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Zirconium Pilot Plant Research and Development Progress Report

Description: The following report studies the effect of flow rates and deposition pressure on the zirconium deposition in the zirconium pilot plant with the use of a Hilco oil purifier for the vacuum pumps that permitted studies to continue through the month.
Date: November 20, 1951
Creator: Dryden, C. E.; Accountius, O. E.; Black, D. G.; Finney, B. C.; Gruber, B. A.; Jurevic, W. G. et al.

Zirconium-Precipitation Pilot Plant

Description: This report follows an investigation with the objectives to improve the design of an existing pilot plant to allow better control of operating variables than was attained by previous investigators, and to determine the effect of leaching time on phthalate recovery.
Date: September 30, 1950
Creator: Parish, G. T.; Bakal, R.; Goodman, E. I. & Larsen, H. A.

Zirconium pressure tube testing: Test procedures, Production Assurance Program (Project H-700)

Description: UNC Nuclear Industries (UNC) has initiated a plan for the fabrication of zirconium alloy pressure tubes required for the future operation of N-Reactor. As part of this plan, UNC is establishing a program to qualify and develop a process capable of fabricating these pressure tubes to the requirements of UNC specification HWS 6502, REV. 4, Amendment 1. The objective of the Pressure Tube Testing Task is to support the UNC program-by performing physical, mechanical and chemical testing on prototype tube sections produced during FY-1986, 1987 and 1988 and to test samples from production runs after 1988 as may be required. The types of tests included in the Zirconium Pressure Tube Testing Program will be as follows: tensile tests; burst tests; fracture toughness tests; corrosion tests; chemical composition analyses; grain structure evaluations. The purpose of this document is to define the procedures that will be used in each type of test included in this task.
Date: June 1, 1986
Creator: Zaloudek, F. R. & Lewis, M.

Zirconium Purification Pilot Plant

Description: This report discusses the process of zirconium purification, providing an alternate method for converting ZrCl4 solution to the oxide in order to free it from small amounts of hafnium impurity that are naturally present.
Date: September 12, 1950
Creator: Lea, D. C.; Aykanian, A. A.; Abbanat, R. F. & Bowman, W. H.

Zirconium Research and Development : Progress Report

Description: From introduction: "This is the ninth monthly report, BMI-514, under Contract No. AT(30-1)-771 on "Zirconium Research and Development". The report covers the work period from September 15, 1950, to October 15, 1950. Work is continuing on the preparation of large-diameter zirconium crystal bars in the 16-inch-diameter de Boer unit. Crystal bars up to 1-5/16 inches in diameter and 8 feet long have been prepared in this unit."
Date: October 15, 1950
Creator: Bulkowski, H. H.; Sebenick, J. J.; Campbell, Ivor E. & Gonser, B. W.

ZIRCONIUM RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT. Progress Report No. 9 for September 15, 1950 to October 15, 1950

Description: A zirconium crystal bar, weighing 29 pounds and 1 5/16 inches in diameter by 8 feet in over-all length, was prepared, using pear-shaped zirconium couples to join the filament to the electrodes. This crystal bar was the largest produced to date in the 16-in.-diam. de Boer unit. The design of the couplings was modified to incorporate improvements indicated by the initial run, and another run is in progress. Binary alloys of Zr and Ni, Cr, and Si, as well as a zirconium alloy containing Fe, Al, and Si, were prepared for use as feed material in the small pyrex de Boer bulbs. The transfer of these elements from the feed to the crystal bar is being investigated. The rate of deposition and the type of crystal structure obtained with additions of various amounts of iodine are being studied. (auth)
Date: October 15, 1950
Creator: Bulkowski, H.H.; Sebenick, J.J.; Campbell, I.E. & Gonser, B.W.

Zirconium-titanium phosphate acid catalysts synthesized by sol gel techniques

Description: Recently a large effort has been put into identifying solid acid materials, particularly sulfated zirconia and other sulfated metal oxides, that can be used to replace environmentally hazardous liquid acids in industrial processes. The authors are studying a group of mixed metal phosphates, some of which have also been sulfated, for their catalytic and morphological characteristics. Zirconium and titanium are the metals used in this study and the catalysts are synthesized from alkoxide starting materials with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O, and sometimes H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as gelling agents. The measurement of acidity was achieved by using the isomerization of 2-methyl-2-pentene as a model reaction. The phosphate stabilized the mixed metal sulfates, preventing them from calcining to oxides boosting their initial catalytic activity. The addition of sulfate prevented the formation of the catalytically inactive mixed metal pyrophosphates when calcined at high temperatures (> 773 K).
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Jackson, N.B.; Thoma, S.G.; Kohler, S. & Nenoff, T.M.

