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Some new aerodynamical relations

Description: This report contains three new relations extending the modern theory of aeronautics. They deal with phenomena in a frictionless fluid. The first part contains a relation between the power absorbed by an aerofoil and the power absorbed by a propeller. In the second part the exactness of the ordinary formula for the induced drag of an aerofoil is examined and the error is determined. In the third part the author shows that for the calculation of the air forces on bodies of considerable volume the imaginary sources and sinks equivalent to the flow around the body can be used in the same way as vortices are used for the calculation of lift and induced drag of wings.
Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Munk, Max M.

Some new tests at the Gottingen laboratory

Description: The tests at the Gottingen laboratory included: friction tests on a surface treated with omelette, verification tests on the M.V.A. 356 wing, and comparative tests of wing no. 36 at the Eiffel laboratory. The examination of all these experiments leads to the belief that, at large incidences, the speeds registered by the suction manometer of the testing chamber of the Eiffel laboratory wind tunnel are, owing to pressure drop, greater than the actual speeds. Therefore, the values of k(sub x) and k(sub y) measured at the Eiffel laboratory at large incidences are too low.
Date: April 1, 1921

Some principles governing the establishment of meteorological stations along air routes

Description: The organization of a meteorological service for an air route involves the solution of two distinct problems: distribution and grouping of meteorological stations and communications. Experience gained in the establishment of two lines, Paris-Warsaw and Constantinople-Bucharest enables us to establish certain principles, which may be of interest to note here.
Date: March 1, 1922
Creator: Aujames, P

Some Principles Governing the Production of Oil Wells

Description: From Introduction: "The report discusses some of the fundamental factors governing oil production, taking up first the conditions affecting the amount of oil in the oil sand, then those factors that control the rate of production of oil wells, and then discusses several related problems, most of which deal particularly with the effect of the production of one well on that of another."
Date: 1921
Creator: Beal, Carl H. & Lewis, J. O.

Some problems on the lift and rolling moment of airplane wings

Description: This report deals with the application of the airfoil and twisted wing theory to the calculation of the lift and rolling moment of airplane wings. Most of the results arrived at are strictly true only for wings of elliptic plan form. The investigation aims to give some indications of the accuracy with which the results can be applied to the wing forms in actual use.
Date: January 1, 1925
Creator: Scarborough, James B

Some tables of the factor of apparent additional mass

Description: This note, prepared for publication by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, is a collection of the tables of the factor of apparent mass that have been published up to now. The theory of the motion of solids in a perfect fluid is of the greatest value for the study of most aerodynamic problems, and the additional apparent mass of an immersed solid is the most important characteristic for such theoretical numerical computations. It will therefore be helpful to have the most important values of the apparent mass - for some elementary cases - collected in a convenient form.
Date: July 1, 1924
Creator: Munk, Max M.

The span as a fundamental factor in airplane design

Description: Previous theoretical investigations of steady curvilinear flight did not afford a suitable criterion of "maneuverability," which is very important for judging combat, sport and stunt-flying airplanes. The idea of rolling ability, i.e., of the speed of rotation of the airplane about its X axis in rectilinear flight at constant speed and for a constant, suddenly produced deflection of the ailerons, is introduced and tested under simplified assumptions for the air-force distribution over the span. This leads to the following conclusions: the effect of the moment of inertia about the X axis is negligibly small, since the speed of rotation very quickly reaches a uniform value.
Date: September 1, 1928
Creator: Lachmann, G

Spark plug defects and tests

Description: The successful operation of the spark plug depends to a large extent on the gas tightness of the plug. Part 1 of this report describes the method used for measuring the gas tightness of aviation spark plugs. Part 2 describes the methods used in testing the electrical conductivity of the insulation material when hot. Part 3 describes the testing of the cold dielectric strength of the insulation material, the resistance to mechanical shock, and the final engine test.
Date: January 1, 1920
Creator: Silsbee, F B; Loeb, L B; Sawyer, L G; Fonseca, E L; Dickinson, H C & Agnew, P G

