributing factors to many DOE facilities opting to simply store their MLLW. Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Company (FERMCO) established itself as a leader i addressing MLLW transportation and disposal by being one of the first DOE facilities to ship mixed waste to a PCDF (Envirocare of Utah) for disposal. FERMCO`s proactive approach in establishing a MLLW Disposal Program produces long-term cost savings while generating interim mixed waste storage space to support FERMCO`s cleanup mission. FERMCO`s goal for all MLLW shipments was to develop a cost efficient system to accurately characterize, sample and analyze the waste, prepare containers and shipping paperwork, and achieve regulatory compliance while satisfying disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This goal required the ability to evolve with the regulations, to address waste streams of varying matrices and contaminants, and to learn from each MLLW shipment campaign. These efforts have produced a successful MLLW Disposal Program at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). FERMCO has a massed lessons learned from development of this fledgling program which may be applied complex-wide to ultimately save facilities time and money traditionally wasted by maintaining the status quo.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Sparks, A.K.; Dilday, D.R. & Rast, D.M.

Cost avoidance techniques through the Fernald controlled area trash segregation program and the RIMIA solid waste reduction program

Description: The Fernald Environmental Management Project is a Department of Energy owned facility that produced high quality uranium metals for military defense. The Fernald mission has changed from one of production to remediation. Remediation is intended to clean up legacy (primary) waste from past practices. Little opportunity is available to reduce the amount of primary waste. However, there is an opportunity to reduce secondary waste generation, primarily through segregation. Two programs which accomplish this are the Controlled Area Trash Segregation Program and the RIMIA Solid Waste Reduction Program. With these two programs now in place at the FEMP, it has been estimated that a 60% reduction has been achieved in unnecessary clean waste being disposed as Low Level Waste at the Nevada Test Site. The cost savings associated with these programs (currently 79,000 cubic feet, $428,000) could easily run into the millions of dollars based on the upcoming restoration activities to be undertaken. The segregation of non-radiological waste in the radiologically Controlled Area not only establishes a firm commitment to send only low-level radioactive waste to the Nevada Test Site, but also results in substantial cost avoidance.
Date: May 14, 1997
Creator: Menche, C.E.

Cost Avoidance vs. Utility Bill Accounting - Explaining theDiscrepancy Between Guaranteed Savings in ESPC Projects and UtilityBills

Description: Federal agencies often ask if Energy Savings PerformanceContracts (ESPCs) result in the energy and cost savings projected duringthe project development phase. After investing in ESPCs, federal agenciesexpect a reduction in the total energy use and energy cost at the agencylevel. Such questions about the program are common when implementing anESPC project. But is this a fair or accurate perception? Moreimportantly, should the federal agencies evaluate the success or failureof ESPCs by comparing the utility costs before and after projectimplementation?In fact, ESPC contracts employ measurement andverification (M&V) protocols to measure and ensure kilowatt-hour orBTU savings at the project level. In most cases, the translation toenergy cost savings is not based on actual utility rate structure, but acontracted utility rate that takes the existing utility rate at the timethe contract is signed with a clause to escalate the utility rate by afixed percentage for the duration of the contract. Reporting mechanisms,which advertise these savings in dollars, may imply an impact to budgetsat a much higher level depending on actual utility rate structure. FEMPhas prepared the following analysis to explain why the utility billreduction may not materialize, demonstrate its larger implication onagency s energy reduction goals, and advocate setting the rightexpectations at the outset to preempt the often asked question why I amnot seeing the savings in my utility bill?
Date: August 15, 2005
Creator: Kumar, S. & Sartor, D.

Cost-based optimizations of power density and target-blanket modularity for {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U-based ADEP

Description: A cost-based parametric systems model is developed for an Accelerator-Driven Energy Production (ADEP) system based on a {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U fuel cycle and a molten-salt (LiF/BeF{sub 2}/ThF{sub 3}) fluid-fuel primary system. Simplified neutron-balance, accelerator, reactor-core, chemical-processing, and balance-of-plant models are combined parametrically with a simplified costing model. The main focus of this model is to examine trade offs related to fission power density, reactor-core modularity, {sup 233}U breeding rate, and fission product transmutation capacity.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Krakowski, R.A.

Cost-Benefit Analysis and Financial Regulator Rulemaking

Description: This report examines issues related to financial regulators and cost-benefit analysis' (CBA), including potential difficulties facing such regulators and methods available to them when preforming a CBA, the analytical requirements the agencies currently face, and the arguments for and against increasing requirements on financial regulators. This report also briefly describes several examples of proposed legislation that would change the requirements facing financial regulators.
Date: April 12, 2017
Creator: Perkins, David W. & Carey, Maeve P.