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The stress criterion of a tension member with graded flexural stiffness : contribution to the problem of "clamping effect" outside of the elastic range

Description: The approximate size of the stress criterion of a bar on two supports stressed beyond the elastic range is assessed by an approximation. The calculation proceeds from the premise of "substitute flexural stiffness" so defined that the part stressed beyond the elastic range may be considered as following Hooke's law when determining the flexural deformation quantities. For the determination of the substitute flexural stiffness, it is presumed that the material is already stressed so much beyond the yield point as to be strain-hardened. The data are directly applicable to materials having no definite yield point. For the rest, von Karman's method for compressed and subsequently deflected bars serves as basis for the calculation.
Date: September 1, 1936
Creator: Kaul, Hans W

Stresses developed in seaplanes while taking off and landing

Description: In the case of seaplanes, the lack of elastic shock absorbers, the presence of which might be quite dangerous, especially in taking off, makes it necessary to give some consideration to the phenomenon of landing. Special consideration must be given the process of taking off, since even moderately rough water may develop rather large stresses. The purpose of this communication is to show what has been accomplished in Italy and other countries and to draw a few useful conclusions.
Date: July 1, 1932
Creator: Verduzio, Rudolfo

Stresses in reinforcing rings due to axial forces in cylindrical and conical stressed skins

Description: At the ends of a monocoque fuselage concentrated axial forces in the skin must generally be taken up. Such axial forces must also be taken up in the case of other members where axial forces from the neighboring stressed skin construction must be considered. In order to take up these axial forces two bulkheads or reinforcing frames may be arranged at the positions where the forces are applied. If these bulkheads are in the form of rings, bending moments are set up in them. In the present paper computations are performed for obtaining the value of these bending moments.
Date: January 1, 1938
Creator: Drescher, K & Gropler, H

Stresses in single-spar wing constructions with incompletely built-up ribs

Description: It is shown that the force distribution resulting from incomplete ribs in single spar wing structures may be determined with the aid of the shear field method by a statistically indeterminate computation. A numerical computation is given of the force distribution of a wing structure whose two neighboring incomplete ribs with web missing in half the section are torsionally loaded.
Date: January 30, 1940
Creator: Reinitzhuber, F

The stresses in stiffener openings

Description: The present study treats as a typical example a ring the center line of which is produced by the intersection of two circular cylinders of different diameter. Three load cases are analyzed: (1) Axial and circumferential stresses in both cylinders, the cylinder stresses themselves to be in the ratio conformal to the cylinders loaded under internal pressure. (2) Pure longitudinal tension in the large cylinder. (3) Pure shear (torsion) in the large cylinder. To simplify the calculation, it is assumed that the ring, compared to the shell, is very strong, so that its deformations have no perceptible effect on the stress condition in the shell. This provides an upper limit for the ring stresses actually produced in a shell design, for, according to the theory of stressed skin statics the shells, by elastic flexibility of the ring, regroup the forces deposited on it in such a manner that the ring is relieved.
Date: February 1, 1942
Creator: Marguerre, K

Stresses Produced in Airplane Wings by Gusts

Description: Accurate prediction of gust stress being out of the question because of the multiplicity of the free air movements, the exploration of gust stress is restricted to static method which must be based upon: 1) stress measurements in free flight; 2) check of design specifications of approved type airplanes. With these empirical data the stress must be compared which can be computed for a gust of known intensity and structure. This "maximum gust" then must be so defined as to cover the whole ambit of empiricism and thus serve as prediction for new airplane designs.
Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Kussner, Hans Georg

Structural and economic limits to the dimensions of airships

Description: In opposition to the advantage of larger dimensions, there is one disadvantage, namely, the weight of the structure increases more rapidly than the buoyancy. It is not possible, however, to determine a general law. In order to formulate one having the merit of simplicity, we will divide the structure into two parts: one subject to tensile and compressive stresses, varying directly as the ascensional or lifting forces; the other subject to varying stresses of the surface areas.
Date: August 1, 1924
Creator: Crocco, G A