Zirconium tube sample evaluation program

Description: This document, dated May 3, 1966, presents data from the zirconium tube sample evaluation program at the Hanford Reservation. Data presented includes: (1) operating history, (2) flow characteristics, (3) time in core, and (4) average temperature for numerous samples. The document consists entirely of data.
Date: May 3, 1966
Creator: Korpi, W.E.

Zircons and fluids: An experimental investigation with applications for radioactive waste disposal

Description: The long-term stability of nuclear waste forms or barriers is related to changes in physical properties of the material induced through radiation damage and subsequent changes in solubility. Investigations conducted by us on natural zircons (ZrSiO{sub 4}) supports a positive correlation between level of alpha damage and fluid composition to enhanced levels of corrosion. New data are presented on the nature and rate of the solution process. We also present data on our continuing efforts to synthesize and characterize both pure ZrSiO{sub 4} and doped with U, Th, Hf, Dy and P.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Sinha, A.K.; Student, J. & Essex, R.

Zircons and fluids: An experimental investigation with applications for radioactive waste disposal. Hydrothermal stability of zircons: Progress report, January 1991--December 1991

Description: The long-term stability of nuclear waste forms or barriers is related to changes in physical properties of the material induced through radiation damage and subsequent changes in solubility. Investigations conducted by us on natural zircons (ZrSiO{sub 4}) supports a positive correlation between level of alpha damage and fluid composition to enhanced levels of corrosion. New data are presented on the nature and rate of the solution process. We also present data on our continuing efforts to synthesize and characterize both pure ZrSiO{sub 4} and doped with U, Th, Hf, Dy and P.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Sinha, A. K.; Student, J. & Essex, R.

Zircons and fluids: An experimental investigation with applications for radioactive waste storage. Final report, July 1, 1988--July 31, 1994

Description: The project objective was to develop a relationship between the stability of zircons (both natural and synthetic) with variable levels of radiation damage to fluids because of the clear relationship between enhanced solubility (leachability) and {alpha} - damage, our research was able to quantify this process. We also analyzed the mechanics of fractures induced due to both radiation and temperature enhanced stresses. Both objective were successfully carried out, and although details are available in progress reports and referred publications, a brief summary is presented here.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Sinha, A.K.

The Zirflex Decladding of Tube-in-Tube Type Fuel Elements

Description: Pilot unit Zirflex dissolutions were carried out on near prototypical tube-in-tube type elements clad in oxidized Zircaloy. The runs were made with the elements horizontal and at simulated large scale operating conditions. No significant difference was noted between the actual decladding achieved in these experiments and that which was predicted from prior studies on similarly oxidized elements with somewhat different geometries. No gas blanketing nor diffusion effects were observed. Initially, preferential attack was noted on areas where oxide film had been scratched or handled. However, near the end of a run a random distribution of undissolved cladding existed; 90% of the cladding was removed in 6.5 hours. (auth)
Date: February 23, 1961
Creator: Smith, P. W.

The Zirflex Process

Description: tive dissolution of zirconium or Zircaloy fuel cladding. The process involves the dissolution of the cladding material in solutions of ammonium fluoride alone or in mixture with amonium nitrate. Mixtures of amonium fluoride and amonium nitrate are preferred since they result in very little evolution of hydrogen during the is that these solutions attack austenitic stainless steels only slowly, in sharp contrast to the media (e.g., hydrofluoric acid or hydrofluoric-nitric acid mixtures) generng 6 M NH/sub 4/F, the rate of pentration of Zircaloy-2 is nearly 100 mils/hr, while that of typical austentic stainless steels is only about 0.5 mil/month. (auth)
Date: October 31, 1958
Creator: Swanson, J. L.

THE ZIRFLEX PROCESS INTERIM DEVELOPMENT SUMMARY

Description: The Zircaloy-clad fuels and the application of the Zirflex Process for dissolution are discussed. Zirflex chemical flowsheets are presented as developed by pilot plant operatlons. The Zirflex Process is applicable to the reprocessing of fuels from the Dresden Reactor and the PWR Reactor. Other applications of the process are the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor fuels and the New Production Reactor fuels, possible fuels from the Experimental Breeder Reactor; NPD-2 fuels; and fuels from Carolina-Virginia Nuclear Power Associates Reactor. (W.L.H.)
Date: June 24, 1959
Creator: Platt, A.M. & Cooley, C.R.

