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The "8(a) Program" for Small Businesses Owned and Controlled by the Socially and Economically Disadvantaged: Legal Requirements and Issues
This report provides a brief history of the 8(a) Program, summarizes key requirements, and discusses legal challenges alleging that the program's presumption that members of certain racial and ethnic groups are socially disadvantaged violates the constitutional guarantee of equal protection.
The “8(a) Program” for Small Businesses Owned and Controlled by the Socially and Economically Disadvantaged: Legal Requirements and Issues
From Summary: "This report provides an overview of the Small Business Administration's (SBA's) Minority Small Business and Capital Ownership Development Program. Based on upon authorities given to the SBA by Sections 7(j) and 8(a) of the Small Business Act of 1958, as amended, this program is commonly known as the "8(a) Program."
The “8(a) Program” for Small Businesses Owned and Controlled by the Socially and Economically Disadvantaged: Legal Requirements and Issues
This report discusses the "8(a) Program", the Minority Small Business and Capital Ownership Development Program, which is a federal contracting for small businesses providing small businesses with training, technical assistance, and contracting opportunities.
The 9/11 Commission and a National Counterterrorism Center: Issues and Options for Congress
From Summary: "This report, which will be updated, examines a number of issues as Congress considers codification of an NCTC. One issue is whether the centralization remedy the commission has recommended fits the problems associated specifically with the 9/11 intelligence failure, and perhaps more broadly, the systematic maladies affecting the Intelligence Community. There are at least four options for congressional consideration: (1) NCTC with intelligence and operational planning duties, (2) NCTC restricted to an intelligence role, (3) NCTC restricted to an operational planning role, and (4) status quo plus-viewing the newly forming collected entity as a pilot potential NCTC. As one of its 41 recommendations, the 9/11 Commission recommended the creation of a National Counterterroism Center (NCTC)."
9/11 Commission: Legislative Action Concerning U.S. Immigration Law and Policy in the 108th Congress
From Summary: "This report discusses some of the major immigration areas that were under consideration in the above-mentioned comprehensive reform proposals, including asylum, biometric tracking systems, border security, document security, exclusion, immigration enforcement, and visa issuances."
9/11 Commission Recommendations: A Civil Liberties Oversight Board
This report discusses the recommendation made by the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (9/11 Commission) regarding the creation of a board within the executive branch to oversee adherence to guidelines on, and the commitment to defend, civil liberties by the federal government.
9/11 Commission Recommendations: A Civil Liberties Oversight Board
From Summary: This report discusses recommendations made by the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (9/11 Commission) which include: "creation of a board within the executive branch to oversee adherence to guidelines on, and commitment to defend, civil liberties by the federal government."
9/11 Commission Recommendations: Changes to the Presidential Appointment and Presidential Transition Processes
From Summary: "This report provides background information on, and analysis of, the changes proposed by the 9/11 Commission, and it will be updated as events warrant."
9/11 Commission Recommendations: Implementation Status
From Introduction: "This report provides a review of the 9/11 Commission recommendations and the status of their implementation at the end of the 109th Congress. The discussions herein are organized on the basis of policy themes that are core of the 9/11 Commission's recommendations, rather than a review of every numbered item set out in the Commission's final report."
9/11 Terrorism: Global Economic Costs
This report provides a brief survey of the global economic costs of 9/11.
35 Years of Water Policy: The 1973 National Water Commission and Present Challenges
This report presents the National Water Commission's (NWC) recommendations and analyzes how issues targeted by the recommendations have evolved during the intervening years. The report focuses on key federal-level recommendations, thereby targeting what has been accomplished since 1973, what issues remain unresolved, and what additional concerns have developed.
S. 147/H.R. 309: Process for Federal Recognition of a Native Hawaiian Governmental Entity
S. 147/H.R. 309, companion bills introduced in the 109th Congress, represent an effort to accord to Native Hawaiians a means of forming a governmental entity that could enter into government-to-government relations with the United States. This report describes the provisions of the reported version of S. 147; outlines some federal statutes and recent cases which might be relevant to the issue of federal recognition of a Native Hawaiian entity; and recounts some legal arguments that have been presented in the debate on this legislation. It includes a brief outline of the provisions of a substitute amendment expected to be offered in lieu of the reported version of S. 147, when Senate debate, which was interrupted by the filing of a cloture motion on July 29, resumes.
S. 147/H.R. 309: Process for Federal Recognition of a Native Hawaiian Governmental Entity
From Summary: "This report describes the provisions of the reported version of S. 147; outlines some federal statutes and recent cases which might be relevant to the issue of federal recognition of a Hawaiian entity; and recounts some legal arguments that have been presented in the debate on this legislation."
401(k) Plans and Retirement Savings: Issues for Congress
From Summary: "This report describes seven major policy issues with respect to defined contribution plans include: 1. access to employer-sponsored retirement plans; 2. participation in employer-sponsored plans; 3. contribution rates; 4. investment choices; 5. fee disclosure; 6. leakage from retirement savings; converting retirement savings into income."
