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Data Security Breaches: Context and Incident Summaries

Description: Personal data security breaches are being reported with increasing regularity. Within the last few years, numerous examples of data such as Social Security numbers, bank account, credit card, driver’s license numbers, and medical and student records have been compromised. A major reason for the increased awareness of these security breaches is a California law that requires notice of security breaches to the affected individuals. This law, implemented in July 2003, was the first of its kind in the nation.
Date: September 28, 2006
Creator: Tehan, Rita

Data Security: Federal and State Laws

Description: Security breaches involving electronic personal data have come to light largely as a result of the California Security Breach Notification Act, a California notification law that went into effect in 2003. In response, the states and some Members have introduced bills that would require companies to notify persons affected by such security breaches. By December 2005, 35 states had introduced data security legislation and 22 states had enacted data security laws.
Date: February 3, 2006
Creator: Stevens, Gina Marie

Data Security: Federal Legislative Approaches

Description: This report discusses the core areas addressed in federal legislation, including the scope of coverage (who is covered and what information is covered); data privacy and security safeguards for sensitive personal information; requirements for security breach notification (when, how, triggers, frequency, and exceptions); restrictions on social security numbers (collection, use, and sale); credit freezes on consumer reports; identity theft penalties; causes of action; and preemption.
Date: June 6, 2008
Creator: Stevens, Gina Marie

Data Security: Federal Legislative Approaches

Description: This report discusses the core areas addressed in federal legislation, including the scope of coverage (who is covered and what information is covered); data privacy and security safeguards for sensitive personal information; requirements for security breach notification (when, how, triggers, frequency, and exceptions); restrictions on social security numbers (collection, use, and sale); credit freezes on consumer reports; identity theft penalties; causes of action; and preemption.
Date: February 9, 2006
Creator: Stevens, Gina Marie

Data security on the national fusion grid

Description: The National Fusion Collaboratory project is developing and deploying new distributed computing and remote collaboration technologies with the goal of advancing magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid), a computational grid composed of collaborative, compute, and data resources from the three large US fusion research facilities and with users both in the US and in Europe. Critical to the development of FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions to the problems of authentication, authorization, data transfer, and secure data storage, as well as the lessons learned during the development of these solutions, may be applied outside of FusionGrid and scale to future computing infrastructures such as those for next-generation devices like ITER.
Date: June 1, 2005
Creator: Burruss, Justine R.; Fredian, Tom W. & Thompson, Mary R.

Data Security: Protecting the Privacy of Phone Records

Description: This report discusses recent legislative and regulatory efforts to protect the privacy of customer telephone records, and efforts to prevent the unauthorized use, disclosure, or sale of such records by data brokers. In addition, it provides a brief overview of the confidentiality protections for customer information established by the Communications Act of 1934.
Date: May 17, 2006
Creator: Stevens, Gina Marie & Rainson, Tara Alexandra

Data Security: Protecting the Privacy of Phone Records

Description: This report discusses recent legislative and regulatory efforts to protect the privacy of customer telephone records, and efforts to prevent the unauthorized use, disclosure, or sale of such records by data brokers. In addition, it provides a brief overview of the confidentiality protections for customer information established by the Communications Act of 1934.
Date: February 28, 2006
Creator: Stevens, Gina Marie & Rainson, Tara Alexandra

Data Sharing Report Characterization of Isotope Row Facilities Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support using funds provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested ORAU to plan and implement a survey approach, focused on characterizing the Isotope Row Facilities located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for future determination of an appropriate disposition pathway for building debris and systems, should the buildings be demolished. The characterization effort was designed to identify and quantify radiological and chemical contamination associated with building structures and process systems. The Isotope Row Facilities discussed in this report include Bldgs. 3030, 3031, 3032, 3033, 3033A, 3034, 3036, 3093, and 3118, and are located in the northeast quadrant of the main ORNL campus area, between Hillside and Central Avenues. Construction of the isotope production facilities was initiated in the late 1940s, with the exception of Bldgs. 3033A and 3118, which were enclosed in the early 1960s. The Isotope Row facilities were intended for the purpose of light industrial use for the processing, assemblage, and storage of radionuclides used for a variety of applications (ORNL 1952 and ORAU 2013). The Isotope Row Facilities provided laboratory and support services as part of the Isotopes Production and Distribution Program until 1989 when DOE mandated their shutdown (ORNL 1990). These facilities performed diverse research and developmental experiments in support of isotopes production. As a result of the many years of operations, various projects, and final cessation of operations, production was followed by inclusion into the surveillance and maintenance (S&M) project for eventual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The process for D&D and final dismantlement of facilities requires that the known ...
Date: December 12, 2013
Creator: Weaver, Phyllis C

