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Spectrometric Techniques for Measuring Environmental Gamma Radiation

Description: From Introduction: "We discuss in detail the equipment, calibration procedures, and techniques used to analyze the spectra, present evidence to substantiate the validity of the dose rate estimates, and examine several problems associated with field measurements, in particular the effects of radon migration from the soil, soil moisture, and fallout."
Date: October 1964
Creator: Beck, Harold L.; Condon, William J. & Lowder, Wayne M.
Item Type: Report

A Spectrophotometric Atlas of the Spectrum of CH from 3000A to 5000A

Description: Report of the near ultraviolet and visible emission spectrum of CH presented in the form of a spectrophotometric atlas. The spectrum was recorded photoelectrically from an acetylene-oxygen flame in the region 4900 to 3000 A by use of a high-resolution grating monochromator. Each of the lines in the CH spectrum is identified.
Date: February 14, 1961
Creator: Bass, Arnold M. & Broida, H. P.
Item Type: Report

Spectroscopy of Uranyl Salts in the Solid State

Description: From Introduction: "The interpretation of the fluorescence and absorption spectrum of the uranyl ion, indicated in this introduction, is based on the spectroscopic work of Nichols, Howes and co-workers (1914-1919), Dieke and van Heel (1925), Moerman and Kraak (1939), and Freymann and co-workers (1946-1948); on infrared studies (cf., Section 3 below) and Raman spectra; but most of all, on the work of Dieke, Duncan, and co-workers, carried out in 1943-1944 under the Manhattan District program. In the present chapter we will review briefly the earlier investigations in the field of uranyl salt and spectroscopy and give a somewhat more detailed summary of the results of Nichols and Howes and, particularly, of Dieke and co-workers."
Date: November 1953
Creator: Rabinowitch, Eugene
Item Type: Report

Spectrum of turbulence in a contracting stream

Description: The spectrum concept is employed to study the selective effect of a stream contraction on the longitudinal and lateral turbulent velocity fluctuations of the stream. By a consideration of the effect of the stream contraction on a single plane sinusoidal disturbance wave, mathematically not dissimilar to a triply periodic disturbance treated by G. I. Taylor, the effect on the spectrum tensor of the turbulence and hence on the correlation tensor is determined.
Date: January 1, 1953
Creator: Ribner, H S & Tucker, M
Item Type: Report

Spectrums and diffusion in a round turbulent jet

Description: In a round turbulent jet at room temperature, measurement of the shear correlation coefficient as a function of frequency (through bandpass filters) has given a rather direct verification of Kolmogoroff's local-isotropy hypothesis. One-dimensional power spectrums of velocity and temperature fluctuations, measured in unheated and heated jets, respectively, have been contrasted. Under the same conditions, the two corresponding transverse correlation functions have been measured and compared. Finally, measurements have been made of the mean thermal wakes behind local (line) heat sources in the unheated turbulent jet, and the order of magnitude of the temperature fluctuations has been determined. (author).
Date: July 1, 1950
Creator: Corrsin, Stanley & Uberoi, Mahinder S
Item Type: Report

Speed and deceleration trials of U.S.S. Los Angeles

Description: The trials reported in this report were instigated by the Bureau of Aeronautics of the Navy Department for the purpose of determining accurately the speed and resistance of the U. S. S. "Los Angeles" with and without water recovery apparatus, and to clear up the apparent discrepancies between the speed attained in service and in the original trials in Germany. The trials proved very conclusively that the water recovery apparatus increases the resistance about 20 per cent, which is serious, and shows the importance of developing a type of recovery having less resistance. Between the American and the German speed trials without water recovery there remains an unexplained discrepancy of nearly 6 per cent in speed at a given rate of engine revolutions. Warping of the propeller blades and small cumulative errors of observation seem the most probable causes of the discrepancy. It was found that the customary resistance coefficients C, are 0.0242 and 0.0293 without and with the water recovery apparatus, respectively. The corresponding values of the propulsive coefficient K, are 56.7 and 44.6. If there is an error in these figures, it is probably in a slight overestimate of C, and an underestimate of K. The maximum errors are almost certainly less than 5 per cent. No scale effect was detected indicating variation of C with respect to velocity (author).
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: De France, S J & Burgess, C P
Item Type: Report

Speed and pressure recording in three-dimensional flow

Description: Van der Megge Zijnen's spherical Pitot tube with its 5 test holes insures a simultaneous record of static pressure and magnitude and direction of velocity in three-dimensional flow. The report treats the method as well as the range of application of this Pitot in the light of modern knowledge on flow around spheres.
Date: October 1, 1932
Creator: Krisam, F
Item Type: Report

