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324/327 facilities environmental effluent specifications

Description: These effluent technical specifications address requirements for the 324/327 facilities, which are undergoing stabilization activities. Effluent technical specifications are imposed to protect personnel, the environment and the public, by ensuring adequate implementation and compliance with federal and state regulatory requirements and Hanford programs.
Date: October 29, 1998
Creator: JOHNSON, D.L.

324 Building liquid waste handling and removal system project plan

Description: This report evaluates the modification options for handling radiological liquid waste generated during decontamination and cleanout of the 324 Building. Recent discussions indicate that the Hanford site railroad system will be closed by the end of FY 1998 necessitating the need for an alternate transfer method. The issue of handling of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) from the 324 Building (assuming the 340 Facility is not available to accept the RLW) has been examined in at least two earlier engineering studies (Parsons 1997a and Hobart 1997). Each study identified a similar preferred alternative that included modifying the 324 Building RLWS to allow load-out of wastewater to a truck tanker, while making maximum use of existing piping, tanks, instrumentation, controls and other features to minimize costs and physical changes to the building. This alternative is accepted as the basis for further discussion presented in this study. The goal of this engineering study is to verify the path forward presented in the previous studies and assure that the selected alternative satisfies the 324 Building deactivation goals and objectives as currently described in the project management plan. This study will also evaluate options available to implement the preferred alternative and select the preferred option for implementation of the entire system. Items requiring further examination will also be identified. Finally, the study will provide a conceptual design, schedule and cost estimate for the required modifications to the 324 Building to allow removal of RLW. Attachment 5 is an excerpt from the project baseline schedule found in the Project Management Plan.
Date: July 29, 1998
Creator: Ham, J.E.

324 Facility B-cell quality process plan

Description: B-Cell is currently being cleaned out (i.e., removal of equipment, fixtures and residual radioactive materials) and deactivated. TPA Milestone M-89-02 dictates that all mixed waste and equipment be removed from B-Cell by 5/31/99. The following sections describe the major activities that remain for completion of the TPA milestone. These include: Size Reduce Tank 119 and Miscellaneous Equipment; Load and Ship Low-Level Waste; Remove and Size Reduce the 1B Rack; Collect Dispersible Material from Cell Floor; Remove and Size Reduce the 2A Rack; Size Reduce the 1A Rack; Load and Ship Mixed Waste to PUREX Tunnels; and Move Spent Fuel to A-Cell;
Date: July 29, 1998
Creator: Carlson, J.L.

324 Facility B-Cell quality process plan

Description: B-Cell is currently being cleaned out (i.e., removal of equipment, fixtures and residual radioactive materials) and deactivated. TPA Milestone M-89-02 dictates that all mixed waste and equipment be removed from B-Cell by 5/31/99. The following sections describe the major activities that remain for completion of the TPA milestone. These include: Size Reduce Tank 119 and Miscellaneous Equipment; Load and Ship Low-Level Waste; Remove and Size Reduce the 1B Rack; Collect Dispersible Material from Cell Floor; Remove and Size Reduce the 2A Rack; Size Reduce the 1A Rack; Load and Ship Mixed Waste to PUREX Tunnels; and Move Spent Fuel to A-Cell;
Date: April 29, 1998
Creator: Carlson, J.L.

Accelerated Durability Testing of Electrochromic Windows

Description: Prototype electrochromic windows made by several different U.S. companies have been tested in our laboratory for their long-term durability. Samples were subjected to alternate coloring and bleaching voltage cycles while exposed to simulated on 1-sun irradiance in a temperature-controlled environmental chamber with low relative humidity. The samples inside the chamber were tested under a matrix of different conditions. These conditions include: cycling at different temperatures (65 C, 85 C, and 107 C) under the irradiance, cycling versus no-cycling under the same irradiance and temperature, testing with different voltage waveforms and duty cycles with the same irradiance and temperature, cycling under various filtered irradiance intensities, and simple thermal exposure with no irradiance or cycling. The electro-optical characteristics of the samples were measured between 350 and 1,100 nm every 4,000 cycles for up to 20,000 cycles. Photographs of the samples were taken periodically wi th a digital camera to record cosmetic defects, the extent of residual coloration, and overall coloration and bleaching uniformity of the samples. Our results indicate that the most important cause of degradation is the combination of continuous cycling, elevated temperature, and irradiance. The relative importance of these variables, when considered synergistically or separately, depends on the particular device materials and design.
Date: December 29, 1998
Creator: Tracy, C. E.; Zhang, J. G.; Benson, D. K.; Czanderna, A. W. & Deb, S. K.

