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The Current Economic Recession: How Long, How Deep, and How Different From the Past?

Description: This report examines the current recession and recessions of the previous three decades in detail. It gives a brief overview of the other post-war recessions. It outlines the fiscal and monetary policy response to each recession. It also looks at theories of why recessions occur. The report concludes by asking the question that many commentators in the news have asked recently: is this recession different from the past?
Date: January 10, 2002
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Makinen, Gail

Current-enhanced SASE using an optical laser and its applicationto the LCLS

Description: We propose a significant enhancement of the electron peak current entering a SASE undulator by inducing an energy modulation in an upstream wiggler magnet via resonant interaction with an optical laser, followed by microbunching of the energy-modulated electrons at the accelerator exit. This current enhancement allows a reduction of the FEL gain length. The x-ray output consists of a series of uniformly spaced spikes, each spike being temporally coherent. The duration of this series is controlled by the laser pulse and in principle can be narrowed down to just a single, 200-attosecond spike. Given potentially absolute temporal synchronization of the x-ray spikes to the energy-modulating laser pulse, this scheme naturally makes pump-probe experiments available to SASE FEL's. We also study various detrimental effects related to the high electron peak current.
Date: August 25, 2004
Creator: Zholents, Alexander A.; Fawley, William M.; Emma, Paul; Huang,Zhirong; Reiche, Sven & Stupakov, Gennady

Current experience with net metering programs

Description: Net metering is a utility metering practice that encourages direct consumer investment in renewable energy technologies. Laws and regulations that establish net metering practices now exist in 22 states. Net metering enables electricity customers with small generators to receive a higher value for some or all of the electricity they generate. This is accomplished by allowing the electric meters of such customers to turn backward when there is more generation than demand. It effectively allows customers with small generators to use the electricity they generate to offset their usage over an entire billing period. This paper reports on the current status of net metering laws and rules in the US. In particular, the extent of the net metering authority in each state is highlighted. Differing requirements for grid-interconnection have introduced significant variations in the actual implementation of net metering programs. Interconnection requirements from specific utilities are collected to understand how net metering programs have been affected.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Wan, Y.H. & Green, H.J.

Current experiments in particle physics - particle data group

Description: This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Galic, H.; Lehar, F. & Kettle, P. R.

Current Experiments in Particle Physics (September 1996)

Description: This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. This report contains full summaries of 180 approved current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. The focus of the report is on selected experiments which directly contribute to our better understanding of elementary particles and their properties such as masses, widths or lifetimes, and branching fractions.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Galic, H.; Lehar, F.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Bilak, S.V.; Illarionova, N.S. et al.

Current Human Reliability Analysis Methods Applied to Computerized Procedures

Description: Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room (Fink et al., 2009). Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of enhanced ease of use and easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Boring, Ronald L.

Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

Description: This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX{sup TM}) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to identify opportunities for cost effective enhanced information technology use by small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for the specific DAMA Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) effort are discussed in this section. The approach used to gather information about current opportunities or needs is outlined in Section 2 Approach, and relevant findings are identified and a brief analysis of the information gathered is presented in Section 3 Findings. Recommendations based on the analysis, are offered in Section 4 Recommendations, and plans are suggested for DAMA follow-on in Section 5 Future Plans. Trip reports for each of the companies visited are contained in Appendix E - Company Trip Reports. These individual reports contain the data upon which the analysis presented in Section 3 Findings is based.
Date: April 1, 1998
Creator: Wimple, C., LLNL

Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

Description: This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to address needs that are characterized of small to medium sized apparel manufactures and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for this specific efforts are discussed.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Wipple, C. & Vosti, E.

Current initiation in low-density foam z-pinch plasmas

Description: Low density agar and aerogel foams were tested as z-pinch loads on the SATURN accelerator. In these first experiments, we studied the initial plasma conditions by measuring the visible emission at early times with a framing camera and 1-D imaging. At later time, near the stagnation when the plasma is hotter, x-ray imaging and spectral diagnostics were used to characterize the plasma. Filamentation and arcing at the current contacts was observed. None of the implosions were uniform along the z-axis. The prime causes of these problems are believed to be the electrode contacts and the current return configuration and these are solvable. Periodic phenomena consistent with the formation of instabilities were observed on one shot, not on others, implying that there may be a way of controlling instabilities in the pinch. Many of the issues involving current initiation may be solvable. Solutions are discussed.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Derzon, M.; Nash, T. & Allshouse, G.

Current issues in open charm hadroproduction and new preliminary results from Fermilab E769

Description: At the collision energies achieved in modern fixed target experiments, charm quarks are predominantly produced from gluon-gluon collisions where one gluon originates from each of the initial state hadrons. The production cross section thus depends on the combination of the gluon distributions of the colliding hadrons and the partonic cross section. Here, the authors review the experimental data on total charm cross section, fragmentation into charm species, dependence of the charm cross section on beam flavor, atomic mass, and transverse momentum, charm pair correlations, and leading particle asymmetry. Included are new preliminary results from Fermilab experiment E769.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Karchin, P.E. & Collaboration, E769

Current issues in perturbative QCD

Description: This review talk discusses some issues of active research in perturbative QCD. The following topics are discussed: (1) current value of {alpha}s; (2) heavy quark production in hadron collisions; (3) production of {Psi} and {Upsilon} in p{anti p} collisions; (4) prompt photon production; (5) small-x and related phenomena; and (6) particle multiplicity in heavy quark jets.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Hinchliffe, I.