The sparking voltage of spark plugs

Description: This report has been prepared in order to collect and correlate into convenient and useful form the available data on this subject. The importance of the subject lies in the fact that it forms the common meeting ground for studies of the performance of spark generators and spark plugs on the one hand and of the internal combustion engines on the other hand. While much of the data presented was obtained from various earlier publications, numerous places were found where necessary data were lacking, and these have been provided by experiments in gasoline engines at the Bureau of Standards.
Date: January 1, 1925
Creator: Silsbee, F B

Special propeller protractor

Description: A special protractor was designed and built with a view towards supplying a simple, inexpensive, practical, portable instrument for making measurements to detect propeller warpage under practically all conditions, without the use of auxiliary equipment, and without having to remove the propeller from the airplane. A detailed description is given of the protractor. Techniques for measuring are described. Directions are given on how to use the protractor to set detachable blade-type propellers on an airplane.
Date: January 1, 1928
Creator: Heim, A M

Speed limits of aircraft

Description: This paper is restricted to the question of attainable speed limits and attacks the problem from different angles. Theoretical limits due to air resistance are presented along with design factors which may affect speed such as wing loads, wing areas, wing section shifting, landing speeds, drag-lift ratios, and power coefficients.
Date: May 1923
Creator: Everling, E

Speed measurements made by Division "A" of the airplane director

Description: The various speeds of an airplane can only be measured in horizontal flight, since there are no means for measuring the angle of ascent or descent. The measurements must be corrected for the density of the air. This is obtained by simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements during flight. Calculation from the mean yearly values in accordance with Everling's suggestion can only be considered an approximation, since the distribution of pressure and temperature in the individual strata at different altitudes undergoes such large variations that the yearly mean gives inaccurate values. Thermographs of the present form are useless for temperature measurements of an airplane. In altitude data, the following are to be distinguished: the height above the earth, the barometric altitude, and the altitude corresponding to the yearly mean air density. Variometers are not suited for the mechanical control of high altitude flight.
Date: July 1, 1923
Creator: Heidelberg, V & Hoelzel, A

Spindled and hollow spars

Description: The most usual method of arriving at the maximum amount of spindling or hollowing out permissible in the case of any particular spar section is by trial and error, a process which is apt to become laborious in the absence of good guessing - or luck. The following tables have been got out with the object of making it possible to arrive with certainty at a suitable section at the first attempt.
Date: October 1926
Creator: Blyth, J. D.

Spiral tendency in blind flying

Description: The flight path followed by an airplane which was being flown by a blindfolded pilot was observed and recorded. When the pilot attempted to make a straight-away flight there was a tendency to deviate from the straight path and to take up a spiral one.
Date: August 1, 1929
Creator: Carroll, Thomas & Mcavoy, William H

Spontaneous combustion of hydrogen

Description: It is shown by the author's experiments that hydrogen which escapes to the atmosphere through openings in the system may burn spontaneously if it contains dust. Purely thermal reasoning can not account for the combustion. It seems to be rather an electrical ignition. In order to determine whether the cause of the spontaneous ignition was thermo-chemical, thermo-mechanical, or thermo-electrical, the experiments in this paper were performed.
Date: March 4, 1922
Creator: Pothmann, PH & Nusselt, Wilhelm

Spray penetration with a simple fuel injection nozzle

Description: The purpose of the tests covered by this report was to obtain specific information on the rate of penetration of the spray from a simple injection nozzle, having a single orifice with a diameter of 0.015 inch when injecting into compressed gases. The results have shown that the effects of both chamber and fuel pressures on penetration are so marked that the study of sprays by means of high-speed photography or its equivalent is necessary if the effects are to be appreciated sufficiently to enable rational analysis. It was found for these tests that the negative acceleration of the spray tip is approximately proportional to the 1.5 power of the instantaneous velocity of the spray tip.
Date: January 1, 1926
Creator: Miller, Harold E & Beardsley, Edward G