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The span as a fundamental factor in airplane design

Description: Previous theoretical investigations of steady curvilinear flight did not afford a suitable criterion of "maneuverability," which is very important for judging combat, sport and stunt-flying airplanes. The idea of rolling ability, i.e., of the speed of rotation of the airplane about its X axis in rectilinear flight at constant speed and for a constant, suddenly produced deflection of the ailerons, is introduced and tested under simplified assumptions for the air-force distribution over the span. This leads to the following conclusions: the effect of the moment of inertia about the X axis is negligibly small, since the speed of rotation very quickly reaches a uniform value.
Date: September 1, 1928
Creator: Lachmann, G

Spark plug defects and tests

Description: The successful operation of the spark plug depends to a large extent on the gas tightness of the plug. Part 1 of this report describes the method used for measuring the gas tightness of aviation spark plugs. Part 2 describes the methods used in testing the electrical conductivity of the insulation material when hot. Part 3 describes the testing of the cold dielectric strength of the insulation material, the resistance to mechanical shock, and the final engine test.
Date: 1920
Creator: Silsbee, F. B.; Loeb, L. B.; Sawyer, L. G.; Fonseca, E. L.; Dickinson, H. C. & Agnew, P. G.

The sparking voltage of spark plugs

Description: This report has been prepared in order to collect and correlate into convenient and useful form the available data on this subject. The importance of the subject lies in the fact that it forms the common meeting ground for studies of the performance of spark generators and spark plugs on the one hand and of the internal combustion engines on the other hand. While much of the data presented was obtained from various earlier publications, numerous places were found where necessary data were lacking, and these have been provided by experiments in gasoline engines at the Bureau of Standards.
Date: January 1, 1925
Creator: Silsbee, F B

Special propeller protractor

Description: A special protractor was designed and built with a view towards supplying a simple, inexpensive, practical, portable instrument for making measurements to detect propeller warpage under practically all conditions, without the use of auxiliary equipment, and without having to remove the propeller from the airplane. A detailed description is given of the protractor. Techniques for measuring are described. Directions are given on how to use the protractor to set detachable blade-type propellers on an airplane.
Date: January 1, 1928
Creator: Heim, A M

Speed limits of aircraft

Description: This paper is restricted to the question of attainable speed limits and attacks the problem from different angles. Theoretical limits due to air resistance are presented along with design factors which may affect speed such as wing loads, wing areas, wing section shifting, landing speeds, drag-lift ratios, and power coefficients.
Date: May 1923
Creator: Everling, E

Speed measurements made by Division "A" of the airplane directorate (Flugzeugmeisterei), Subdivision for flight experiments

Description: The various speeds of an airplane can only be measured in horizontal flight, since there are no means for measuring the angle of ascent or descent. The measurements must be corrected for the density of the air. This is obtained by simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements during flight. Calculation from the mean yearly values in accordance with Everling's suggestion can only be considered an approximation, since the distribution of pressure and temperature in the individual strata at different altitudes undergoes such large variations that the yearly mean gives inaccurate values. Thermographs of the present form are useless for temperature measurements of an airplane. In altitude data, the following are to be distinguished: the height above the earth, the barometric altitude, and the altitude corresponding to the yearly mean air density. Variometers are not suited for the mechanical control of high altitude flight.
Date: July 1923
Creator: Heidelberg, V. & Hölzel, A.

Spindled and hollow spars

Description: The most usual method of arriving at the maximum amount of spindling or hollowing out permissible in the case of any particular spar section is by trial and error, a process which is apt to become laborious in the absence of good guessing - or luck. The following tables have been got out with the object of making it possible to arrive with certainty at a suitable section at the first attempt.
Date: October 1926
Creator: Blyth, J. D.

Spiral tendency in blind flying

Description: The flight path followed by an airplane which was being flown by a blindfolded pilot was observed and recorded. When the pilot attempted to make a straight-away flight there was a tendency to deviate from the straight path and to take up a spiral one.
Date: August 1, 1929
Creator: Carroll, Thomas & Mcavoy, William H

Spontaneous combustion of hydrogen

Description: It is shown by the author's experiments that hydrogen which escapes to the atmosphere through openings in the system may burn spontaneously if it contains dust. Purely thermal reasoning can not account for the combustion. It seems to be rather an electrical ignition. In order to determine whether the cause of the spontaneous ignition was thermo-chemical, thermo-mechanical, or thermo-electrical, the experiments in this paper were performed.
Date: March 4, 1922
Creator: Pothmann, PH & Nusselt, Wilhelm

Spray penetration with a simple fuel injection nozzle

Description: The purpose of the tests covered by this report was to obtain specific information on the rate of penetration of the spray from a simple injection nozzle, having a single orifice with a diameter of 0.015 inch when injecting into compressed gases. The results have shown that the effects of both chamber and fuel pressures on penetration are so marked that the study of sprays by means of high-speed photography or its equivalent is necessary if the effects are to be appreciated sufficiently to enable rational analysis. It was found for these tests that the negative acceleration of the spray tip is approximately proportional to the 1.5 power of the instantaneous velocity of the spray tip.
Date: January 1, 1926
Creator: Miller, Harold E & Beardsley, Edward G

Stability Equations for Airship Hulls

Description: In the text are derived simple formulae for determining, directly from the data of wind tunnel tests of a model of an airship hull, what shall be the approximate character of oscillation, in pitch or yaw, of the full-scale airship when slightly disturbed from steady forward motion. (author).
Date: 1926~
Creator: Zahm, A. F.

