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Theoretical Studies of the Behavior of Ions in Aqueous Solutions of Mixed Electrolytes With Respect to Osmionic Cell Operation

Description: From Forward: "This is the seventy-sixth of a series of reports designed to present accounts of progress in saline water conversion with the expectation that the exchange of such data will contribute to the long-range development of economical processes applicable to large-scale, low-cost demineralization of sea or other saline water."
Date: July 1963
Creator: Murphy, George W. & Matthews, Robert R.

Thermodynamic Properties of Saline Water

Description: From Abstract: "Activity coefficients of calcium sulfate were calculated from solubilities of gypsum in 0 to 1.0m sodium chloride at temperatures from 25 degrees C to 95 degrees C. X-ray diffraction studies for calcium sulfate modifications before and after contact with aqueous and saline solutions are given."
Date: July 1964
Creator: Power, W. H. & Fabuss, B. M.

Thermodynamics and Kinetics in Hydrate Systems

Description: From Introduction and Summary: "This report presents the results of one year of experimental work performed under an Office of Saline Water Grant to study various aspects of the hydrate process for demineralizing sea water. Work is continuing on all phases of the subjects reported here."
Date: January 1965
Creator: Kass, Jeffrey R.; Fernandez-Martin, Remigio, Empie, Howard L. & Barduhn, Allen J.

Third Annual Report: Brackish Water Conversion Demonstration Plant Number 4, Roswell, New Mexico

Description: From Abstract: "Primary interest was placed on the scale formation problem. Significant improvements were made in the process and described in this report. Maintenance requirements were unusually high during the year, primarily as a result of cumulative corrosion damage over the last three years. The most significant damage was in the circulating pumps, the heat exchangers and feed piping. These and other failures are described."
Date: March 1967
Creator: American Hydrotherm Corporation

Third Report on Horizontal-Tube Multiple-Effect Process Pilot Plant Tests

Description: From Summary: "This report describes the continuing work on HTME distillation plants, the first portions of which were reported in References 1 and 2. A major purpose in the testing of the three-effect pilot plant was to demonstrate mutiple-effect operability of the the horizontal tube method, when utilizing basically the same construction methods and materials as those proposed for commercial HTME plants."
Date: October 1971
Creator: Matta, G. A.; Karpf, J. Z.; Pascale, A. S. & Cardello, J. A.

Transport-Depletion Desalination Pilot Plant

Description: From Summary: "The transport-depletion data obtained by the Southern Research Institute and by the Bureau of Reclamation at Denver, Colorado and at Webster, South Dakota, was reviewed. This data review made it possible to develop a design methodology for the pilot plant, and to identify the additional data required to adequately predict the performance of a transport-depletion stack."
Date: April 1971
Creator: Redman, Ralph

Transport Processes in Electrochemically Controlled Ion-Exchange Desalination

Description: From Summary: "The results of such experiments are summarized as follows: 1. Anion-responsive electrodes formed with Kraton, graphite, Norit, and Amberlite CG-4B demineralized well at currents up to 10 milli-amperes; regeneration was efficient up to 8 milliamperes. 2. Satisfactory anion-responsive electrodes containing Amberlite IRA-68 could only be formed when resin was first ground while in the sulfate form; it was required that it be added to the paste mixture (Kraton, Norit, and graphite) in the same form."
Date: March 1969
Creator: Evans, S.; Accomazzo, M. A.; Accomazzo, J. E.; Ladacki, M. & Lossett, K. A.

Vacuum-Freezing Vapor-Compression Desalting Process

Description: From Abstract: "The Vacuum-Freezing Vapor-Compression Process (VFVC) was evaluated during the period from February, 1965, through March, 1967, by Colt Industries Inc. under O.S.W. Contract No. 14-01-0001-532." From Process Description: "The primary principles involved for converting of sea and brackish water to fresh water in the VFVC Process are rather well known in physical chemistry and are summarized below. The principles discussed above, applied to a practical VFVC desalting system, are illustrated in the schematic flow diagram, Figure 3. This simplified diagram shows both the essential components of the process and the flow paths of the various fluids in the system. A typical mass and heat balance is shown in Figure 4."
Date: unknown
Creator: Consie, R.; Emmermann, D.; Fraser, J.; Johnson, W. B. & Johnson, W. E.

Vacuum-Freezing Vapor-Compression Process: Evaluation on Brackish Water

Description: From Abstract: "The Vacuum-Freezing Vapor-Compression (VFVC) Process was evaluated on high salinity brackish water during the period from February 1968 through December 1969 by Colt Industries Inc., under O.S.W. Contract No. 14-01-0001-967 at Roswell, New Mexico. The 15,000 gpd VFVC test plant is mounted on a mobile trailer which was built by Colt Industries Inc. in their factory at Beloit, Wisconsin. Prior to operation at Roswell, the plant was operated at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina to check out the system and to operate the trailer on sea water." Process Description: "A simplified diagram, Figure 2, shows both the essential components of the process and flow paths of the various streams in the system. Typical heat and mass balances are shown on Figures 3 and 4."
Date: March 1970
Creator: Jhawar, M. M. & Fraser, J. H.

Value of Desalted Water for Irrigation

Description: From Introduction: "This report contains the results of a research study on the "Value of Desalted Water for Irrigation" undertaken in January 1967 by the Bureau of Reclamation and the Saline Water, United Sates Department of the Interior. The objectives of the study were: a. To determine, through application of desalting techniques, the costs and benefits associated with the progressive decreases in the salinity of irrigation water supplies. b. To identify the possible means of introducing desalted water into irrigation supply systems. To relate current desalting technology to potential applications in agriculture."
Date: September 1969
Creator: United States. Bureau of Reclamation.

Vapor Compression Distillation using Secondary Heat Transfer Media

Description: Report discussing a particular method of converting saline water through vapor compression distillation at plants of different sizes. From Introduction: "This report is divided into three Sections (Books) each with its own index. Books I and II contain process and economic data for a 50,000 gpd pilot plant and a 10,000,000 gpd production plant. Book III contains process and economic data for high and low temperature units of 1,000,000 gpd size."
Date: January 1966
Creator: Chambers, John C.

Vapor Compression with Secondary Heat-Transfer Media

Description: From Introduction: "The use of a secondary heat-transfer media in a vapor-compression distillation unit was suggested for investigation as a process for saline water conversion because previous studies on the vapor-compression cycle at low temperatures showed that the fixed charges on the compressor are a substantial part of the final water-product cast. Other fluids were evaluated as above, the results of which are shown in table 1. Data on the other fluids shown in table 1 will be found in the appendix."
Date: December 1961
Creator: H.K. Ferguson Company

VTE Pilot Plant Annual Report for the Period Ending July 1, 1968

Description: From Summary and Conclusions: "After a period of tests at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1966 and 1967, the Vertical Tube Evaporator (VTE) Pilot Plant was moved to the OSW's East Coast Test Station at Wrightsville Beach, N.C. In the summer of 1967 it was installed and was started in upflow operation with seawater feed, using stem and other services provided by the station. The operation of the Pilot Plant at Wrightsville Beach was performed by Stearns-Roger Corporation under subcontract to ORNL. Operation was in the upflow mode during the entire reporting period."
Date: December 1970
Creator: Hill, John W. & Hise, Eugene C.