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Civil Defense and the Effects of Nuclear War

Description: This Info Pack contains material on nuclear weapons and on the anticipated physical, economic, and social consequences of nuclear attacks on the United States, basic information on the civil defense program, and material discussing some of the arguments, pro and con, surrounding the civil defense issues.
Date: March 12, 1982
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.

Congressional Pay

Description: The question of a salary increase for Members of Congress was considered by both Houses numerous times during the 97th Congress. The issue was last considered during December in the FY83 Further Continuing Appropriations. As sent to the President, the measure provided for a 15% pay increase for Members of the House of Representatives and other senior Federal officials, but not for Senators. The resolution was signed into law by the President on Dec. 21, 1982. Previously, in September, Congress approved a pay cap through Dec. 17, 1982 for Members and other senior Federal officials.
Date: December 27, 1982
Creator: Dwyer, Paul E

Congressional Veto Legislation: 97th Congress

Description: This report has two purposes: first, to describe briefly the main features of each kind of congressional veto procedure, and second, to list under appropriated categories all such provisions submitted in the current Congress that have been located.
Date: November 24, 1982
Creator: Cavanagh, M. Suzanne; Garcia, Rogelio & Norton, Clark F.

Congressional Veto of Executive Actions

Description: Statutory provisions by which Congress authorizes a Federal program to be administered by the Executive but retains the legal authority to disapprove all or part of the program before final implementation have become increasingly frequent in recent years. These statutory provisions which subject a variety of proposed executive actions to congressional review are commonly known as "congressional veto" devices.
Date: November 5, 1982
Creator: Nicola, Thomas J. & Norton, Clark F.

Copyright Law: Legalizing Home Taping of Audio and Video Recordings

Description: Various Members of Congress have proposed amendments to the Copyright Act that would provide a blanket exemption for noncommercial home audio and video off-air recording. The major thrust of the copyright owners' opposing position is if you cannot protect what you own, or at least receive some compensation for its use, you own nothing. This is countered by those who feel the purpose of the copyright law is to promote broad public availability of artistic products and when the copyright owners decide to use the distribution mechanism of the public airwaves, they have to accept the premises of the public airwaves.
Date: July 8, 1982
Creator: Wallace, Paul S., Jr.

Energy and the 97th Congress: Overview

Description: During his campaign, President Reagan called for a major shift in this country's energy policy. In particular, the President emphasized the need for more domestic production of energy and reliance on market forces to produce and distribute energy products. Now in office, the new Administration is employing executive, administrative, and legislative methods to implement these changes.
Date: November 10, 1982
Creator: Parker, Larry; Bamberger, Robert L. & Behrens, Carl E.

Enterprise Zones

Description: The enclosed material discusses the concept of urban enterprise zones, outlines the administration's proposals for the zones, and includes the major arguments for and against their creation. Because of considerable congressional interest in the enterprise zone concept, we have included a comparison of the major bills relating to enterprise zones introduced in the 97th Congress along with a bibliography for those who desire to research the subject in greater detail.
Date: April 30, 1982
Creator: Breckenridge, Charlotte

Enterprise Zones: The Urban Jobs and Enterprise Zone Act of 1981

Description: "Enterprise zones” as a concept originated in England in the late 1970s. The idea is to free specified urban areas of taxes and Government regulations to encourage private business investment and create new jobs. There is little in the way of direct empirical evidence to indicate whether and how such an approach would work. There is considerable interest in the concept, however, since other Federal urban assistance programs (such as Urban Renewal in the 1950s, Model Cities in the 1960s, and Urban Development Action Grant more recently -- since 1978) have not produced in sufficient amount the desired results in creating jobs for the unemployed in inner cities.
Date: July 23, 1982
Creator: Breckenridge, Charlotte

Equal Rights Amendment (Proposed)

Description: The proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was first introduced in 1923, and was passed by the Congress in 1972. In 1978, Congress extended the original deadline for ratification of the ERA. Thus, if it receives approval in the form of ratification by 38 States before June 30, 1982, the measure will become the 27th Amendment to the Constitution, and will require equal treatment under Federal and State laws and practices for all persons, regardless of sex.
Date: July 8, 1982
Creator: Gladstone, Leslie W

Examining the Monetary Causes of the Economic Slowdown

Description: This issue brief investigates the effects of changes in money supply growth on the current economic conditions. The results presented are based upon a statistical methodology outlined in a CRS report (No.82-43E, March 1982) of the same title. The approach may be distinguished from most previous work along these lines in that it attempts to estimate the statistical significance of the 1979-82 deceleration in monetary growth. The resulting estimates are then employed in analyzing the timing implications of decelerating monetary growth for episodes of high and volatile interest rates, for lower inflation, and for unstable economic growth.
Date: April 5, 1982
Creator: Hull, Everson

Federal and State Authority to Regulate Radioactive Waste Disposal and Transportation