The addition of a second lanthanide ion to increase the luminescence of europium(III) macrocyclic complexes

Description: At present, the microscopic visualization of luminescent labels containing lanthanide(III) ions, primarily europium(III), as light-emitting centers is best performed with time-gated instrumentation, which by virtually eliminating the background fluorescence results in an improved signal to noise ratio. However, the use of the europium(III) macrocycle, Quantum Dye{trademark}, in conjunction with the strong luminescence enhancing effect (cofluorescence) of yttrium(III) or gadolinium(III), can eliminate the need for such specialized instrumentation. In the presence of Gd(III), the luminescence of the Eu(III)-macrocycles can be conveniently observed with conventional fluorescence instrumentation at previously unattainable low levels. The Eu(III) {sup 5}D{sub 0} {r_arrow} {sup 7}F{sub 2} emission of the Eu(III)-macrocycles was observed as an extremely sharp band with a maximum at 619 nm and a clearly resolved characteristic pattern. At very low Eu(III)-macrocycle concentrations, another sharp emission was detected at 614 nm, arising from traces of Eu(III) present in even the purest commercially available gadolinium products. Discrimination of the resolved emissions of the Eu(III)-macrocycle and Eu(III) contaminant should provide a means to further lower the limit of detection of the Eu(III)-macrocycle.
Date: December 29, 1998
Creator: Bromm, A.J. Jr.; Vallarino, L.M.; Leif, R.C. & Quagliano, J.R.

Alpha1 and Alpha2 Integrins Mediate Invasive Activity of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells through Regulation of Stromelysin-1 Expression

Description: Tumor cell invasion relies on cell migration and extracellular matrix proteolysis. We investigated the contribution of different integrins to the invasive activity of mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Antibodies against integrin subunits {alpha}6 and {beta}1, but not against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, inhibited cell locomotion on a reconstituted basement membrane in two-dimensional cell migration assays, whereas antibodies against {beta}1, but not against a6 or {alpha}2, interfered with cell adhesion to basement membrane constituents. Blocking antibodies against {alpha}1 integrins impaired only cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Antibodies against {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}6, and {beta}1, but not {alpha}5, integrin subunits reduced invasion of a reconstituted basement membrane. Integrins {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, which contributed only marginally to motility and adhesion, regulated proteinase production. Antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, but not {alpha}6 and {beta}1, integrin subunits inhibited both transcription and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. Inhibition of tumor cell invasion by antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 was reversed by addition of recombinant stromelysin-1. In contrast, stromelysin-1 could not rescue invasion inhibited by anti-{alpha}6 antibodies. Our data indicate that {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 integrins confer invasive behavior by regulating stromelysin-1 expression, whereas {alpha}6 integrins regulate cell motility. These results provide new insights into the specific functions of integrins during tumor cell invasion.
Date: June 29, 1998
Creator: Lochter, Andre; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena & Bissell, Mina J

Analysis of ANS LWR physics benchmark problems.

Description: Various Monte Carlo and deterministic solutions to the three PWR Lattice Benchmark Problems recently defined by the ANS Ad Hoc Committee on Reactor Physics Benchmarks are presented. These solutions were obtained using the VIM continuous-energy Monte Carlo code and the DIF3D/WIMS-D4M code package implemented at the Argonne National Laboratory. The code results for the K{sub eff} and relative pin power distribution are compared to measured values. Additionally, code results for the three benchmark-prescribed infinite lattice configurations are also intercompared. The results demonstrate that the codes produce very good estimates of both the K{sub eff} and power distribution for the critical core and the lattice parameters of the infinite lattice configuration.
Date: July 29, 1998
Creator: Taiwo, T. A.