Current Issues in Terrestrial Solar Radiation Instrumentation for Energy, Climate and Space Applications Preprint prepared for New RAD '99

Description: Reductions of uncertainty in terrestrial solar radiation measurements are needed to validate the Earth's radiation balance derived from satellite data. Characterization of solar energy resources for renewable technologies requires greater time and spatial resolution for economical technology deployment. Solar radiation measurement research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses calibrations, operational characteristics, and corrections for terrestrial solar radiation measurements. We describe progress in measurements of broadband diffuse-sky radiation, and characterization of field instrument thermal offsets and spectral irradiance. The need and prospects for absolute references for diffuse and long-wave terrestrial solar radiation measurements are discussed. Reductions in uncertainty of broadband irradiance measurements from tens of watts per square meter to a few (one to two) watts per square meter are reported, which reduce time and labor to quantify and identify trends in artificial optical radiation sources, terrestrial solar radiation, and the Earth's radiation budget.
Date: October 20, 1999
Creator: Stoffel, T. L.; Reda, I.; Myers, D. R.; Renne, D.; Wilcox, S. W. & Treadwell, J.

Current Law Limits the State Department's Authority to Manage Certain Overseas Properties Cost Effectively

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Section 738 in the fiscal year 2001 Agriculture Appropriation Act prohibits the Department of State from selling residences purchased to house agricultural attaches without approval from the Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) and requires the department to use the proceeds from such sales to purchase residences for these attaches. Legislation currently before Congress would repeal section 738 since it limits the Department of State's authority to implement cost-effective decisions about sales of unneeded overseas property and the use of sales proceeds. Because of section 738's restrictions, State has delayed two property sales valued at nearly $4 million that appear to be in the government's best interests. FAS is concerned that if section 738 is repealed, selling these properties will result in increased costs since it would have to lease housing for attaches who previously lived rent-free in government-owned housing. Although section 738 applies only to residences purchased for agricultural attaches, the Office of Management and Budget and State are concerned that it could lead to fragmented and less cost-effective management of overseas property if other agencies seek similar treatment for their senior representatives. Section 738's restrictions do not appear to be in the government's best interests."
Date: July 11, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.

Current Legal Status of the FCC’s Media Ownership Rules

Description: This report discusses the Federal Communications Commission’s (FCC) media ownership regulations, which place limits on the number of broadcast radio and television outlets one owner can possess in a given market and place cross-ownership restrictions on these outlets and on the cross-ownership of broadcast properties and newspapers.
Date: August 23, 2010
Creator: Ruane, Kathleen A.

Current-limited imposed-potential technique for inducing and monitoring metastable pitting events

Description: A technique has been developed to selectively induce metastable pitting while preventing the transition to stable pit growth. The current-limited imposed-potential (CLIP) technique limits available cathodic current to an initiated site using a resistor in series with the working electrode to form a voltage divider. Potentiodynamic CLIP testing yields a distribution of breakdown potentials from a single experiment. Potentiostatic CLIP testing yields induction time data, which can be used as input to a calculation of germination rate. Initial data indicate that a one-to-one correlation exists between electrochemical transients and observed pitting sites. The CLIP technique provides a consistent means of gathering quantitative potential and current transients associated with localized oxide breakdown.
Date: November 24, 1999
Creator: Wall, F.D.

Current limiters

Description: The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Loescher, D.H. & Noren, K.

Current localization, non-uniform heating, and failures of ZnO varistors

Description: Metal oxide varistors have highly nonlinear electrical characteristics and are widely used as devices for over-voltage protection. Varistor applications range from the use of small varistors to protect delicate electronic components to the use of much larger varistors for the protection of electrical-power-distribution systems. Non-uniform heating of ZnO varistors by electrical pulses occurs on three different spatial scales: (1) microscopic (sub-micron), (2) intermediate (sub-millimeter), and (3) macroscopic (of order of millimeters or centimeters). Heating on these scales has different origins and different consequences for device failure in large and small varistors. On the microscopic scale, the heating localizes in strings of tiny hot spots. They occur at the grain boundaries in a conducting path where the potential is dropped across Schottky-type barriers. These observations are interpreted by applying transport theory and using computer simulations. It is shown that the heat transfer on a scale of the grain size is too fast to permit temperature differences that could cause a varistor failure. On an intermediate size scale, the heating is most intense along localized electrical paths. The high electrical conductivity of these paths has microstructural origin, i.e., it derives from the statistical fluctuations of grain sizes and grain boundary properties. Current localization on the intermediate size scale appears to be significant only in small varistors. On the macroscopic scale, current localization in large blocks can be attributed to inhomogeneities in the electrical properties which originate during ceramic processing. The resulting non-uniform heating is shown to cause destructive failures of large varistor blocks.
Date: November 1997
Creator: Bartkowiak, M.