Speed limits of aircraft

Description: This paper is restricted to the question of attainable speed limits and attacks the problem from different angles. Theoretical limits due to air resistance are presented along with design factors which may affect speed such as wing loads, wing areas, wing section shifting, landing speeds, drag-lift ratios, and power coefficients.
Date: May 1923
Creator: Everling, E
Item Type: Report

Speed measurements made by Division "A" of the airplane director

Description: The various speeds of an airplane can only be measured in horizontal flight, since there are no means for measuring the angle of ascent or descent. The measurements must be corrected for the density of the air. This is obtained by simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements during flight. Calculation from the mean yearly values in accordance with Everling's suggestion can only be considered an approximation, since the distribution of pressure and temperature in the individual strata at different altitudes undergoes such large variations that the yearly mean gives inaccurate values. Thermographs of the present form are useless for temperature measurements of an airplane. In altitude data, the following are to be distinguished: the height above the earth, the barometric altitude, and the altitude corresponding to the yearly mean air density. Variometers are not suited for the mechanical control of high altitude flight.
Date: July 1, 1923
Creator: Heidelberg, V & Hoelzel, A
Item Type: Report

Sphere drag tests in the variable density wind tunnel

Description: The air forces on a twenty-centimeter sphere were measured after it had been rebuilt as an open throat type. The results from tests made at widely different densities and airspeeds and also on a smaller sphere are given.
Date: August 1, 1929
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N.
Item Type: Report

Spin and Recovery Characteristics of the Curtiss-Wright XP-87 Airplane

Description: The spin and recovery characteristics of the Curtiss-Wright XP-87 airplane, as well as the spin-recovery parachute requirements, the control forces that would be encountered in the spin, and the best method for the crew to attempt an emergency escape, are presented in this report. The characteristics were estimated rather than determined by model tests because the XP-87 dimensional and mass characteristics were considered to be noncritical and because data were available from model tests of several similar airplanes. The study indicated that the recovery characteristics of the airplane will be satisfactory for all loadings if the controls are reversed fully and rapidly. The control forces, however, will probably be beyond the capabilities of the pilot unless some additional balance or a booster is used. A 6-foot tail parachute or a 3.5-foot wing-tip parachute with a drag coefficient of 0.7 will be a satisfactory, emergency spin-recovery device for spin demonstrations. If it is necessary for the crew to abandon the spinning airplane, they should leave from the outboard side of the cockpit.
Date: May 26, 1947
Creator: Berman, Theodore
Item Type: Report

Spin and Recovery Characteristics of the Northrop XF-89 Airplane

Description: The spin and recovery characteristics of the Northrop XF-89 airplane, as well as the spin-recovery parachute requirements, the control forces that would be encountered in the spin, and the best method for the crew to attempt an emergency escape are presented in this report. The characteristics were mainly estimated rather than determined by model tests because the XF-89 dimensional and mass characteristics were such as to make this airplane similar to several others, models of which have previously been tested. Brief tests were made on an available model of similar design to augment the estimation. The results indicate that the recovery characteristics will be satisfactory for all airplane loadings if recovery is attempted by use of rudder followed by moving the elevator down. The rudder pedal forces will be within the capabilities of the pilot but the elevator stick forces will be beyond the pilot's capabilities unless a trim tab, or a booster is used. A 9.5-foot-diameter flat-type tail parachute or a 5.0-foot-diameter flat-type wing-tip parachute with a drag coefficient of 0.7 will be a satisfactory emergency spin-recovery device for spin demonstrations and if it is necessary for the crew to abandon the spinning airplane, they should leave from the outboard side of the cockpit.
Date: February 28, 1949
Creator: Berman, Theodore
Item Type: Report

Spin Investigation of a 1/29-Scale Model of the Republic XF-91 Airplane with a Conventional Tail Installed