Anisotropy of the sublattice magnetization and magnetoresistance in Co/Re superlattices on Al{sub 2}O(1120).

Description: [Co(20 {angstrom})/Re(6{angstrom})]{sub 20} superlattices were grown on a (11{bar 2}0) surface of a Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal, with the [0001] direction of their hcp structure in the plane of the film. The Co layers were found to be antiferromagnetically coupled (AF), with a saturating field of 6 kOe. Polarized neutron reflectivityy was used to determine the direction of the sublattice magnetization. In zero applied field, the AF moments are aligned along the Co [0001] axis. In a magnetic field H perpendicular to the Co [0001] axis, the sublattices moments evolve to a canted arrangement, with the AF component always perpendicular to the field. With H along the Co[0001] axis, the AF moments flop in a direction perpendicular to Co[0001] axis. The spin flop transition is not abrupt, but can be described as a gradual rotation that is completed at 2 kOe. The anisotropy of the sublattice magnetization is related to the anisotropy of the magnetoresistance. This has the conventional dumbbell behavior with the field applied perpendicular to the Co[0001] axis, but exhibits an extended plateau near H = 0, and a slight increase up to H {approximately} 2 kOe, when H is parallel to Co[0001] axis.
Date: September 29, 1998
Creator: Charloton, T.

Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

Description: Initial drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, must become a process of the past. Such efforts do not optimize reservoir development as they fail to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: o Large, discontinuous pay intervals o Vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties o Low reservoir energy o High residual oil saturation o Low recovery efficiency
Date: October 29, 1998
Creator: Pande, P. K.

Appropriations for FY1999: Interior and Related Agencies

Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations.
Date: October 29, 1998
Creator: Greenwood, Alfred R.

Authorization basis status report (miscellaneous TWRS facilities, tanks and components)

Description: This report presents the results of a systematic evaluation conducted to identify miscellaneous TWRS facilities, tanks and components with potential needed authorization basis upgrades. It provides the Authorization Basis upgrade plan for those miscellaneous TWRS facilities, tanks and components identified.
Date: April 29, 1998
Creator: Stickney, R.G.

Automated Controlled-Potential Coulometer for the IAEA

Description: An automated controlled-potential coulometer has been developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the determination of plutonium for use at the International Atomic Energy Agency`s (IAEA) Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Siebersdorf, Austria. The system is functionally the same as earlier systems built for use at the Savannah River Site`s Analytical Laboratory. All electronic circuits and printed circuits boards have been upgraded with state-of-the-art components. A higher amperage potentiostat with improved control stability has been developed. The system achieves electronic calibration accuracy and linearity of better than 0.01 percent, with a precision and accuracy better than 0.1 percent has been demonstrated. This coulometer features electrical calibration of the integration system, electrolysis current background corrections, and control-potential adjustment capabilities. These capabilities allow application of the system to plutonium measurements without chemical standards, achieving traceability to the international measurement system through electrical standards and Faraday`s constant. the chemist is provided with the capability to perform measurements without depending upon chemical standards, which is a significant advantage for applications such as characterization of primary and secondary standards. Additional benefits include reducing operating cost to procure, prepare and measure calibration standards and the corresponding decrease in radioactive waste generation. The design and documentation of the automated instrument are provided herein. Each individual module`s operation, wiring, layout, and alignment are described. Interconnection of the modules and system calibration are discussed. A complete set of prints and a list of associated parts are included.
Date: January 29, 1998
Creator: Cordaro, J.V.; Holland, M.K. & Fields, T.

