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Damping Wiggler Study at KEK-ATF

Description: The effects of damping wiggler magnets have been studied at KEK-ATF damping ring, which is a 1.3 GeV storage ring capable of producing ultra-low emittance electron beams. The fast beam damping is a significant issue for the damping ring. The tuning method with 4 sets of wiggler magnets was investigated for the ultra-low emittance beam. The effect on the beam quality, which is related to the transverse (x and y) and the longitudinal (z and {Delta}p/p), has been measured by the wire scanner, SR monitor, the laser wire, streak camera and the energy spread monitor. We report on the operational condition and the measurement results.
Date: February 7, 2006
Creator: Naito, T.; Hayano, H.; Honda, Y.; Kubo, K.; Kuriki, M.; Kuroda, S. et al.

DANCE : a 4[pi] barium fluoride detector for measuring neutron capture on unstable nuclei /.

Description: Measurements of neutron capture on unstable nuclei are important for studies of s-process nucleosynthesis, nuclear waste transmutation, and stewardship science. A 160-element, 4{pi} barium fluoride detector array, and associated neutron flight path, is being constructed to make capture measurements at the moderated neutron spallation source at LANSCE. Measurements can be made on as little as 1 mg of sample material over energies from near thermal to near 100 keV. The design of the DANCE array is described and neutron flux measurements from flight path commissioning are shown. The array is expected to be complete by the end of 2002.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Ullmann, J. L. (John L.); Haight, Robert C.; Hunt, L. F. (Lloyd F.); Reifarth, R. (Rene); Rundberg, R. S. (Robert S.); Bredeweg, T. A. (Todd A) et al.

DANCE : Device for Measurement of (n.g.) Reactions on radioactive Species /

Description: DANCE (Device for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments) is a 4{pi} 162 element BaF{sub 2} array under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It is designed to provide high granularity, fast timing and high photon detection efficiency. It will be located at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center where neutrons are produced using 800 MeV proton induced spallation reactions on heavy element production targets. Using the pulsed high neutron fluence available at this facility combined with time of flight techniques it will be possible to make neutron capture measurements in the neutron energy range from eV to 100's of keV on rare and radioactive target material at the milligram and below level. These measurements will provide critically needed data for the interpretation of the astrophysical s-process 'branching point' nuclei as well as information for reactions needed in understanding transmutation processes of radioactive species.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Chamberlin, E. P. (Edwin P.); Dragowsky, M. (Michael); Fowler, Malcolm M.; Miller, G. G. (Geoffrey G.); Palmer, P. D. (Phillip D.); Pangualt, L. N. (Laurence N.) et al.

Dancing bunches as Van Kampen modes

Description: Van Kampen modes are eigen-modes of Jeans-Vlasov equation [1-3]. Their spectrum consists of continuous and, possibly, discrete parts. Onset of a discrete van Kampen mode means emergence of a coherent mode without any Landau damping; thus, even a tiny couple-bunch wake is sufficient to drive instability. Longitudinal instabilities observed at Tevatron [4], RHIC [5] and SPS [6] can be explained as loss of Landau damping (LLD), which is shown here to happen at fairly low impedances. For repulsive wakes and single-harmonic RF, LLD is found to be extremely sensitive to steepness of the bunch distribution function at small amplitudes. Based on that, a method of beam stabilization is suggested. Emergence of a discrete van Kampen mode means either loss of Landau damping or instability. Longitudinal bunch stability is analysed in weak head-tail approximation for inductive impedance and single-harmonic RF. The LLD threshold intensities are found to be rather low: for cases under study all of them do not exceed a few percent of the zero-amplitude incoherent synchrotron frequency shift, strongly decreasing for shorter bunches. Because of that, LLD can explain longitudinal instabilities happened at fairly low impedances at Tevatron [4], and possibly for RHIC [5] and SPS [6], being in that sense an alternative to the soliton explanation [5, 20]. Although LLD itself results in many cases in emergence of a mode with zero growth rate, any couple-bunch (and sometimes multi-turn) wake would drive instability for that mode, however small this wake is. LLD is similar to a loss of immune system of a living cell, when any microbe becomes fatal for it. The emerging discrete mode is normally very different from the rigid-bunch motion; thus the rigid-mode model significantly overestimates the LLD threshold. The power low of LLD predicted in Ref. [17] agrees with results of this paper. However, ...
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Burov, A. & /Fermilab

Danger of General Spread of the Gypsy and Browntail Moths Through Imported Nursery Stock

Description: "This paper gives a record of the infested importations [of brown-tail and gypsy moths] during the last two years and descriptions of nursery conditions in Europe, showing the nature of the infestation there, and concludes with a brief description, with illustrations, of the two moth pests which are now being thus imported. The publication is, therefore, a warning to users of such imported stock and gives descriptions and figures enabling the prompt recognition of either of these pests wherever they may become established." -- p. 2
Date: 1911
Creator: Marlatt, C. L.

