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Zonal Flow Dynamics and Size-scaling of Anomalous Transport

Description: Nonlinear equations for the slow space-time evolution of the radial drift wave envelope and zonal flow amplitude have been self-consistently derived for a model nonuniform tokamak equilibrium within the coherent 4-wave drift wave-zonal flow modulation interaction model of Chen, Lin, and White [Phys. Plasmas 7 (2000) 3129]. Solutions clearly demonstrate turbulence spreading due to nonlinearly enhanced dispersiveness and, consequently, the device-size dependence of the saturated wave intensities and transport coefficients.
Date: July 30, 2003
Creator: Chen, Liu; White, Roscoe B. & Zonca, F.

Zonal flow excitation by drift waves in toroidal plasmas

Description: Recent 3D gyrokinetic and gyrofluid simulations in toroidal plasmas have demonstrated that zonal flows play a crucial role in regulating the nonlinear evolution of electrostatic drift-wave instabilities such as the ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes and, as a consequence, the level of the anomalous ion thermal transport, and that zonal flows could be spontaneously excited by ITG turbulence, suggesting parametric instability processes as the generation mechanism. Diamond et. al. have proposed the modulational instability of drift-wave turbulence ( plasmons ) in a slab-geometry treatment.
Date: June 13, 2000
Creator: Chen, L; Lin, Z. & White, R.

Zonal Flow Measurements Concept I

Description: We study the characteristics of self-generated zonal flows as observed in nonlinear global gyrokinetic simulations of toroidal ITG turbulence for typical parameters of DIII-D core plasmas, and discuss various possibilities for experimental measurements and the development of new diagnostics.
Date: October 1, 1999
Creator: Synakowski, E.J.; Burrell, K.H.; Nazikian, R.; Hahm, T.S. & Lin, Z.

Zonal statistics in (general circulation model) GCM/GCM/Data intercomparisons

Description: Comparisons of general circulation model (GCM) results with each other and with climate data are routinely made on a variety of spatial scales. In bridging the gap from larger scale behavior (global, hemispheric) to the regional, zonal statistics are commonly used. Here, statistics are developed using values at all longitudinal gridpoints at a specified latitude and these are displayed as a function of latitude. The zonal average is the most routinely used of these statistics, but there are many other statistics available, few of which are ever examined. These provide a rich array of diagnostic measures for intercomparing models with each other and with observational data. Several of these measures are explored here: (1) histograms or boxplots displaying the detailed distributions, (2) rms or average absolute pointwise differences between model and data sets and (3) cross correlations and auto correlations. 5 figs.
Date: November 1, 1990
Creator: Grotch, S.L.

Zone 4 Study: Shielded Lift Truck Refurbishment/Replacement

Description: The Zone 4 Stage Right Shielded Lift Trucks (SLT's) will likely need refurbishment or replacement within the next two to five years, due to wear. This document discusses the options to provide a long term and reliable means of satisfying Zone 4 material movement and inventory requirements.
Date: September 2002
Creator: Amai, Wendy A.; Jones, James F.; Lennox, R. Charleene & Simon, Ronald W.

ZONE - a finite element mesh generator. [2-D, for CDC 7600]

Description: The ZONE computer program is a finite element mesh generator that produces the nodes and element description of any two-dimensional geometry. The geometry is subdivided into a mesh of quadrilateral and triangular zones arranged sequentially in an ordered march through the geometry. The order of march can be chosen so that the minimum bandwidth is obtained. The node points are defined in terms of the x and y coordinates in a global rectangular coordinate system. The zones generated are quadrilaterals or triangles defined by four node points in a counterclockwise sequence. Node points defining the outside boundary are generated for slide lines and to describe pressure boundary conditions. The mesh that is generated can be used as input to any two dimensional as well as any axisymmetrical structure program. The following points are taken up: program concept and characteristics; regions; layers; meridians (offset, circular arc, ellipse); rays; common characterstics - rays and meridians, ZONE input description; output files; examples; and program availability. Also generated is the input to the program PLOT. 15 figures. (RWR)
Date: March 12, 1980
Creator: Burger, M.J.