AVLIS Criticality risk assessment

Description: Evaluation of criticality safety has become an important task in preparing for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) uranium enrichment runs that will take place during the Integrated Process Demonstration (IPD) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This integrated operation of AVLIS systems under plant-like conditions will be used to verify the performance of process equipment and to demonstrate the sustained integrated enrichment performance of these systems using operating parameters that are similar to production plant specifications. Because of the potential criticality concerns associated with enriched uranium, substantial effort has been aimed towards understanding the potential system failures of interest from a criticality standpoint, and evaluating them in detail. The AVLIS process is based on selective photoionization of uranium atoms of atomic weight 235 (U-235) in a vapor stream, followed by electrostatic extraction. The process is illustrated in Figure 1. Two major subsystems are involved: the uranium separator and the laser system. In the separator, metallic uranium is fed into a crucible where it is heated and vaporized by an electron beam. The atomic U-235/U-238 vapor stream moves away from the molten uranium and is illuminated by precisely tuned beams of dye laser light. Upon absorption of the tuned dye laser light, the U-235 atoms become excited and eject electrons (become photoionized), giving them a net positive charge. The ions of U-235 are moved preferentially by an electrostatic field to condense on the product collector, forming the enriched uranium product. The remaining vapor, which is depleted in U-235 (tails), passes unaffected through the photoionization/extractor zone and accumulates on collectors in the top of the separator. Tails and product collector surfaces operate at elevated temperatures so that deposited materials flow as segregated liquid streams. The separated uranium condensates (uranium enriched in U-235 and uranium depleted in U-235) are cooled and ...
Date: April 29, 1998
Creator: Brereton, S. J.

Backup and recovery plan for HANDI 2000 business management system

Description: The purpose of this Backup and Recovery Plan (BRP) is to provide guidelines for backup and recovery requirements of HANDI 2000 [Hanford Data Integration 2000] file systems and databases. The methods used to accomplish this are not new. The intent is to use the existing processes and procedures where possible to meet the needs of the HANDI 2000 System.
Date: September 29, 1998
Creator: Adams, D.E.

Bedrock geologic Map of the Central Block Area, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

Description: Bedrock geologic maps form the foundation for investigations that characterize and assess the viability of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As such, this map focuses on the central block at Yucca Mountain, which contains the potential repository site. The central block is a structural block of Tertiary volcanic rocks bound on the west by the Solitario Canyon Fault, on the east by the Bow Ridge Fault, to the north by the northwest-striking Drill Hole Wash Fault, and on the south by Abandoned Wash. Earlier reconnaissance mapping by Lipman and McKay (1965) provided an overview of the structural setting of Yucca Mountain and formed the foundation for selecting Yucca Mountain as a site for further investigation. They delineated the main block-bounding faults and some of the intrablock faults and outlined the zoned compositional nature of the tuff units that underlie Yucca Mountain. Scott and Bonk (1984) provided a detailed reconnaissance geologic map of favorable area at Yucca Mountain in which to conduct further site-characterization studies. Of their many contributions, they presented a detailed stratigraphy for the volcanic units, defined several other block-bounding faults, and outlined numerous intrablock faults. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project to provide a detailed (1:6,000-scale) bedrock geologic map for the area within and adjacent to the potential repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to this study, the 1:12,000-scale map of Scott and Bonk (1984) was the primary source of bedrock geologic data for the Yucca Mountain Project. However, targeted detailed mapping within the central block at Yucca Mountain revealed structural complexities along some of the intrablock faults that were not evident at 1:12,000 (Scott and Bonk, 1984). As a result, this study was undertaken to define the character and extent of the ...
Date: September 29, 1998
Creator: Day, W.C.; Potter, C.; Sweetkind, D.; Dickerson, R.P. & Juan, C.A. San

Bosnia Stabilization Force (SFOR) and U.S. Policy

Description: In December 1995, a NATO-led implementation force (IFOR) was deployed to Bosnia to enforce the military aspects of the Bosnian peace agreement. After fierce debate, the House and Senate passed separate resolutions in December 1995 expressing support for the U.S. troops in Bosnia, although not necessarily for the mission itself. Legislative efforts to bar funds for the deployment of U.S. troops to Bosnia were narrowly rejected. In the 105th Congress, similar efforts to bar a U.S. deployment after June 1998 were also rejected, although the FY 1998 defense authorization and appropriations laws contain reporting requirements that must be fulfilled before an extended deployment may take place. The defense appropriation measure requires the President to seek a supplemental appropriation for any deployment after June 1998.
Date: January 29, 1998
Creator: Bowman, Steven R.; Kim, Julie & Woehrel, Steven