The dangerous flat spin and the factors affecting it

Description: This report deals first with the fundamental data required for the investigation. These are chiefly the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on an airplane in a flat spin. It is shown that these forces and moments depend principally on the angle of attack and on the rotation about the path axis, and can therefore either be measured in a wind tunnel or calculated from wind-tunnel measurements of lift, drag and moment about the leading edge of the wing of an airplane model at rest. The lift, drag and moments about the span axis are so greatly altered by the rapid rotation in a flat spin, that they can no longer be regarded as independent of rotation. No substantial change in the angles of attack and glide occurring in a flat spin is involved. The cross-wind force, as compared with the lift and drag, can be disregarded in a flat spin.
Date: July 1, 1931
Creator: Fuchs, Richard & Schmidt, Wilhelm

A dangerous seaplane landing condition

Description: A peculiar phenomena in seaplane landing is observed and reported. The seaplane having executed a normal fast landing at low incidence, a forward movement of the control stick effected an unusual condition in that the seaplane left the water suddenly in an abnormal attitude. The observations describing this phenomena are offered as a warning against possible accident and as a conjectural cause of seaplane landing accidents of a certain kind.
Date: May 1, 1928
Creator: Carroll, Thomas

The dangerous sideslip of a stalled airplane and its prevention

Description: This investigation covers only that phase of airplane accidents which are the result of sideslip. We examine the circumstances under which this occurs, study the behavior of present-day airplane types (monoplane, conventional and staggered biplane) therein and endeavor to find a solution whereby this danger may be avoided.
Date: September 1, 1931
Creator: Schmidt, Wilhelm & Fuchs, Richard

The dangers of heterogeneous network computing: heterogeneous networks considered harmful

Description: This report addresses the issue of writing reliable numerical software for networks of heterogeneous computers. Much software has been written for distributed memory parallel computers and in principal such software could readily be ported to networks of machines, such as a collection of workstations connected by Ethernet, but if such a network is not homogeneous there are special challenges that need to be addressed. The symptoms can range from erroneous results returned without warning to deadlock. Some of the problems are straightforward to solve, but for others the solutions are not so obvious and indeed in some cases, such as the method of bisection which we shall discuss in the report, we have not yet decided upon a satisfactory solution that does not incur an unacceptable overhead. Making software robust on heterogeneous systems often requires additional communication. In this report we describe and illustrate the problems and, where possible, suggest solutions so that others may be aware of the potential pitfalls and either avoid them or, if that is not possible, ensure that their software is not used on heterogeneous networks.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Demmel, J.; Stanley, K.; Dongarra, J.; Hammarling, S. & Osstrouchov, S.

The DANTE Boltzmann transport solver: An unstructured mesh, 3-D, spherical harmonics algorithm compatible with parallel computer architectures

Description: A spherical harmonics research code (DANTE) has been developed which is compatible with parallel computer architectures. DANTE provides 3-D, multi-material, deterministic, transport capabilities using an arbitrary finite element mesh. The linearized Boltzmann transport equation is solved in a second order self-adjoint form utilizing a Galerkin finite element spatial differencing scheme. The core solver utilizes a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm. Other distinguishing features of the code include options for discrete-ordinates and simplified spherical harmonics angular differencing, an exact Marshak boundary treatment for arbitrarily oriented boundary faces, in-line matrix construction techniques to minimize memory consumption, and an effective diffusion based preconditioner for scattering dominated problems. Algorithm efficiency is demonstrated for a massively parallel SIMD architecture (CM-5), and compatibility with MPP multiprocessor platforms or workstation clusters is anticipated.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: McGhee, J.M.; Roberts, R.M. & Morel, J.E.