ZONE: a finite element mesh generator. [In FORTRAN IV for CDC 7600]

Description: The ZONE computer program is a finite-element mesh generator which produces the nodes and element description of any two-dimensional geometry. The geometry is subdivided into a mesh of quadrilateral and triangular zones arranged sequentially in an ordered march through the geometry. The order of march can be chosen so that the minimum bandwidth is obtained. The node points are defined in terms of the x and y coordinates in a global rectangular coordinate system. The zones generated are quadrilaterals or triangles defined by four node points in a counterclockwise sequence. Node points defining the outside boundary are generated to describe pressure boundary conditions. The mesh that is generated can be used as input to any two-dimensional as well as any axisymmetrical structure program. The output from ZONE is essentially the input file to NAOS, HONDO, and other axisymmetric finite element programs. 14 figures. (RWR)
Date: May 1, 1976
Creator: Burger, M. J.

Zone approaches to international safeguards of a nuclear fuel cycle

Description: At present the IAEA designs its safeguards approach with regard to each type of nuclear facility so that the safeguards activities and effort are essentially the same for a given type and size of nuclear facility wherever it may be located. Conclusions regarding a state are derived by combining the results of safeguards verifications for the individual facilities within it. We have examined safeguards approaches for a state nuclear fuel cycle that take into account the existence of all of the nuclear facilities in the state. We have focussed on the fresh-fuel zone of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle, the several facilities of which use or process low-enriched uranium. At one extreme, flows and inventories would be verified at each material balance area. At the other extreme, the flows into and out of the zone and the inventory of the whole zone would be verified. The intention is to develop an approach which will make it possible to compare the technical effectiveness and the inspection effort for the facility-oriented approach, for the zone approach and for some reasonable intermediate safeguards approaches. Technical effectiveness, in these cases, means an estimate of the assurance that all nuclear material has been accounted for.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Fishbone, L.G. & Higinbotham, W.A.

Zone conditioning in a California foothill house

Description: The principal focus of the reported research is the performance of the installed zoned air distribution system in a house located in the foothills northeast of Sacramento California. The 297 m{sup 2} two story house contained a central air conditioner and an air distribution system with four dampered supply duct legs. The air conditioning system included a two speed fan and two speed compressor, with the air handler placed inside a closet and almost all the ducts located inside the building envelope. The uninsulated sheet metal ducts ran inside a space between stories and in interior walls. The performance parameters examined included: (1) duct leakage, (2) duct conduction, (3) zoning performance and (4) equipment efficiency impacts. In conclusion, two major points were made concerning the test house. The first was that substantial energy benefits were obtained by placing the ducts inside the conditioned space. The second was that the energy benefits from zoning the house were not realized, primarily due to thermal stratification and the open floor plan in the house. Secondary impacts lowering zoning performance were the k& of return duct dampers and leakage and conduction losses in the air distribution system. Utility programs or building standards promoting zoning as a means of conserving energy or reducing peak power demand should be aware of the many potential pitfalls that can arise with zone conditioning, particularly with dampered air distribution systems.
Date: December 1, 1993
Creator: Jump, D. & Modera, M.