DATA SHARING REPORT CHARACTERIZATION OF POPULATION 7: PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT, DRY ACTIVE WASTE, AND MISCELLANEOUS DEBRIS, SURVEILLANCE AND MAINTENANCE PROJECT OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing to determine a final pathway for disposal. Population 7 (POP 7) consists of 56 containers of aged, low-level and potentially mixed S&M waste that has been staged in various locations around ORNL. Several of these POP 7 containers primarily contain personal protective equipment (PPE) and dry active waste (DAW), but may contain other miscellaneous debris. This data sharing report addresses the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) specified waste in a 13-container subpopulation (including eight steel boxes, three 55-gal drums, one sealand, and one intermodal) that lacked sufficient characterization data for possible disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile.
Date: October 10, 2013
Creator: Harpenau, Evan M

DATA SHARING REPORT CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SURVEILLANCE AND MAINTENANCE PROJECT MISCELLANEOUS PROCESS INVENTORY WASTE ITEMS OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY, Oak Ridge TN

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested ORAU to plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign to target certain items associated with URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing for final disposal. This waste was generated during processing, surveillance, and maintenance activities associated with the facilities identified in the process knowledge (PK) provided in Appendix A. A list of items for sampling and analysis were generated from a subset of materials identified in the WHP populations (POPs) 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, plus a small number of items not explicitly addressed by the WHP. Specifically, UCOR S&M project personnel identified 62 miscellaneous waste items that would require some level of evaluation to identify the appropriate pathway for disposal. These items are highly diverse, relative to origin; composition; physical description; contamination level; data requirements; and the presumed treatment, storage, and disposal facility (TSDF). Because of this diversity, ORAU developed a structured approach to address item-specific data requirements necessary for acceptance in a presumed TSDF that includes the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF)—using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile—the Y-12 Sanitary Landfill (SLF) if appropriate; EnergySolutions Clive; and the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (ORAU 2013b). Finally, the evaluation of these wastes was more suited to ...
Date: December 12, 2013
Creator: Weaver, Phyllis C

Data Sharing Report for the Quantification of Removable Activity in Various Surveillance and Maintenance Facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OR-EM) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. Specifically, DOE OR-EM requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting potential removable radiological contamination that may be transferrable to future personal protective equipment (PPE) and contamination control materials—collectively referred to as PPE throughout the remainder of this report—used in certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Project facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Routine surveys in Bldgs. 3001, 3005, 3010, 3028, 3029, 3038, 3042, 3517, 4507, and 7500 continuously generate PPE. The waste is comprised of Tyvek coveralls, gloves, booties, Herculite, and other materials used to prevent worker exposure or the spread of contamination during routine maintenance and monitoring activities. This report describes the effort to collect and quantify removable activity that may be used by the ORNL S&M Project team to develop radiation instrumentation “screening criteria.” Material potentially containing removable activity was collected on smears, including both masselin large-area wipes (LAWs) and standard paper smears, and analyzed for site-related constituents (SRCs) in an analytical laboratory. The screening criteria, if approved, may be used to expedite waste disposition of relatively clean PPE. The ultimate objectives of this effort were to: 1) determine whether screening criteria can be developed for these facilities, and 2) provide process knowledge information for future site planners. The screening criteria, if calculated, must be formally approved by Federal Facility Agreement parties prior to use for ORNL S&M Project PPE disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). ORAU executed the approved sampling and analysis plan (SAP) (DOE ...
Date: December 12, 2013
Creator: King, David A

Data sieving and collective I/O in ROMIO.

Description: The I/O access patterns of parallel programs often consist of accesses to a large number of small, noncontiguous pieces of data. If an application's I/O needs are met by making many small, distinct I/O requests, however, the I/O performance degrades drastically. To avoid this problem, MPI-IO allows users to access a noncontiguous data set with a single I/O function call. This feature provides MPI-IO implementations an opportunity to optimize data access. We describe how our MPI-IO implementation, ROMIO, delivers high performance in the presence of noncontiguous requests. We explain in detail the two key optimizations ROMIO performs: data sieving for noncontiguous requests from one process and collective I/O for noncontiguous requests from multiple processes. We describe how one can implement these optimizations portably on multiple machines and file systems, control their memory requirements, and also achieve high performance. We demonstrate the performance and portability with performance results for three applications--an astrophysics-application template (DIST3D), the NAS BTIO benchmark, and an unstructured code (UNSTRUC)--on five different parallel machines: HP Exemplar, IBM SP, Intel Paragon, NEC SX-4, and SGI Origin2000.
Date: September 11, 1998
Creator: Thakur, R.; Gropp, W. & Lusk, E.

DATA SIMULATION WITH AN ON-LINE COMPUTER AS A DIAGNOSTIC AND ANALYTICAL TOOL

Description: A hybrid approach was adopted in the use of an on-line computer in setting up and analyzing nuclear physics experiments. In addition to the usually cited advantage of online flexibility and the ability to do off-line calculations, the general purpose computer can simulate data by preserting the results of off-line calculations to the experimenter in a format identical to that used for data display. As compared with off-line calculations at a computer center with subsequent hand or machine plotting, the use of the build-in display hardware provides a more convenient comparison of theory with experiment, as well as greater ease and speed. The advantages of on-line data transformation are preserved without accompanying limitations on the rate of data taking. The data from the experiment consisted of energy correlations in two-particle coincidence experiments. The loci of points in energy-energy space fulfilling energy and momentum conservation were calculated, displayed, and photographed before each experimental run. Interpretation of the experimertal data was assisted by modulation of the loci (of the number of counts per channel) according to the predictions of various models. (auth)
Date: February 19, 1964
Creator: Mollenauer, J.F.

