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Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive

Description: This report discusses attempts to resolve the Cyprus problem and reunify the island which have undergone various levels of negotiation for almost 40 years. Prospects for a settlement that would end the political division of Cyprus appear to have reached a stalemate and may now enter a period of retrenchment possibly dominated by harder-line views by both sides and more difficult negotiations.
Date: March 23, 2010
Creator: Morelli, Vincent

Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive

Description: This report discusses attempts to resolve the Cyprus problem and reunify the island which have undergone various levels of negotiation for almost 40 years. Prospects for a settlement that would end the political division of Cyprus appear to have reached a stalemate and may now enter a period of retrenchment possibly dominated by harder-line views by both sides and more difficult negotiations.
Date: April 1, 2010
Creator: Morelli, Vincent

Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive

Description: This report provides a brief overview of the early history of the negotiations to reunify Cyprus, a more detailed review of the negotiations since 2008, and a description of some of the issues involved in the talks. A side issue involving trade between the European Union and Turkish Cyprus is also addressed.
Date: November 29, 2010
Creator: Morelli, Vincent

Dairy Policy and the 2008 Farm Bill

Description: This report discusses the impact of the 2008 farm bill (P.L. 110-234, The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act) on the U.S. dairy industry. It includes an overview of provisions and issues that result from the bill and looks specifically at the Milk Income Loss Contract (MILC) program, the dairy price support program, federal milk marketing orders, and dairy import assessment. There is also some analysis of the implications regarding World Trade Organization (WTO) limitations. An appendix provides a comparison of the 2008 provisions and those from previous legislation.
Date: June 13, 2008
Creator: Chite, Ralph M.

Dairy Policy Issues

Description: This report discusses several dairy issues that have been or are being considered by the 109th Congress, some of which affect the three major federal dairy policy tools -- the Milk Income Loss Contract (MILC) program, federal milk marketing orders, and the dairy price support program.
Date: May 24, 2006
Creator: Chite, Ralph M.

Dairy Policy Issues

Description: Two federal programs that support the price and income received by dairy farmers are expiring in 2007 — the dairy price support program and the Milk Income Loss Contract (MILC) program. This report discusses the reauthorization of these and other farm commodity price and income support programs, which is being debated by the 110th Congress in the context of a pending omnibus 2007 farm bill.
Date: February 9, 2007
Creator: Chite, Ralph M.

Dallas Love Field: The Wright and Shelby Amendments

Description: The history of the Wright Amendment dates back to the 1960s when the now defunct Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) proposed the creation of a single regional airport in the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) area. This report discusses legislation affecting the Wright/Shelby restrictions that have been introduced in the 109th Congress.
Date: November 9, 2005
Creator: Tatelman, Todd B.

Dark Pools in Equity Trading: Policy Concerns and Recent Developments

Description: This report examines the confluence of factors that led to the rise of dark pools; the potential benefits and costs of such trading; some regulatory and congressional concerns over dark pools; recent regulatory developments by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), which oversees broker-dealers; and some recent lawsuits and enforcement actions garnering significant media attention.
Date: September 26, 2014
Creator: Shorter, Gary & Miller, Rena S.

"Dark Pools" In Equity Trading: Significance and Recent Developments

Description: This report discusses "Dark Pools", relatively recent and controversial electronic stock trading alternatives to traditional exchanges, such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), and now account for about 15% of overall trading volume. The report discusses the pros and cons of "dark trading", civil suits in reaction to Dark Pools and recent Securities and Exchange Commission actions.
Date: August 27, 2014
Creator: Shorter, Gary & Miller, Rena S.

Dark Web

Description: This report illuminates information on the various layers of the Internet, with a particular focus on the Dark Web. It discusses both legitimate and illicit uses of the Dark Web, including how the government may rely upon it. Throughout, the report raises issues that policy makers may consider as they explore means to curb malicious activity online.
Date: July 7, 2015
Creator: Finklea, Kristin

Data Mining and Homeland Security: An Overview

Description: This report explores the issue of data mining in detail and in the context of homeland security, as well as relevant initiatives and pieces of legislation. Often used as a means for detecting fraud, assessing risk, and product retailing, data mining involves the use of data analysis tools to discover previously unknown, valid patterns and relationships in large data sets. In the context of homeland security, data mining can be a potential means to identify terrorist activities, such as money transfers and communications, and to identify and track individual terrorists themselves, such as through travel and immigration records.
Date: August 27, 2008
Creator: Seifert, Jeffrey W.