Zone Freezing Study for Pyrochemical Process Waste Minimization

Description: Pyroprocessing technology is a non-aqueous separation process for treatment of used nuclear fuel. At the heart of pyroprocessing lies the electrorefiner, which electrochemically dissolves uranium from the used fuel at the anode and deposits it onto a cathode. During this operation, sodium, transuranics, and fission product chlorides accumulate in the electrolyte salt (LiCl-KCl). These contaminates change the characteristics of the salt overtime and as a result, large volumes of contaminated salt are being removed, reprocessed and stored as radioactive waste. To reduce the storage volumes and improve recycling process for cost minimization, a salt purification method called zone freezing has been proposed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Zone freezing is melt crystallization process similar to the vertical Bridgeman method. In this process, the eutectic salt is slowly cooled axially from top to bottom. As solidification occurs, the fission products are rejected from the solid interface and forced into the liquid phase. The resulting product is a grown crystal with the bulk of the fission products near the bottom of the salt ingot, where they can be easily be sectioned and removed. Despite successful feasibility report from KAERI on this process, there were many unexplored parameters to help understanding and improving its operational routines. Thus, this becomes the main motivation of this proposed study. The majority of this work has been focused on the CsCl-LiCl-KCl ternary salt. CeCl3-LiCl-KCl was also investigated to check whether or not this process is feasible for the trivalent species—surrogate for rare-earths and transuranics. For the main part of the work, several parameters were varied, they are: (1) the retort advancement rate—1.8, 3.2, and 5.0 mm/hr, (2) the crucible lid configurations—lid versus no-lid, (3) the amount or size of mixture—50 and 400 g, (4) the composition of CsCl in the salt—1, 3, and 5 wt%, ...
Date: May 1, 2012
Creator: Williams, Ammon

Zone of capture analysis for the A/M area of the Savannah River Site

Description: The groundwater of the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) is contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) as the result of the past use and disposal of these solvents. For the purpose of remediating this contamination, the A/M Area of the SRS has been divided into three sectors termed the central, northern (or SRL), and southern sectors. The central portion of the A/M Area has had an active remediation system of eleven recovery wells since 1985 and its effectiveness has been evaluated through groundwater modeling. Remediation will soon begin at the northern or SRL sector with a pump and treat system of six wells distributed at four different locations with total pumping of approximately 250 gallons per minute (gpm). The locations and effectiveness of the capture system for each sector has been estimated through groundwater modeling without full consideration of the central recovery system. This report will provide an estimate of the number of recovery wells required for the southern sector and also consider the effects of the current and planned recovery systems for the northern and central plumes. The southern sector contamination (which is defined as the area south of the M-Area basin) has been initially characterized and one recovery well (RWM-16) has been installed, for which an aquifer test was performed. However, to date a recovery well system has not been designed for the southern sector nor has a comprehensive evaluation of the recovery systems for all three sectors been completed. The purpose of this groundwater modeling study is to: (1) determine the location and number of recovery wells necessary to contain or remediate the southern sector, and (2) complete an analysis of the combined central, northern and estimated southern sector remediation so that the interactions of the systems can be determined.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Haselow, J.; Beaudoin, C.M. & Schreuder, P.J.

Zone of Interaction Between Hanford Site Groundwater and Adjacent Columbia River

Description: This report describes the FY 2000 results of a Science and Technology investigation of the groundwater/river interface at the Hanford Site. The investigation focused on (1) a 2-D simulation of water flowpaths beneath the shoreline region under the influence of a transient river stage, and (2) mixing between groundwater and river water.
Date: October 23, 2001
Creator: Peterson, Robert E

Zone of Interaction Between Hanford Site Groundwater and Adjacent Columbia River

Description: This report describes the FY 2000 results of a Science and Technology investigation of the groundwater/river interface at the Hanford Site. The investigation focused on (1) a 2-D simulation of water flowpaths beneath the shoreline region under the influence of a transient river stage, and (2) mixing between groundwater and river water.
Date: October 23, 2001
Creator: Peterson, Robert E. & Connelly, Michael P.

Zone plate coded imaging of laser compressed targets

Description: The first successful demonstration of high resolution, tomographic imaging of a laboratory plasma using coded imaging techniques is reported. ZPCI has been used to image the x-ray emission from laser compressed DT filled microballoons. The zone plate camera viewed an x-ray spectral window extending from below 2 keV to above 6 keV. It exhibited a resolution approximately 8 ..mu..m, a magnification factor approximately 13, and subtended a radiation collection solid angle at the target approximately 10/sup -2/ sr. X-ray images using ZPCI were compared with those taken using a grazing incidence reflection x-ray microscope. The agreement was excellent. In addition, the zone plate camera produced tomographic images. The nominal tomographic resolution was approximately 75 ..mu..m. This allowed three dimensional viewing of target emission from a single shot in planar ''slices''. In addition to its tomographic capability, the great advantage of the coded imaging technique lies in its applicability to hard (greater than 10 keV) x-ray and charged particle imaging. Experiments involving coded imaging of the suprathermal x-ray and high energy alpha particle emission from laser compressed microballoon targets are discussed.
Date: September 1, 1976
Creator: Ceglio, N. M.; George, E. V.; Brooks, K. M.; Manes, K. R.; Coleman, L. W. & Ahlstrom, H. G.

