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Air forces and air-force moments at large angles of attack and how they are affected by the shape of the wing

Description: From Summary: "The present report is, in the first place, a compilation of the test results now available from wing tests up to angles of attack 90^o. Reports are also given of tests with monoplane and auxiliary wings in the Gottingen wind tunnel for the purpose of plotting a steadily rising curve of the normal force as a foundation of the angle of attack."
Date: July 1930
Creator: Fuchs, Richard & Schmidt, Wilhelm

Air reactions to objects moving at rates above the velocity of sound with application to the air propeller

Description: From Discussion: "To meet these unusual conditions three sets of ball-bearings were employed and arranged in tandem, thereby reducing their speeds by the ratio of the number of sets used, as shown in Fig.3. This proved to be a complete success. The results obtained in experiments with a two-blade, 4 foot propeller of series 2, are given in Fig. 9."
Date: November 1922
Creator: Reed, S. Albert

Air transport

Description: I purpose (sic) in this paper to deal with the development in air transport which has taken place since civil aviation between England and the Continent first started at the end of August 1919. A great deal of attention has been paid in the press to air services of the future, to the detriment of the consideration of results obtained up to the present.
Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Page, F Handley

Air transport by gliders : some technical observations

Description: This short analysis may be useful in determining the real tactical possibilities of "glider trains" and in adopting the course to be followed in possible studies of these questions. In this analysis most prominent are: (a) the power required for the train in level flight; (b) its speed; (c) climb; and (d) the type of airplane best suited for towing as well as design requirements for transport gliders.
Date: June 1, 1941
Creator: Stepniewski, Wieslaw

Air-water analogy and the study of hydraulic models

Description: From Summary: "The author first sets forth some observations about the theory of models. Then he established certain general criteria for the construction of dynamically similar models in water and in air, through reference to the perfect fluid equations and to the ones pertaining to viscous flow. It is, in addition, pointed out that there are more cases in which the analogy is possible than is commonly supposed."
Date: July 1, 1953
Creator: Supino, Giulio

Airfoil Theory at Supersonic Speed

Description: A theory is developed for the airfoil of finite span at supersonic speed analogous to the Prandtl airfoil theory of 1918-1919 for incompressible flow. In addition to the profile and induced drags, account must be taken at supersonic flow of still another drag, namely, the wave drag, which is independent of the wing aspect ratio. Both wave and induced drags are proportional to the square of the lift and depend on the Mach number, that is, the ratio of flight to sound speed. In general, in the case of supersonic flow, the drag-lift ratio is considerably less favorable than is the case for incompressible flow. Among others the following examples are considered: 1) lifting line with constant lift distribution (horseshoe vortex); 2) computation of wave and induced drag and the twist of a trapezoidal wing of constant lift density; 3) computation of the lift distribution and drag of an untwisted rectangular wing.
Date: June 1939
Creator: Schlichting, H

Airplane drag

Description: It has been less well understood that the induced drag (or, better said, the undesired increase in the induced drag as compared with the theoretical minimum calculated by Prandtl) plays a decisive role in the process of taking off and therefore in the requisite engine power. This paper seeks to clarify the induced drag.
Date: December 1929
Creator: Topfer, Carl

Airplane flight in the stratosphere

Description: This brief survey of the problems encountered in high-altitude flight deals in particular with the need for high lift coefficient in the wings, large aspect ratios in the wings, and also the problem of hermetically sealing the cabin.
Date: February 1932
Creator: De Caria, Ugo

Airplane landing gear

Description: This report presents an investigation of the design and construction of various types of landing gears. Some of the items discussed include: chassises, wheels, shock absorbers (rubber disk and rubber cord), as well as oleopneumatic shock absorbers. Various types of landing gears are also discussed such as the Messier, Bendix, Vickers, and Bleriot.
Date: July 1931
Creator: Maiorca, Salvatore

Airplane stability calculations and their verification by flight tests

Description: For some time, the designers of airplanes have begun to occupy themselves with the question of longitudinal stability. In their quest to simplify calculation and data collection, the designers have attached the greatest importance to the coefficient of initial longitudinal stability. In this study a diagram was constructed from the data of the tunnel tests, which depends neither on the position of the center of gravity nor of the angle of deflection of the elevators. This diagram is constructed by means of straight lines drawn through the metacenters of the complete airplane, in a direction parallel to the tangents to the polar of the airplane relative to a system of axes fixed with reference to the airplane.
Date: July 1, 1922
Creator: Rota, Augusto

Airplane stability in taxying

Description: The stability analysis of an airplane while rolling is much more simplified to the extent that it can be obtained for numerical data which can be put to practical use in the design of landing gear dimensions. Every landing gear type attains to a critical ground friction coefficient that decides the beginning of instability, i.e., nosing over. This study has, in addition, a certain interest for the use of wheel brakes.
Date: September 1, 1932
Creator: Anderlik, E

Airplane strength calculations and static tests in Russia : an attempt at standardization

Description: We are here giving a summary of the rules established by the Theoretical Section of the Central Aerodynamic Institute of Moscow for the different calculation cases of an airplane. It appears the engineers of the Aerodynamic Institute considered only thick or medium profiles. For these profiles they have attempted to increase the safety when the center of pressure moves appreciably toward the trailing edge.
Date: September 1, 1928

Airscrew Gyroscopic Moments

Description: When flying in a turn or pulling out of a dive, the airscrew exerts a gyroscopic moment on the aircraft, In the case of airscrews with three or more blades, arranged symmetrically, the value of the gyroscopic moment is J(sub x) omega(sub x) omega(sub y), where J(sub x) denotes the axial moment of inertia about the axis of rotation of the airscrew, omega(sub x) the angular upeed of the airscrew about its axis, and omega (sub Y) the rotary speed of the whole aircraft about an axis parallel to the plane of the airscrew (e.g., when pulling up, the transverse axis of the aircraft). The gyroscopic moment then tends to rotate the aircraft about an axis perpendicular to those of the two angular speeds and, in the came of airscrews with three or more blades, is constant during a revolution of the airscrew. With two-bladed airscrews, on the contrary, although the calculate gyroscopic moment represents the mean value in time, it fluctuates about this value with a frequency equal to twice the revolutions per minute. In addition, pulsating moments likewise occur about the other two axes. This fact is known from the theory of the asymmetrical gyro; the calculations that have been carried out for the determination of the various gyroscopic moments, however, mostly require an exact knowledge of the gyro theory. The problem will therefore be approached in another manner based on quite elementary considerations. The considerations are of importance, not only in connection with the gyroscopic moments exerted by the two-bladed airscrew on the aircraft, but also with the stressing of the blades of airscrews with an arbitrary number of blades.
Date: September 1946
Creator: Bock, G.