Data sources directory for purchasing officials: Energy-efficient and environmentally preferred products

Description: This Directory, produced by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, is an introduction to organizations that provide information about energy-efficient and environmentally preferred equipment and products. It is intended to be a reference tool for purchasing officials in the public and private sectors. The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority does not endorse any particular vendor, organization, or technology. This list was prepared to provide information. The companies listed may provide additional products and/or services not mentioned in this directory.
Date: September 1, 1995

Data Standards for the Genomes to Life Program

Description: Existing GTL Projects already have produced volumes of dataand, over the course of the next five years, will produce an estimatedhundreds, or possibly thousands, of terabytes of data from hundreds ofexperiments conducted at dozens of laboratories in National Labs anduniversities across the nation. These data will be the basis forpublications by individual researchers, research groups, andmulti-institutional collaborations, and the basis for future DOEdecisions on funding further research in bioremediation. The short-termand long-term value of the data to project participants, to the DOE, andto the nation depends, however, on being able to access the data and onhow, or whether, the data are archived. The ability to access data is thestarting point for data analysis and interpretation, data integration,data mining, and development of data-driven models. Limited orinefficient data access means that less data are analyzed in acost-effective and timely manner. Data production in the GTL Program willlikely outstrip, or may have already outstripped, the ability to analyzethe data. Being able to access data depends on two key factors: datastandards and implementation of the data standards. For the purpose ofthis proposal, a data standard is defined as a standard, documented wayin which data and information about the data are describe. The attributesof the experiment in which the data were collected need to be known andthe measurements corresponding to the data collected need to bedescribed. In general terms, a data standard could be a form (electronicor paper) that is completed by a researcher or a document that prescribeshow a protocol or experiment should be described in writing.Datastandards are critical to data access because they provide a frameworkfor organizing and managing data. Researchers spend significant amountsof time managing data and information about experiments using labnotebooks, computer files, Excel spreadsheets, etc. In addition, dataoutput format varies for different equipment and usually need to beformatted differently for ...
Date: January 31, 2004
Creator: Arkin, Adam; Ambrosiano, John; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Frank, Ed; Geist,Al; Giometti, Carol et al.

A data storage model for novel partial differential equation descretizations.

Description: The purpose of this report is to define a standard interface for storing and retrieving novel, non-traditional partial differential equation (PDE) discretizations. Although it focuses specifically on finite elements where state is associated with edges and faces of volumetric elements rather than nodes and the elements themselves (as implemented in ALEGRA), the proposed interface should be general enough to accommodate most discretizations, including hp-adaptive finite elements and even mimetic techniques that define fields over arbitrary polyhedra. This report reviews the representation of edge and face elements as implemented by ALEGRA. It then specifies a convention for storing these elements in EXODUS files by extending the EXODUS API to include edge and face blocks in addition to element blocks. Finally, it presents several techniques for rendering edge and face elements using VTK and ParaView, including the use of VTK's generic dataset interface for interpolating values interior to edges and faces.
Date: April 1, 2007
Creator: Doyle, Wendy S.K.; Thompson, David C. & Pebay, Philippe Pierre

Data Summary for Nominal 350 ?m DUO2 Kernels

Description: This document is a compilation of characterization data obtained on the nominal 350 {micro}m depleted uranium oxide kernels (DUO{sub 2}) produced by ORNL for the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program under task 3.1.2. Samples were riffled for analysis from a 100 g batch (designated as DUN350-1), which was riffled from the 3.4 kg composite lot of DUO{sub 2} kernels (designated as DUN350). Table 2-1 contains a summary of property measurements in comparison to the current acceptance criteria for depleted 350 {micro}m UO{sub 2} kernels. All the criteria were met with the exception of the 95% confidence criteria on the impurity levels, which was only measured on a single small sample. In addition, microstructure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The grain size was less than 10 {micro}m across in the plane of the cross section and typically about 5 {micro}m. SEM micrographs also provided evidence of closed pores that were less than 0.25 {micro}m in diameter.
Date: September 1, 2004
Creator: Hunn, John D

Data Summary for the Near-Shore Sediment Characterization Task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program

Description: The purpose of the Near-Shore Sediment Characterization Task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) was to quantify potential human health risks associated with Department of Energy (DOE)-related contamination of surface sediments in Watts Bar Reservoir (WBR). An estimated 700 Ci of {sup 137}Cs and 325 Ci of {sup 60}Co were released from White Oak Lake into the Clinch River between 1949 and 1992 (DOE, 1988). A number of previous studies have documented sediment contamination in the deep-water sediments but no study specifically targeted the near-shore environment, which has the most potential for exposure to humans.
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Levine, D.A.