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Coal Supply and Air Quality Limitations on Fossil-Fueled Energy Centers

Description: The coterminous United States is screened on a county-by-county basis to identify areas most likely to provide sites for fossil energy centers (FECs) utilizing local coals and having capacities between 5,000 and 20,000 MWe. Areas eliminated as potential sites include national public lands excluded by legislation, urbanized areas, Air Quality Maintenance Areas for particulates and SO2, and counties where air quality data indicate violations of particulate or SO2 ambient standards. The remaining counties are further screened for suitable coal reserves. The quality of coal required for an FEC to meet emissions and ambient standards is determined for sulfur content and heating value. Based on Bureau of Mines coal reserve data, counties in areas with not enough quality reserves to support an FEC are eliminated. Areas most likely to provide sites for FECs of 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 MWe, in two different spatial configurations, each with and without flue gas desulfurization are determined and mapped. The possible impacts of regulations for the prevention of significant deterioration are illustrated.
Date: 1976
Creator: Smith, Albert E.; Wolsko, Thomas D. & Cirillo, Richard R.

Coal Surface Mining Reclamation Costs: Appalachian and Midwestern Coal Supply Districts

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines discussing costs of strip mining reclamation. As stated in the introduction, "the Bureau of Mines has undertaken this study to determine, as accurately as possible, the actual costs of reclaiming strip mined land in conjunction with active mining operations" (p. 2). This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: 1975
Creator: Evans, Robert J. & Bitler, John R.

Coastal Flood of February 7, 1978 in Maine, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire

Description: From abstract: On February 6-8, 1978, New England was battered by one of the most severe winter storms of record. The storm produced record snowfall in many areas of Rhode Island and Massachusetts...This report contains data which document the flooding along parts of the New England coast. Elevations of 203 floodmarks in Massachusetts, 104 in Maine, and 46 in New Hampshire are given. Also included are some historical coastal flood data and a list of other storm-related studies.
Date: 1979
Creator: Gadoury. Russell A.

Combined Motion of Fuel and Coolant Due to Fuel-Coolant Interactions under High Ramp Rate Reactivity Insertion

Description: An analysis has been made of the combined motion of fuel and coolant due to fuel-coolant interactions following a massive fuel failure in a high-ramp overpower transient. The motion of fuel and coolant was described using a two-fluid model formulation in which the mixture of sodium liquid and vapor and of fission gas, on the one hand, and the fuel particles, on the other, were treated as two superimposed continua. The method of solution employed a numerical procedure called the ACE method, a modified version of the IMF technique.
Date: July 1978
Creator: Chang, K. I. & Cho, D. H.

Community Systems Program: Its Goals and Accomplishments, 1978

Description: The Community Systems Program is concerned with conserving energy and scarce fuels through new methods of satisfying the energy needs of American communities. These programs are designed to develop innovative ways of combining current, emerging, and advanced technologies into Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) that could furnish any, or all, of the energy-using services of a community. The key goals of the Community System Program then, are to identify, evaluate, develop, demonstrate, and deploy energy systems and community designs that will optimally meet the needs of various communities. Integrated systems offer considerable potential for fuel substitution, thereby allowing the use of non-scarce fuel resources that would not be economically usable in smaller unintegrated systems. Input energy sources for such systems may include low-grade waste heat, solid and liquid wastes, solar and geothermal heat, seawater heat dissipation, and use of less-scarce fuels, such as coal and biomass. A Grid-Connected ICES uses a central co-generation plant and distribution system to provide heating, cooling, and electrical energy services. During 1977, contracts for the following Grid-Connected ICES (G-C ICES) demonstration teams were negotiated: City of Independence, Missouri; Clark University; City of Trenton, New Jersey; Health Education Authority of Louisiana (HEAL); and University of Minnesota. A coal-using ICES, proposed for Georgetown University, also has made noticeable strides toward demonstration of the concept.
Date: April 1978
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory

Comparative Risk-Cost-Benefit Study of Alternative Sources of Electrical Energy: A Compilation of Normalized Cost and Impact Data for Current Types of Power Plants and their Supporting Fuel Cycles

Description: From preface: This study is an attempt to quantify societal costs associated with the production of electrical energy by currently available alternative systems under routine operating conditions.
Date: December 1974
Creator: U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Office of Energy Systems Analysis.