501(c)(3) Hospitals and the Community Benefit Standard
This report examines the standard under which hospitals qualify for tax-exempt charitable status under federal law, recent inquiries made by Congress and the IRS into whether hospitals are conducting sufficient activities to justify their exemption, and section 6007 of S. 1796.
501(c)(3) Organizations: What Qualifies as "Educational"?
Report that discusses the legal definition of the term "educational," as well as the constitutional implications of that definition.
501(c)(4)s and Campaign Activity: Analysis Under Tax and Campaign Finance Laws
This report discusses 501(c)(4) social welfare organizations, including the requirements necessary to maintain 501(c)(4) status and the requirements for annual reporting to the Internal Revenue Service and Federal Election Commission.
501(c)(4)s and the Gift Tax: Legal Analysis
This report discusses whether substantial donations to tax-exempt 501(c)(4) organizations are subject to the federal gift tax.
527 Organizations and Campaign Activity: Timing of Reporting Requirements under Tax and Campaign Finance Laws
This report compares the timing of election activity reporting requirements under the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) and Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA), and discusses H.R. 1204, which would amend the timing of the IRC’s reporting requirements.
S. 852: The Fairness in Asbestos Injury Resolution Act of 2005
This report provides an overview of S. 852, the Fairness in Asbestos Injury Resolution (FAIR) Act of 2005. The bill would establish the Office of Asbestos Disease Compensation to award damages to asbestos claimants from the Asbestos Injury Claims Resolution Fund.
S. 1783: The Pension Security and Transparency Act of 2005
From Summary: "This report summarizes the major provisions of S. 1783, the Pension Security and Transparency Act 2005. The bill combines provisions of S. 219, the National Employee Savings and Trust Equity Guarantee Act, reported by the Finance Committee, and the Defined Benefit Security Act, reported by the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions."
S. 1961 and H.R. 4024: Legislative Responses to a Chemical Storage Facility Spill
This report describes and analyzes the Chemical Safety and Preparedness Act and H.R. 4024, the Ensuring Access to Clean Water Act of 2014.
S. 1961 and H.R. 4024: Legislative Responses to a Chemical Storage Facility Spill
From Summary: "This report describes and analyzes H.R. 4024 and S. 1961, as reported. The bill share a number of broadly similar provisions-both would direct states or the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish programs to prevent and respond to releases from chemical storage facilities (H.R. 4024) or tanks (S. 1961) located near drinking water sources-but they take different approaches to doing so; S. 1961 would make programmatic changes by amending the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), while H.R. 4024 would amend the Clean Water Act (CWA)."
The 2001 and 2003 Bush Tax Cuts and Deficit Reduction
This report uses the context of the current and long-term economic environment to examine the tax cuts implemented by the George W. Bush Administration, including the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 and the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003.
2001 Authorization for Use of Military Force: Issues Concerning Its Continued Application
This report discusses the Congress-enacted legislation (2001 AUMF; P.L. 107-40; 50 U.S.C. §1541) to authorize the use of military force against those who perpetrated or provided support for the attacks on September 11, 2001.
The 2002 Farm Bill: Overview and Status
The Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform, or FAIR, Act of 1996 (commonly known as the "farm bill"), which was due to expire in 2002, is expected to be extended for another six years when President Bush signs the bill into law. This report discusses the provisions of the new "farm bill," including the federal spending involved.
The 2003 Tax Cut: Proposals and Issues
This report provides a brief description of each tax cut proposal, including major proposals offered by the Democrats in both the House and the Senate during 2003. It discusses the distributional affects of the proposals and potential effects on short and long term economic growth.
The 2004 Corporate Tax and FSC/ETI Bill: The American Jobs Creation Act of 2004
This report provides a summary of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 (AJCA), its most important provisions, and brief legislative history.
The 2004 Insurance Broker Investigations: An Overview
From Summary: This report briefly summarizes the events that occurred and the issues, they raised in regards to violations of state laws, against Marsh & McClennan Companies and Marsh, Inc, which the Attorney General of the Sate of New York filling a civil law suit.
2006 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5): Designating Nonattainment Areas
This report focuses primarily on the NAAQS implementation process for designating geographical nonattainment areas with respect to the tightening of the PM2.5 standards under the 2006 particulates NAAQS, including comparisons with the final designations under the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. Also included is a brief overview of states' subsequent obligations for developing and submitting implementation plans (SIPs) for attaining or maintaining compliance with the NAAQS.
The 2007-2009 Recession: Similarities to and Differences from the Past
According to the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), the U.S. economy was in a recession for 18 months from December 2007 to June 2009. It was the longest and deepest recession of the post-World War II era. This report provides information on the patterns found across past recessions since World War II to gauge whether and how this recession might be different.
The 2008 Farm Bill: A Summary of Major Provisions and Legislative Action
The report discusses the 2008 farm bill (H.R. 2419), covering a wide range of programs including The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, farm credit, agricultural conservation, research, rural development, and foreign and domestic food programs, among others.