THE ZIRFLEX PROCESS TERMINAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT

Description: The Zirflex Process employs a boiling aqueous solution of ammonium fluoride and ammonium nitrate to dissolve zirconium or Zircaloy. Average unoxidized Zircaloy dissolution rates are from 10 to 15 mils/hr for the optimum charge solution of 5.5M NH/sub 4/F-0.5M NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ at a F/Zr mole ratio of 7. Zircaloy, which is oxidized by exposure to high-temperature air or water, dissolves at rates of threeto five-fold less. Cores of uranium, uranium- aluminum, and uranium dioxide are not severely attacked by the Zirflex decladding solutions. Only the soluble uranium enters the waste, with losses varying from 0.3 to 3.0 g/l. The Zirflex waste solution is neutralized to a pH of 10 before storage. This requires approximately 0.07 gallon of 50% caustic per gallon of decladding solution. The neutralized waste consists of nearly 20 vol.% of rapidly settling solids, which are easily slurried under turbulent flow conditions. These solids tend to settle out in streamline flow and therefore agitation is required during temporary storage. Conventional nitric acid core dissolution is generally applicable to Zircaloy-clad uranium and UO/sub 2/ elements since the core material is essentially free from zirconium. The addition of aluminum nitrate to the nitric acid dissolvent at an aluminum/ residual F/sup -/ mole ratio of approximately three is necessary, however, to ixhibit the corrosive action of residual fluoride. Stainless steel can be used as the material of construction for the Zirflex dissolver equipment because of the dissolvent's comparatively mild corrosive action. A corrosicn rate of 11 mils/month was determined using 304L stainless steel exposed to boiling 6M ammonium fluoride. (auth)
Date: September 20, 1960
Creator: Smith, P.W.

Zivotofsky v. Kerry: The Jerusalem Passport Case

Description: This report briefly describes legislative efforts to modify U.S. policy with respect to Jerusalem, in particular multiple enactments of the passport provision. The report summarizes the appellate court's opinion finding the passport measure unconstitutional and presents brief synopses of the petitioner's argument before the Supreme Court, the Secretary of State's brief in response, and briefs of amici curiae submitted by the Senate (pursuant to S.Res. 504) and by some Members of the House of Representatives. Finally, the report concludes by suggesting some factors that may affect the outcome.
Date: October 30, 2014
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.

Zivotofsky v. Kerry: The Jerusalem Passport Case and Its Potential Implications for Congress's Foreign Affairs Powers

Description: This report briefly describes legislative efforts to modify U.S. policy with respect to Jerusalem, in particular multiple enactments of the passport provision. The report then summarizes the Supreme Court decision, including concurrences and dissents. Finally, the report concludes by suggesting possible implications of the decision with respect to Congress's authority to influence foreign affairs.
Date: September 28, 2015
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.

Zlib: A numerical library for optimal design of truncated power series algebra and map parameterization routines

Description: A brief review of the Zlib development is given. Emphasized is the Zlib nerve system which uses the One-Step Index Pointers (OSIPs) for efficient computation and flexible use of the Truncated Power Series Algebra (TPSA). Also emphasized is the treatment of parameterized maps with an object-oriented language (e.g. C++). A parameterized map can be a Vector Power Series (Vps) or a Lie generator represented by an exponent of a Truncated Power Series (Tps) of which each coefficient is an object of truncated power series.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Yan, Y.T.

ZLIB++: Object-oriented numerical library for differential algebra

Description: New software engineering tools and object-oriented design have a great impact on the software development process. But in high energy physics all major packages were implemented in FORTRAN and porting of these codes to another language is rather complicated, primarily because of their huge size and heavy use of FORTRAN mathematical libraries. But some intrinsic accelerator concepts, such as nested structure of modern accelerators, look very pretty when implemented with the object-oriented approach. In this paper we present the object-oriented version of ZLIB, numerical library for differential algebra and show how the modern approaches can simplify the development and support of accelerator codes, decrease code size, and allow description of complex mathematical transformations by simple language.
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Malitsky, N.; Reshetov, A. & Yan, Y.

Zn-Site Determination in Protein Encapsulated ZnxFe3-xO4 Nanoparticles

Description: The X-ray absorption spectra of the Fe and Zn L-edges for 6.7 nm Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles grown inside 12 nm ferritin protein cages with 10%, 15%, 20% and 33% zinc doping, shows that the Zn is substitutional as Zn{sup 2+} within the iron oxide host structure. A Neel-Arrhenius plot of the blocking temperature in the frequency dependent ac-susceptibility measurements show that the particles are non-interacting and that the anisotropy energy barrier is reduced with Zn loading. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) of the Fe displays a linear decrease with Zn-doping in sharp contrast to the initial increase present in the bulk system. The most plausible explanation for the moment decrease is that Zn substitutes preferentially into the tetrahedral A-site as a Zn{sup 2+} cation, generating a mixed spinel.
Date: October 1, 2008
Creator: Pool, V. L.; Klem, M. T.; Holroyd, J.; Harris, T.; Arenholz, E.; Young, M. et al.