Description: There appears to be a growing controversy concerning whether a state has the authority to prevent the federal government from disposing of nuclear wastes within it and transporting nuclear wastes through it. Several states have statutes purporting to veto the federal government's action in these areas. This report investigates whether these state statutes may be unconstitutional and preempted by federal statutes and regulations.
Date: May 11, 1982
Creator: Seitzinger, Michael V

Flat-Rate Tax Proposals

Description: In recent months there has been a growing congressional interest in the advantages and disadvantages of revamping our current tax system for a flat-rate tax method. Supporters of the new proposal argue that such a plan would promote productivity, simplify present IRS tax forms, save the public billions of dollars that presently go to tax-preparation professionals, and enhance Federal revenue by closing numerous tax loopholes and special deductions that are now enjoyed by relatively few. Opponents believe, however, that the tax burden under a flat-rate plan might fall more heavily upon the middle class and, unless exceptions were made, would hurt educational institutions and charities. Problems with popular tax deductions, such as home mortgage interest, would have to be addressed. This packet provides background materials which discuss the practical and theoretical issues that surround a flat-rate tax, including the probable redistribution of the tax burden under various rates and income bases.
Date: June 21, 1982
Creator: Esenwein, Gregg A.

Foreign Investment in U.S. Industry

Description: Although the total amount of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the U.S. is small relative to U.S. direct investment abroad, it is growing rapidly and may have a large effect on some industries and geographic areas of the U.S. The two main issues raised by FDI in the U.S. are first, shall Congress require more extensive data collection efforts than are already underway, and second, should laws be enacted to limit foreign direct investment in the U.S. These two issues turn in substantial measure on whether the benefits of additional data collection and/or restrictions on FDI in the U.S. exceed the costs. This report discusses the legislative history of the issue, the magnitude and distribution of FDI in the U.S., the existing data collection efforts, the potential implications for the U.S., the motivations for FDI in the U.S., and U.S. policy regarding FDI.
Date: October 18, 1982
Creator: Wilson, Arlene

Grants Work in a Congressional Office

Description: Congressional offices are often approached by constituents seeking funds for proposals of potential benefit to their State or district. This report discusses the grants process and varying approaches and techniques congressional offices have developed in dealing with grants requests.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Newman, Rhoda

Health Insurance: The Pro-Competition Proposals

Description: For more than a decade, Congress and the Executive Branch have tried to stem spiraling health care costs through various regulatory actions at the Federal and State levels. Planning laws, for example, focus regulatory attention on the capacity of the health care industry to provide health services. Other laws have created programs to monitor and control the use of services provided to individual patients. Direct wage and price controls were applied to the health industry in the early 1970's and in recent years Congress has debated whether to impose controls over hospital spending in the United States. This report discusses the debate surrounding various approaches to lower health care costs.
Date: December 6, 1982
Creator: Lundy, Janet P. & Markus, Glenn

Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy

Description: Following a review of such broad policy issues, this report treats specific human rights issues of current interest. Discussions of controversy over the selection of an Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs and of human rights policy at the international financial institutions are followed by reviews of U.S. human rights policy toward Argentina, El Salvador, Nicaragua, South Africa, and the Soviet Union.
Date: November 24, 1982
Creator: Bite, Vita

The Immigration and Nationality Act: Questions and Answers

Description: The basic United States law governing immigration and naturalization is contained in the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, as amended (8 U.S.C. 1101 -- et seq.). This report provides questions and answers to explain the way in which the Immigration and Nationality Act as amended through 1981 regulates the entry of aliens for permanent and temporary residence in the United States, and other major provisions of the law. Emphasis is placed on subjects which have been of particular interest to the Congress in recent years. This supersedes CRS Report No. 81-65 EPW.
Date: March 11, 1982
Creator: Vialet, Joyce

Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs): Tax Incentives for Retirement Savings

Description: This report discusses Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRA) and their tax incentives. Many workers covered by employer-sponsored retirement plans do not work long enough with one employer to be entitled to a pension. Others may be covered by a profit-sharing plan to which the employer may have little or no profits to contribute. Since these individuals were "covered" by a retirement plan, they were ineligible to make tax-deductible contributions to a tax-sheltered Individual Retirement Arrangement (IRA). Many observers considered this a tax inequity and felt that all employees should be eligible to establish their own IRAs or make tax-deductible contributions to their employer's plan. Congress responded to this situation by approving retirement savings incentives for all workers as part of the tax cut bill (H.R. 4242). All workers, whether or not covered by an employer pension plan, are now permitted tax deductible contributions to IRAs up to $2,000 a year.
Date: November 22, 1982
Creator: Schmitt, Ray

Information Services for Agriculture: The Role of Technology

Description: Significant improvements in technology-supported information services have created opportunities for their utilization by the farmers and ranchers of our Nation. This report highlights the development and expanded offering of these systems, describes current operational and experimental systems, and presents salient legislative initiatives which address this priority area.
Date: November 16, 1982
Creator: Chartrand, Robert L.; Carr, A. B. & Miller, Nancy