Stability of airplanes

Description: The author attempts to correct the misconception that piloting an airplane requires extraordinary skill and balance. He also tries to show that airplanes are extremely stable in flight. Some of the major points covered in this article include: automatic pilots, airplanes designed to be stable, and the reliance on mathematics to help in designing stable aircraft.
Date: May 1, 1922
Creator: Warner, Edward P.

Stall-proof airplanes

Description: My lecture has to do with the following questions. Is the danger of stalling necessarily inherent in the airplane in its present form and structure, or can it be diminished or eliminated by suitable means? Do we possess such means or devices and how must they operate? In this connection I will devote special attention to the exhibition of stall-proof airplanes by Fokker under the auspices of the English Air Ministry, which took place in Croyden last April.
Date: January 1, 1927
Creator: Lachmann, G

Standard atmosphere

Description: This report was prepared at the request of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and discusses the need of a standard set of values of pressure, temperature and density at various altitudes and points out the desirability of adopting such values as are most in accord with actual average conditions, in order that corrections in individual cases may be as small as possible. To meet this need, so far as the united states is concerned, all free-air observations obtained by means of kites and balloons at several stations in this country near latitude 40 degrees N., have been used, and average values of pressure, temperature, and density, based upon those observations, have been determined for summer, winter, and the year, and for all altitudes up to 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). These values are presented in tables and graphs in both metric and english units; and in the tables of densities there are also included values of density for other parts of the world, more particularly for Europe. A comparison with these values shows that, except in the lowest levels, the agreement is very satisfactory.
Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Gregg, Willis Ray

Standard atmosphere - tables and data

Description: Detailed tables of pressures and densities are given for altitudes up to 20,000 meters and to 65,000 feet. In addition to the tables the various data pertaining to the standard atmosphere have been compiled in convenient form for ready reference. This report is an extension of NACA-TR-147.
Date: January 1926
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.

Standardization and aerodynamics

Description: Report presenting suggestions for the standardization of the study of aerodynamics in laboratories in the United States and Europe. A report by each of the different scientists, all of whom are working in a variety of different labs and countries, is provided, and each discusses the progress made in their respective labs and their suggestions for standardization and progress in the field.
Date: March 1923
Creator: Knight, William; Prandtl, L.; von Karman; Costanzi, G.; Margoulis, W.; Verduzio, R. et al.

Standardization tests of NACA no. 1 wind tunnel

Description: The tests described in this report were made in the 5-foot atmospheric wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, at Langley Field. The primary objective of collecting data on the characteristics of this tunnel for comparison with those of others throughout the world, in order that, in the future, the results of tests made in all the principle laboratories may be interpreted, compared, and coordinated on a basis of scientifically established relationships, a process hitherto impossible due to the lack of comparable data. The work includes tests of a disk, spheres, cylinders, and airfoils, explorations of the test section for static pressure and velocity distribution, and determination of the variations of air flow direction throughout the operating range of the tunnel. (author).
Date: January 1, 1925
Creator: Reid, Elliott G

Static stability of seaplane floats and hulls

Description: Values of lateral and longitudinal metacentric heights for various seaplanes were calculated by means of approximate formulae derived here. The data are given in tabular form. Upon plotting these metacentric heights against the corresponding gross weights, it appears that the metacentric height is approximately a straight line function of the gross weight. For the lateral metacentric height GM = 13 + .002 W and for longitudinal metacentric height GM = 15 + .002 W, GM is in feet and the gross weight (W) is in pounds. Although only approximate, it is thought that the values indicated here are a reliable guide to current practice. It is recommended that the longitudinal and lateral metacentric heights be made equal and of the value given by GM = 15 = .002 W. The proper length or spacing required to satisfy the indicated value may then be obtained from substitution in the approximate formulae for metacentric height.
Date: March 1, 1924
Creator: Diehl, W S

Static testing and proposed standard specifications

Description: Static tests fall into two groups, the first of which is designed to load all members of the structure approximately in accordance with the worst loads which they carry in flight, while the second is directed to the testing of specific members which are suspected of weakness and which are difficult to analyze mathematically. The nature of the loading in the second type is different for every different test, but the purpose of the first is defined clearly enough to permit the adoption of some standard set of loading specifications, at least for airplanes of normal design. Here, an attempt is made to carry through an analysis leading to such a standard, the goal being the determination of a load which will simultaneously impose on every member of the airplane structure a stress equal to the worst it will carry in flight.
Date: July 1920
Creator: Warner, E. P.