Zone plate imaging of 14-MeV neutrons

Description: At Livermore we are interested in imaging the thermonuclear burn region of fusion targets irradiated at our Nova laser facility. We expect compressed core diameters to be 10's of microns, and would like images with better than 10-..mu..m resolution. Alpha particle images provided the first direct information about the thermonuclear burn geometry in thin walled exploding pusher targets. In future high density target experiments, only highly penetrating radiations like the 14-MeV neutrons will escape the target core to provide information about the burn region. To make the measurement with a neutron ''pinhole'' camera requires a 10..mu..m pinhole through about 10 cm of material and 10/sup 14/ to 10/sup 15/ source neutrons. Penumbral imaging offers some improvement over a pinhole. Zone plate coded imaging (ZPCI) techniques are particularly well suited for imaging small objects like the compressed core of a laser fusion target. We have been using ZPCI techniques to image nonpenetrating radiations like x rays and alpha particles for about 10 years. The techniques are well developed. Imaging penetrating radiations like 14-MeV neutrons using ZPCI techniques has several possible advantages. The large solid angle subtended by the Zone plate might substantially reduce the required target neutron yield needed to produce a useful image, and a neutron zone plate system with 10-..mu..m resolution might be easier to fabricate and characterize than a pinhole system. This paper explores the use of ZPCI techniques with penetrating radiation.
Date: January 28, 1986
Creator: Lerche, R.A.; Lane, S.M.; Hawryluk, A.M. & Ceglio, N.M.

Zone refining high-purity germanium

Description: The effects of various parameters on germanium purification by zone refining have been examined. These parameters include the germanium container and container coatings, ambient gas and other operating conditions. Four methods of refining are presented which reproducibly yield 3.5 kg germanium ingots from which high purity (vertical barN/sub A/ - N/sub D/vertical bar less than or equal to2 x 10/sup 10/ cm/sup -3/) single crystals can be grown. A qualitative model involving binary and ternary complexes of Si, O, B, and Al is shown to account for the behavior of impurities at these low concentrations.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Hubbard, G.S.; Haller, E.E. & Hansen, W.L.

Zone refining of plutonium metal

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.
Date: May 1, 1997

Zone Refining of Plutonium Metal

Description: The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Blau, M. S.

Zone refining of sintered, microwave-derived YBCO superconductors

Description: Post-sintering treatments such as zone melting under thermal gradient has been conducted on sintered YBCO tape cast films. YBCO precursor powder was derived through decomposition of a mixture of nitrates of cations in a microwave oven for {approx}4 min. The resulting powder was characterized and made into thin sheets by tape casting and then sintered at 945 C for 5 h. The sintered tapes were subjected to repeated zone refining operations at relatively high speeds of {approx}30 mm/h. A microstructure having uniformly oriented grains in the a-b plane throughout the bulk of the sample was obtained by three repeated zone refining operations. Details of precursor preparation, microwave processing and its advantages, zone refining conditions, and microstructural features are presented in this paper.
Date: July 1, 1993
Creator: Warrier, K. G. K.; Varma, H. K.; Mani, T. V.; Damodaran, A. D. & Balachandran, U.

Zone sintering of ceramic fuels

Description: Cold pressed UC{sup 2} fuel compacts are sintered at temperatures greater than about 1850 C while in contract with a sintering facilitator material, e.g., tantalum, niobium, tungsten or a metal carbide such as uranium carbide, thereby allowing for a reduction in the overall porosity and leaving the desired product, i.e., a highly dense, large-grained uranium dicarbide. The process of using the sintering facilitator materials can be applied in the preparation of other carbide materials.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Matthews, R.B.; Chidester, K.M. & Moore, H.G.