Comparative Test Results for Two ODE Solvers: EPISODE and GEAR

Description: This is a sequel to the paper ''A comparison of two ODE codes: GEAR and EPISODE,'' and is concerned with the testing of two superficially similar ODE packages, GEAR and EPISODE. Fourteen basic test problems, some with several cases, are the basis for the testing. These problems represent several types-nonlinear systems with real and complex eigenvalues, linear systems with varied diagonal dominance, linear scalar problems, stiff and non-stiff problems, chemical kinetics with and without diurnal effect, and systems arising from the use of the numerical method of lines. Some problems are included in order to examine the options and error returns. The test results are presented in two forms: raw output and a comparative display of operation counts and of timings for the best method in the GEAR package and the best method in the EPISODE package. This approach allows a comparison of the consequences of the fixed-step interpolate strategy (GEAR) for changing step size against the truly variable step size strategy (EPISODE). It is concluded that EPISODE is generally faster than GEAR for problems involving wave fronts or transients on the interior of the interval of integration. For linear or simply decaying problems, these roles are usually reversed.
Date: March 1977
Creator: Byrne, G. D.; Hindmarsh, A. C.; Jackson, Kenneth R. & Brown, H. Gordon

Comparison of REXCO Code Predictions with SRI SM-2 Experimental Results

Description: This report deals with the REXCO-code predictions of the SRI SM-2 test. Two calculations were performed with the REXCO-HEP code: one used the pressure history of the core detonation products as input and the other the pressure-volume relations of the detonation products as input. The other inputs of the computer analysis are the vessel and the core-barrel dimensions and boundary conditions, the constitutive equations of the vessel and the core barrel materials, and the equation of state for the coolant. The REXCO-predicted well deformations, pressure loadings, and dynamic strain histories at various gauge positions are compared with the experimental data. Results of the comparisons are discussed.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Chang, Y. W. & Gvildys, J.

Comparison of the AMDAHL 470V/6 and the IBM 370/195 Using Benchmarks

Description: Six groups of jobs were run on the IBM 370/195 at the Applied Mathematics Division (AMD) of Argonne National Laboratory using the current production versions of OS/MVT 21.7 and ASP 3.1. The same jobs were then run on an AMDAHL 470V/6 at the AMDAHL manufacturing facilities in Sunnyvale, California, using the identical operating systems. Performances of the two machines are compared. Differences in the configurations were minimized. The memory size on each machine was the same, all software which had an impact on run times was the same, and the I/O configurations were as similar as possible. This allowed the comparison to be based on the relative performance of the two CPU's. As part of the studies preliminary to the acquisition of the IBM 195 in 1972, two of the groups of jobs had been run on a CDC 7600 by CDC personnel in Arden Hills, Minnesota, on an IBM 360/195 by IBM personnel in Poughkeepsie, New York, and on the AMD 360/50/75 production system in June, 1971.
Date: March 1976
Creator: Snider, D. R.; Midlock, J. L.; Hinds, A. R. & Engert, D. E.

A Comparison of the IBM 370/168 MODEL 3 with the Amdahl 470V/6 and the IBM 370/195 Using Benchmarks

Description: As part of the studies preliminary to the acquisition of additional computing capability at Argonne National Laboratory, six groups of jobs were run on the IBM 370/195 at the Applied Mathematics Division of Argonne National Laboratory, on an Amdahl 470V/6 at the Amdahl manufacturing facilities in Sunnyvale, California, and on an IBM 370/168 MODEL 3 at the IBM Field Support Center in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This report compares the performance of the IBM 370/168 MOD 3 with that of the other two machines. Differences in machine configurations were minimized. The memory size of each machine was identical, the I/O configurations were as similar as possible, and the same versions of OS/MVT 21.7 and ASP 3.1 were used on all three machines. This allowed the comparison to be based on the relative performance of the three CPUs.
Date: April 1977
Creator: Snider, D. R.; Midlock, J. L. & Hinds, A. R.