The 2008 Farm Bill: Analysis of Tax-Related Conservation Reserve Program Proposals
This report discusses the 2008 Farm Bill, which contains two tax-related proposals for the Conservation Reserve Program.
The 2008 Farm Bill: Major Provisions and Legislative Action
The report discusses the 2008 farm bill (H.R. 2419), covering a wide range of programs including The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, farm credit, agricultural conservation, research, rural development, and foreign and domestic food programs, among others.
2009 H1N1 "Swine Flu": CRS Experts
This report includes a table which provides access to names and contact information for CRS experts on policy concerns relating to swine influenza A virus (H1N1). Policy areas identified include: Identification, diagnosis, and surveillance of the virus; Treatment and prevention: antiviral drugs (Tamiflu, Relenza) and vaccines; Declarations of emergencies; Official plans and organizational responsibilities; and Restrictions on travel and trade.
The 2009 H1N1 "Swine Flu" Outbreak: An Overview
This report provides an introduction to the situation regarding the potential of a global human influenza pandemic caused by the new H1N1 flu strain. It includes a brief chronology of events; a discussion of key actions taken and authorities invoked by the WHO and the U.S. government; and information about key U.S. government pandemic flu planning documents.
The 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) "Swine Flu" Outbreak: An Overview
This report provides an overview of key actions taken and authorities invoked by WHO and the U.S. government. First, it discusses the WHO process to determine the phase of a threatened or emerging flu pandemic and touches on a number of related issues. The report then examines actions taken by the Departments of Homeland Security and Health and Human Services and provides information about appropriations and funding for pandemic flu activities.
The 2009 Influenza A(H1N1) "Swine Flu" Outbreak: U.S. Responses to Global Human Cases
This report discusses the April 2009 outbreak of the influenza strain known as H1N1, or swine influenza. This report describes the distribution of the virus and the statistics of affected areas, as well as international and U.S. efforts to treat infected persons, respond to outbreaks in various countries, and prepare for a possible influenza pandemic.
The 2009 Influenza Pandemic: An Overview
This report first provides a synopsis of key events, actions taken, and authorities invoked by World Health Organization (WHO), the U.S. federal government, and state and local governments.
The 2009 Influenza Pandemic: An Overview
This report provides a synopsis of key events in the H1N1 pandemic response, followed by information about selected federal emergency management authorities and actions taken by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Health and Human Services (HHS), and state and local authorities.
The 2009 Influenza Pandemic: An Overview
This report describes the World Health Organization (WHO) process to determine the phase of a threatened or emerging flu pandemic, and touches on several related issues.
The 2009 Influenza Pandemic: An Overview
This report describes the World Health Organization (WHO) process to determine the phase of a threatened or emerging flu pandemic, and touches on several related issues.
The 2009 Influenza Pandemic: Selected Legal Issues
This report provides a brief overview of selected legal issues regarding the H1N1 influenza, including emergency measures, civil rights, liability issues, and employment issues.
The 2009 Influenza Pandemic: Selected Legal Issues
This report provides a brief overview of selected legal issues regarding the H1N1 influenza, including emergency measures, civil rights, liability issues, and employment issues.
The 2009 Influenza Pandemic: Selected Legal Issues
Recent human cases of infection with a novel influenza A(H1N1) virus have been identified both internationally and in the United States. Since there has been human to human transmission and the new virus has the potential to become pandemic, it is timely to examine legal issues surrounding this emerging public health threat. This report will provide a brief overview of selected legal issues.
The 2009 Influenza Pandemic: Selected Legal Issues
This report provides a brief overview of selected legal issues including emergency measures, civil rights, liability issues, and employment issues.
The 2009 Influenza Pandemic: Selected Legal Issues
This report provides a brief overview of selected legal issues including emergency measures, civil rights, liability issues, and employment issues.
The 2009 Influenza Pandemic: Selected Legal Issues
Recent human cases of infection with a novel influenza A(H1N1) virus have been identified both internationally and in the United States. Since there has been human to human transmission and the new virus has the potential to become pandemic, it is timely to examine legal issues surrounding this emerging public health threat. This report will provide a brief overview of selected legal issues.
The 2010 Decennial Census: Background and Issues
The U.S. Constitution--Article 1, Section 2, clause 3, as modified by Section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment--requires a population census every 10 years, to serve as the basis for reapportioning seats in the House of Representatives. Decennial census data also are used for within-state redistricting and in certain formulas that determine the annual distribution of more than $400 billion dollars in federal and state funds. This report discusses the major innovations that were planned for the 2010 census, problems encountered with the attempt to automate certain census field operations, the persistent differential census undercount of less advantaged groups in the population, and efforts to ensure an equitable census.
The 2010 Decennial Census: Background and Issues
This report discusses the major innovations that were planned for the 2010 Census, problems encountered in the attempt to automate certain decennial field operations, issues of census accuracy and coverage, and efforts to ensure an equitable count.