DANTSYS: A diffusion accelerated neutral particle transport code system

Description: The DANTSYS code package includes the following transport codes: ONEDANT, TWODANT, TWODANT/GQ, TWOHEX, and THREEDANT. The DANTSYS code package is a modular computer program package designed to solve the time-independent, multigroup discrete ordinates form of the boltzmann transport equation in several different geometries. The modular construction of the package separates the input processing, the transport equation solving, and the post processing (or edit) functions into distinct code modules: the Input Module, one or more Solver Modules, and the Edit Module, respectively. The Input and Edit Modules are very general in nature and are common to all the Solver Modules. The ONEDANT Solver Module contains a one-dimensional (slab, cylinder, and sphere), time-independent transport equation solver using the standard diamond-differencing method for space/angle discretization. Also included in the package are solver Modules named TWODANT, TWODANT/GQ, THREEDANT, and TWOHEX. The TWODANT Solver Module solves the time-independent two-dimensional transport equation using the diamond-differencing method for space/angle discretization. The authors have also introduced an adaptive weighted diamond differencing (AWDD) method for the spatial and angular discretization into TWODANT as an option. The TWOHEX Solver Module solves the time-independent two-dimensional transport equation on an equilateral triangle spatial mesh. The THREEDANT Solver Module solves the time independent, three-dimensional transport equation for XYZ and RZ{Theta} symmetries using both diamond differencing with set-to-zero fixup and the AWDD method. The TWODANT/GQ Solver Module solves the 2-D transport equation in XY and RZ symmetries using a spatial mesh of arbitrary quadrilaterals. The spatial differencing method is based upon the diamond differencing method with set-to-zero fixup with changes to accommodate the generalized spatial meshing.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Alcouffe, R.E.; Baker, R.S.; Brinkley, F.W.; Marr, D.R.; O`Dell, R.D. & Walters, W.F.

DANTSYS: a system for deterministic, neutral particle transport calculations

Description: The THREEDANT code is the latest addition to our system of codes, DANTSYS, which perform neutral particle transport computations on a given system of interest. The system of codes is distinguished by geometrical or symmetry considerations. For example, ONEDANT and TWODANT are designed for one and two dimensional geometries respectively. We have TWOHEX for hexagonal geometries, TWODANT/GQ for arbitrary quadrilaterals in XY and RZ geometry, and THREEDANT for three-dimensional geometries. The design of this system of codes is such that they share the same input and edit module and hence the input and output is uniform for all the codes (with the obvious additions needed to specify each type of geometry). The codes in this system are also designed to be general purpose solving both eigenvalue and source driven problems. In this paper we concentrate on the THREEDANT module since there are special considerations that need to be taken into account when designing such a module. The main issues that need to be addressed in a three-dimensional transport solver are those of the computational time needed to solve a problem and the amount of storage needed to accomplish that solution. Of course both these issues are directly related to the number of spatial mesh cells required to obtain a solution to a specified accuracy, but is also related to the spatial discretization method chosen and the requirements of the iteration acceleration scheme employed as will be noted below. Another related consideration is the robustness of the resulting algorithms as implemented; because insistence on complete robustness has a significant impact upon the computation time. We address each of these issues in the following through which we give reasons for the choices we have made in our approach to this code. And this is useful in outlining how the code is evolving ...
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Alcouffe, R.E. & Baker, R.S.

DANTSYS/MPI: a system for 3-D deterministic transport on parallel architectures

Description: Since 1994, we have been using a data parallel form of our deterministic transport code DANTSYS to perform time-independent fixed source and eigenvalue calculations on the CM-200`s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Parallelization of the transport sweep is obtained by using a 2-D spatial decomposition which retains the ability to invert the source iteration equation in a single iteration (i.e., the diagonal plane sweep). We have now implemented a message passing version of DANTSYS, referred to as DANTSYS/MPI, on the Cray T3D installed at Los Alamos in 1995. By taking advantage of the SPMD (Single Program, Multiple Data) architecture of the Cray T3D, as well as its low latency communications network, we have managed to achieve grind times (time to solve a single cell in phase space) of less than 10 nanoseconds on the 512 PE (Processing Element) T3D, as opposed to typical grind times of 150-200 nanoseconds on a 2048 PE CM-200, or 300-400 nanoseconds on a single PE of a Cray Y-MP. In addition, we have also parallelized the Diffusion Synthetic Accelerator (DSA) equations which are used to accelerate the convergence of the transport equation. DANTSYS/MPI currently runs on traditional Cray PVP`s and the Cray T3D, and it`s computational kernel (Sweep3D) has been ported to and tested on an array of SGI SMP`s (Symmetric Memory Processors), a network of IBM 590 workstations, an IBM SP2, and the Intel TFLOPs machine at Sandia National Laboratory. This paper describes the implementation of DANTSYS/MPI on the Cray T3D, and presents a simple performance model which accurately predicts the grind time as a function of the number of PE`s and problem size, or scalability. This paper also describes the parallel implementation and performance of the elliptic solver used in DANTSYS/MPI for solving the synthetic acceleration equations.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Baker, R.S. & Alcouffe, R.E.