Description: An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel of a 1/29-scale model of the Republic XF-91 airplane with a.conventional-tail arrangement installed. Previously, tests were made on the model with a vee tail installed. The erect spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined for the normal loading with the wing installed at various amounts of incidence. The spin investigation also included inverted-spin tests, spin-recovery-parachute tests, tests with the center of gravity moved rearward, and tests with external fuel tanks added to the model. In addition, several tail.modifications were tested,on the model in an attempt, to improve the model's spin-recovery characteristics. The results indicate that any fully developed spin obtained on the airplane with the conventional tail installed will be satisfactorily terminated if rudder reversal is accompanied by moving the ailerons with the spin (stick right in a right spin).Decreasing the wing incidence from 6deg to -2deg should have a beneficial effect on the recovery characteristics of the airplane. Recovery characteristics by normal use of controls (full rudder reversal followed by moving the elevators down) will be satisfactory if the wing incidence,of the airplane is -2deg. Installation of external fuel tanks (with or without fuel) will have a somewhat adverse effect on the recovery characteristics of the airplane, but if the recovery technique includes movement of the ailerons to full with the spin, the spin rotation will be terminated rapidly. Varying the position of the center of gravity within the limits indicated to be possible on the airplane should not affect the recovery characteristics.
Date: May 5, 1949
Creator: Klinar, Walter J. & Jones, Ira P., Jr.
Item Type: Report

Spin Tests of 1/20-Scale Models of the Chance Vought Revised XF6U-1 and F6U-1 Airplanes, TED No. NACA 2390

Description: An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel on the 1/20-scale model of the Chance Vought XF6U-1 airplane altered to represent the XF6U-1 airplane as it will be spin-tested in flight, and also altered to represent the F6U-1 airplane as it will be produced for service use. Spin tests were made to determine the effects of control settings and movements at the normal loading. The results show that the spins obtained on the revised XF6U-1 airplane will be oscillatory in roll and yaw and that recoveries by rudder reversal will be rapid. Model test results indicate that the F6U-1 airplane will probably not spin. Inasmuch as the results of this investigation show that the new designs are as good as or better than the original XF6U-1 design in regard to spin recovery, it is felt that the conclusions and recommendations reached for the original design can be applied to the new designs for all loading conditions.
Date: June 28, 1948
Creator: Klinar, Walter J. & Berman, Theodore
Item Type: Report

Spin tests of a low-lying monoplane in flight and in the free-spinning wind tunnel

Description: Comparative full-scale and model spin tests were made with a low-lying monoplane in order to extend the available information as to the utility of the free-spinning wind tunnel as an aid in predicting full-scale spin characteristics. For a given control disposition the model indicated steeper spins than were actually obtained with the airplane, the difference being most pronounced for spins with elevators up. Recovery characteristics for the model, on the whole, agreed with those for the airplane, but a disagreement was noted for the case of recovery with elevators held full up. Free-spinning wind-tunnel tests are a useful aid in estimating spin characteristics of airplanes, but it must be appreciated that model results can give only general indications of full-scale behavior.
Date: July 1, 1940
Creator: Seidman, Oscar & Mcavoy, William H
Item Type: Report

Spin tests of a low-wing monoplane to investigate scale effect in the model test range, May 1941

Description: Concurrent tests were performed on a 1/16 and a 1/20 scale model (wing spans of 2.64 and 2.11 ft. respectively) of a modern low wing monoplane in the NACA 15 foot free-spinning wind tunnel. Results are presented in the form of charts that afford a direct comparison between the spins of the two models for a number of different conditions. Qualitatively, the same characteristic effects of control disposition, mass distribution, and dimensional modifications were indicated by both models. Quantitatively, the number of turns for recover and the steady spin parameters, with the exception of the inclination of the wing to the horizontal, were usually in good agreement.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Donlan, C. J.
Item Type: Report

Spin-Tunnel Investigation of a 1/28-Scale Model of a Subsonic Attack Airplane

Description: An investigation has been made of a 1/28-scale model of the Grumman A-6A airplane in the Langley spin tunnel. The erect spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined for the flight design gross weight loading and for a loading with full internal fuel and empty external wing fuel tanks. The effects of extending slats and deflecting flaps were investigated. Inverted-spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined for the flight design gross weight loading. The size of the spin-recovery tail parachute necessary to insure satisfactory spin-recovery was determined, and the effect of firing wing-mounded rockets during spins was investigated.
Date: July 1, 1964
Creator: Lee, Henry A. & Healy, Frederick M.
Item Type: Report

Spin Tunnel Investigation of a 1/30 Scale Model of the North American A-5A Airplane

Description: An investigation has been made in the Langley spin tunnel to determine the erect and inverted spin and recovery characteristics of a 1/30-scale dynamic model of the North American A-5A airplane. Tests were made for the basic flight design loading with the center of gravity at 30-percent mean aerodynamic chord and also for a forward position and a rearward position with the center of gravity at 26-percent and 40-percent mean aerodynamic chord, respectively. Tests were also made to determine the effect of full external wing tanks on both wings, and of an asymmetrical condition when only one full tank is carried.
Date: June 1, 1964
Creator: Lee, Henry A.
Item Type: Report