Data Security and Breach Notification Legislation: Selected Legal Issues

Description: This report describes the common elements of several data security and breach notification bills that have been introduced in the 114th Congress, which broadly would impose security and notification requirements on businesses regardless of industry sector. It also discusses state laws that may apply in the event of a data breach and addresses two legal issues that may arise in consideration of new legislation about data security and breach notification.
Date: December 28, 2015
Creator: Dolan, Alissa M.

Data Security: Federal Legislative Approaches

Description: This report discusses the core areas addressed in federal legislation, including the scope of coverage (who is covered and what information is covered); data privacy and security safeguards for sensitive personal information; requirements for security breach notification (when, how, triggers, frequency, and exceptions); restrictions on social security numbers (collection, use, and sale); credit freezes on consumer reports; identity theft penalties; causes of action; and preemption.
Date: June 6, 2008
Creator: Stevens, Gina Marie

Davis-Bacon Act Coverage and the State Revolving Fund Program Under the Clean Water Act

Description: This report discusses the Davis-Bacon Act (DBA), which established a prevailing wage requirement for persons working under government contracts, and the Clean Water Act (CWA), which includes a related requirement for the construction of wastewater treatment plants. In particular, it considers the impact on state revolving loan funds (SRF), in which states contribute part of the needed funds for projects and would need to account for the prevailing wage requirement.
Date: March 26, 2008
Creator: Whittaker, William G.

The Davis-Bacon Act: Issues and Legislation During the 108th Congress

Description: This report discusses the debate surrounding the Davis-Bacon Act (1931, as amended), which requires, among other things, that not less than the locally-prevailing wage be paid to workers employed in federal contract construction. Through recent decades, the Act has become a continuing source of contention, particularly regarding its impacts, whether it should be modified, strengthened, or repealed, and if it is being administered effectively.
Date: March 19, 2004
Creator: Whittaker, William G.

Davis v. United States: Retroactivity and the Good-Faith Exception to the Exclusionary Rule

Description: This report covers the legal causes and implications of Davis v. United States. The Supreme Court will consider whether evidence that was seized in violation of the defendant’s Fourth Amendment rights is admissible at trial because the police seized the evidence in good-faith reliance on then-controlling case law.
Date: April 19, 2011
Creator: Barbour, Emily C.

Daylight Saving Time

Description: This report discusses Daylight Saving Time (DST), which is a period of the year between spring and fall when clocks in the United States are set one hour ahead of standard time. DST is currently observed in the United States from 2:00 a.m. on the second Sunday in March until 2:00 a.m. on the first Sunday in November.
Date: March 9, 2016
Creator: Cook, Beth

DC Gun Laws and Proposed Amendments

Description: In the 112th Congress, Representative Mike Ross introduced H.R. 645, "To restore Second Amendment rights in the District of Columbia." This measure is identical to H.R. 5162 from the previous Congress. This report provides an analysis of the District's firearms laws and congressional proposals.
Date: April 26, 2011
Creator: Chu, Vivian S.

The Death of Justice Scalia: Procedural Issues Arising on an Eight-Member Supreme Court

Description: This report provides an overview of the Supreme Court's procedural rules and requirements when the Court is staffed with fewer than nine members. It includes an overview of the Court's quorum requirements, rehearing procedures, and vote count practices, with a focus on how the Court has traditionally responded to a change of composition during a term. The report concludes by highlighting over a dozen cases from the current term that could result in an evenly divided Supreme Court.
Date: February 25, 2016
Creator: Nolan, Andrew

The Death Penalty: Capital Punishment Legislation in the 109th Congress

Description: This report discusses legislation regarding the death penalty in the 109th Congress. The USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act (Reauthorization Act) contains a number of death penalty related provisions. Some create new federal capital offenses; some add the death penalty as a sentencing option in the case of preexisting federal crimes; some alter the procedural attributes of federal capital cases. Other proposals offered during the 109th Congress would have followed the same pattern: some new crimes; some new penalties for old crimes; and some procedural adjustments. Only one of the other proposals, the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act, passed, although at least one House approved several others. Three proposals do not fit the pattern; they either would have abolished the death penalty as a federal sentencing alternative or would have imposed a moratorium upon executions.
Date: December 11, 2006
Creator: Doyle, Charles