DAPHNE Operation And Plans for DAPHNE2

Description: The e{sup +}e{sup -} collider DA{Phi}NE, a 1.02 GeV c.m. {Phi}-factory, has reached a peak luminosity of about 1.4 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and a peak integrated luminosity in one day of about 8.6 pb{sup -1}. With the current rates the physics program of the three main experiments DEAR, FINUDA and KLOE will be completed by the end of 2007. In this paper we describe in detail the steps which have led to the luminosity improvement and the options for the upgrade of the collider towards higher energy and/or luminosity.
Date: January 20, 2006
Creator: Zobov, M.; Alesini, D.; Benedetti, G.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R. et al.

Darex Process: Processing of Stainless Steel-Containing Reactor Fuels with Dilute Aqua Regia

Description: From abstract: "The Darex process developed for the recovery of uranium from stainless steel-containing reactor fuels consists of three steps: (1) dissolution of the fuel material in dilute aqua regia, (2) removal of chloride from the solution to prevent corrosion of downstream stainless steel process equipment, and (3) adjustment of the nitrate solution to solvent extraction feed conditions."
Date: June 7, 1962
Creator: Kitts, F. G.

Darfur Crisis: Death Estimates Demonstrates Severity of Crisis, but Their Accuracy and Credibility Could Be Enhanced

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In 2003, violent conflict in Darfur, Sudan, broke out between rebel groups and government troops and government-supported Arab militias. While few would dispute that many thousands of Darfur civilians have died, less consensus exists about the total number of deaths attributable to the crisis. Estimates by the Department of State (State) and other parties report death tolls up to about 400,000 for varying populations and periods of time between February 2003 and August 2005. Based on the views of experts convened by GAO and the National Academy of Sciences, interviews with estimate authors, and a review of relevant literature, this report (1) evaluates six Darfur death estimates, (2) identifies general challenges to estimating deaths in such crises, and (3) discusses measures to improve death estimates."
Date: November 9, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

Darfur Crisis: Progress in Aid and Peace Monitoring Threatened by Ongoing Violence and Operational Challenges

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In 2003, violent conflict in Darfur, Sudan broke out between rebel groups, government troops, and government-supported Arab militias, known as the Janjaweed. The conflict has displaced about 2 million Darfurians and has so affected over 1.9 million others that they require assistance. Since October 2003, the U.S. government has provided humanitarian assistance in Darfur and supported African Union Mission in Sudan's (AMIS) efforts to fulfill a peace support mandate. This report reviews (1) U.S. humanitarian assistance provided to Darfur and the challenges that have been encountered and (2) African Union efforts to fulfill its mandate and challenges that have affected these efforts."
Date: November 9, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

DARHT 2 kA Cathode Development

Description: In the campaign to achieve 2 kA of electron beam current, we have made several changes to the DARHT-II injector during 2006-2007. These changes resulted in a significant increase in the beam current, achieving the 2 kA milestone. Until recently (before 2007), the maximum beam current that was produced from the 6.5-inch diameter (612M) cathode was about 1300 A when the cathode was operating at a maximum temperature of 1140 C. At this temperature level, the heat loss was dominated by radiation which is proportional to temperature to the fourth power. The maximum operating temperature was limited by the damage threshold of the potted filament and the capacity of the filament heater power supply, as well as the shortening of the cathode life time. There were also signs of overheating at other components in the cathode assembly. Thus it was clear that our approach to increase beam current could not be simply trying to run at a higher temperature and the preferred way was to operate with a cathode that has a lower work function. The dispenser cathode initially used was the type 612M made by SpectraMat. According to the manufacturer's bulletin, this cathode should be able to produce more than 10 A/cm{sup 2} of current density (corresponding to 2 kA of total beam current) at our operating conditions. Instead the measured emission (space charge limited) was 6 A/cm{sup 2}. The result was similar even after we had revised the activation and handling procedures to adhere more closely to the recommend steps (taking longer time and nonstop to do the out-gassing). Vacuum was a major concern in considering the cathode's performance. Although the vacuum gauges at the injector vessel indicated 10{sup -8} Torr, the actual vacuum condition near the cathode in the central region of the vessel, where there might ...
Date: March 9, 2009
Creator: Henestroza, E.; Houck, T.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Miram, G.; Prichard, B. et al.

DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

Description: The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Webb, M.D.