Comparisons of Finite-Element Code Calculations to Hydrostatically Loaded Subassembly-Duct Experiments

Description: The Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) core structure consists of a matrix of hexagonal subassembly ducts. Evaluation of the safety aspects of the core structure requires that reliable computational procedures be available to predict the deformation response of the subassembly configuration to postulated local energy releases. Finite-element computer codes have been developed to calculate deflections and strains of a hexcan subassembly wrapper subjected to internal and external dynamic pressure loadings over a wide range of material-property conditions. An experimental and analytical program has been undertaken to validate and extend the codes for describing the core structural mechanics under reactor operating conditions, including, in particular, descriptions of possible subassembly-to-subassembly damage propagation. This report describes results of the first phase of the experimental program in which single hexcan sections were internally and externally hydrostatically pressurized out-of-pile at room temperature. The experimental data are compared with calculations from a two-dimensional finite-element structural-dynamics code, STRAW. Some additional comparisons were also made with calculations from a three-dimensional code, SADCAT. The correlations obtained between the computations and the hydrostatic experimental results were sufficiently good to validate the STRAW code and proceed to the next phase of the program involving the dynamic structural response.
Date: January 1977
Creator: Ash, J. E. & Marciniak, T. J.

Computation of the Weight Function from a Stress Intensity Factor

Description: A simple representation for the crack-face displacement is employed to compute a weight function solely from stress intensity factors for a reference loading configuration. Crack face displacements given by the representation are shown to be in good agreement with analytical results for cracked tensile strips, and stress intensity factors computed from the weight function agree well with those for edge cracks in half planes, radial cracks from circular holes, and radially cracked rings. The technique involves only simple quadrature and its efficacy is demonstrated by the example computations. The weight function for a corner crack in an LMFBR hexagonal sub-assembly duct is constructed from stress-intensity-factor results for the uniformly over-pressurized case, and it is shown how this may be used to determine the stress intensity factors.
Date: October 1977
Creator: Petroski, H. J. & Achenbach, J. D.

Computer-Code Formulation for Three-Dimensional HEXCAN Response Coupled with Internal Hydrodynamics

Description: A procedure is described for the dynamic analysis of a fast-reactor hexagonal subassembly. The internals of the fuel subassembly are treated by an axisymmetric hydrodynamic code REXCO-HT which, among other properties, possesses a model of an MFCI pressure source. The housing of the fuel subassembly is handled by the SADCAT code, which is based on a triangular finite element in three-dimensional space. The code is used to illustrate the discrepancies involved if the hexcan is modeled by a cylinder of the same thickness. A study is also made of the reduction of cylinder thickness such that the same final cylindrical deformation can be predicted. A discussion in arriving at such an equivalence is offered.
Date: March 1976
Creator: Marchertas, A. H. & Julke, R. T.

Computer Modeling of Ground-Water Availability in the Pootatuck River Valley, Newtown, Connecticut

Description: From abstract: A hydrologic analysis based on available data, test drilling, seismic refraction profiling, and the stream-aquifer connection was performed using a digital computer model. The report presents its findings on the quality and availability of the ground and surface water of the Pootatuck River Valley in Connecticut.
Date: July 1978
Creator: Haeni, F. P. & Handman, Elinor H.

Computer Simulation Model of the Pleistocene Valley-Fill Aquifer in Southwestern Essex and Southeastern Morris Counties, New Jersey

Description: From purpose and scope: The purpose of the present study by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Resources of the New Jersey of Environmental Protection is to make a quantitative hydrologic analysis of the known buried valley-fill aquifer in southwestern Essex and southeastern Morris County Counties in order to provide water-resources planners with the hydrologic bases to plan ground-water development and to allocate available water.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Meisler, Harold

Computers, Health Records, and Citizen Rights

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Standards over studies on the benefits of computerized record-keeping. Medical records were chosen for the studies, and they also focus on patient privacy and rights. This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Westin, Alan F.; Baker, Michael A.; Annas, George J.; Silberberg, Richard; Broder, Jamie; Isbell, Florence et al.

A Concept for the Development of Long-Term Management Plans for Aquatic Plant Control: Final Report

Description: Abstract: This paper describes a general concept that will serve as a basis for developing well-conceived aquatic plant management plans, as well as a step-by-step guide for implementing measures for long-term aquatic plant control while giving proper consideration to their potential long-term effects on the environment.
Date: June 1977
Creator: Sanders, Dana R. & Decell, Joseph Lewis