The structure of Airy's stress function in multiply connected regions

Description: In solving two-dimensional problems using Airy's stress function for multiply connected regions, the form of the function depends on the dislocations and boundary forces present. The structure of Airy's function is shown to consist of a part expressible in terms of boundary forces and a part expressible in the manner of Poincare. Meanings of the constants occurring in Poincare's expression are discussed.
Date: July 1, 1951
Creator: Grioli, Giusippe

A study of curvilinear flight

Description: When an airplane describes a curve it takes a certain time for it to turn from level to inclined position and then back to level again. In the following, we express the motion about the horizontal axis as "roll" or "bank" and the motion perpendicular to the vertical axis, i.e., the actual curve, as "turn." Equations and tables provide results on various aspects of turns, control settings, acceleration, inertia moments, and angular velocity.
Date: April 1, 1931
Creator: Kruse, Helmuth

Study of the Micro-Nonuniformity of the Plastic Deformation of Steel

Description: The plastic flow during deformation of real polycrystalline metals has specific characteristics which distinguish the plastic deformation of metals from the deformation of ordinary isotropic bodies. One of these characteristics is the marked micro-nonuniformity of the plastic deformation of metals. P.O. Pashkov demonstrated the presence of a considerable micro-nonuniformity of the plastic deformation of coarse-grained steel wit medium or low carbon content. Analogous results in the case of tension of coarse-grained aluminum were obtained by W. Boas, who paid particular attention to the role of the grain boundaries in plastic flow. The nonuniformit of the plastic deformation in microvolumes was also recorded by T.N. Gudkova and others, on the alloy KhN80T. N.F. Lashko pointed out the nonuniformity of the plastic deformation for a series of pure polycrystalline metals and one-phase alloys. In his later reports, P.O. Pashkov arrives at he conclusion that the nonuniformity of the distribution of the deformation along the individual grains has a significant effect on the strength and plastic characteristics of polycrystalline metals in the process of plastic flow. However, until now there has not existed any systematic investigation of the general rules of the microscopic nonuniformit of plastic deformation even though the real polycrystalline metals are extremely simple with regard to structure. In the present report, an attempt is made to study the micrononuniformity of the flow of polycrystalline metals by the method of statistical analysis of the variation of the frequency diagrams of the nonuniformity of the grains in the process of plastic deformation.
Date: August 1, 1957
Creator: Chechulin, B. B.

Study of the supersonic propeller

Description: In this paper a propeller having all sections operating at supersonic speeds is designated a supersonic propeller regardless of flight speed. Analyses assume subsonic flight speeds but very high rotational speeds. A very elementary analysis of the efficiency of a jet-propeller system is presented. A propeller analysis based on conventional vortex blade element theory is presented and reduced to a single point method which leads to an expression for optimum advance ratio in terms of hub-tip diameter ratio and airfoil fineness ratio. An expression for propeller efficiency in terms of advance ratio, hub-tip diameter ratio, and airfoil thickness ratio is also presented. Use is made of theoretical airfoil characteristics at supersonic speeds. A study of blade section interference, blade shock and expansion fields, at supersonic section speeds is presented. An example taken indicates that an efficiency of seventy percent can be obtained with a propeller having a tip Mach number of 2.3.
Date: March 1, 1953
Creator: Fabri, Jean & Siestrunck, Raymond

Subsonic Gas Flow Past A Wing Profile

Description: The use of the linearized equations of Chaplygin to calculate the subsonic flow of a gas permits solving the problem of the flow about a wing profile for absence and presence of circulation. The solution is obtained in a practical convenient form that permits finding all the required magnitudes for the gas flow (lift, lift moment velocity distribution over the profile, and critical Mach number). This solution is not expressed in simple closed form; for a certain simplifying assumption, however, the equations of Chaplygin can be reduced to equations with constant coefficients, and solutions are obtained by using only the mathematical apparatus of the theory of functions of a complex variable. The method for simplifying the equations was pointed out by Chaplygin himself. These applied similar equations to the solution of the flow problem and obtained a solution for the case of the absence of circulation.
Date: July 1, 1950
Creator: Christianovich, S. A. & Yuriev, I. M.