Calculation of Upper Subcritical Limits for Nuclear Criticality in a Repository

Description: The purpose of this document is to present the methodology to be used for development of the Subcritical Limit (SL) for post closure conditions for the Yucca Mountain repository. The SL is a value based on a set of benchmark criticality multiplier, k{sub eff} results that are outputs of the MCNP calculation method. This SL accounts for calculational biases and associated uncertainties resulting from the use of MCNP as the method of assessing k{sub eff}. The context for an SL estimate include the range of applicability (based on the set of MCNP results) and the type of SL required for the application at hand. This document will include illustrative calculations for each of three approaches. The data sets used for the example calculations are identified in Section 5.1. These represent three waste categories, and SLs for each of these sets of experiments will be computed in this document. Future MCNP data sets will be analyzed using the methods discussed here. The treatment of the biases evaluated on sets of k{sub eff} results via MCNP is statistical in nature. This document does not address additional non-statistical contributions to the bias margin, acknowledging that regulatory requirements may impose additional administrative penalties. Potentially, there are other biases or margins that should be accounted for when assessing criticality (k{sub eff}). Only aspects of the bias as determined using the stated assumptions and benchmark critical data sets will be included in the methods and sample calculations in this document. The set of benchmark experiments used in the validation of the computational system should be representative of the composition, configuration, and nuclear characteristics for the application at hand. In this work, a range of critical experiments will be the basis of establishing the SL for three categories of waste types that will be in the repository. ...
Date: July 29, 1998
Creator: Pegram, J.W.

Clean Water Act Reauthorization in the 105th Congress

Description: In the 105th Congress, legislation to reauthorize the Clean Water Act was not been introduced, and no major House or Senate committee activity occurred. EPA and states' water quality inventories have identified wet weather flows (including agricultural runoff, urban storm water, and sewer overflows) as the largest remaining threat to water quality. EPA's clean water programs are now focusing to a large extent on solving wet weather pollution problems. These issues may be addressed legislatively, as well. At issue is whether and how to detail wet weather programs in the Act versus allowing flexibility that recognizes the site-specific nature of intermittent wet weather pollution.
Date: October 29, 1998
Creator: Copeland, Claudia

Compression ratio effect on methane HCCI combustion

Description: We have used the HCT (Hydrodynamics, Chemistry and Transport) chemical kinetics code to simulate HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) combustion of methane-air mixtures. HCT is applied to explore the ignition timing, bum duration, NO<sub>x</sub> production, gross indicated efficiency and gross IMEP of a supercharged engine (3 atm. Intake pressure) with 14:1, 16:l and 18:1 compression ratios at 1200 rpm. HCT has been modified to incorporate the effect of heat transfer and to calculate the temperature that results from mixing the recycled exhaust with the fresh mixture. This study uses a single control volume reaction zone that varies as a function of crank angle. The ignition process is controlled by adjusting the intake equivalence ratio and the residual gas trapping (RGT). RGT is internal exhaust gas recirculation which recycles both thermal energy and combustion product species. Adjustment of equivalence ratio and RGT is accomplished by varying the timing of the exhaust valve closure in either 2-stroke or 4-stroke engines. Inlet manifold temperature is held constant at 300 K. Results show that, for each compression ratio, there is a range of operational conditions that show promise of achieving the control necessary to vary power output while keeping indicated efficiency above 50% and NO<sub>x</sub> levels below 100 ppm. HCT results are also compared with a set of recent experimental data for natural gas.
Date: September 29, 1998
Creator: Aceves, S. M.; Pitz, W.; Smith, J. R. & Westbrook, C.